Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions of the Engineering Institute of Canada"

See other formats


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2012  with  funding  from 

University  of  Ontario  Institute  of  Technology  Library  -  University  of  Toronto  Libraries 


http://archive.org/details/transactionsofen02engi 


THE  JOURNAL  OF 
THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE 

OF  CANADA 


TO  FACIUTATE  THE  ACQUIREMENT  AND  INTERCHANGE 
OF  PROFESSIONAL  KNOWLEDGE  AMONG  ITS  MEMBERS. 
TO  PROMOTE  THEIR  PROFESSIONAL  INTERESTS.  TO 
ENCOURAGE  ORIGINAL  RESEARCH.  TO  DEVELOP  AND 
MAINTAIN  HIGH  STANDARDS  IN  THE  ENGINEERING 
PROFESSION  AND  TO  ENHANCE  THE  USEFULNESS 
OF  THE  PROFESSION   TO   THE  PUBLIC.'1 


ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING  AND  PROFESSIONAL  MEETING 

MONTREAL,  JANUARY  28th,  OTTAWA,  FEBRUARY  11th,  12th,  13th. 


JANUARY  1919 


PUBLISHED  MONTHLY  BY  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA, 

AT  176  MANSFIELD  STREET,  MONTREAL 

fol  II  No.  1 


SMALL  TOOLS 


P.  &  W.  Adjustable 
BLADE    REAMERS 


• 

H             4 

■ 

V 


These  reamers  have  eccentric  relief 
and  can  be  set  to  size  without  regrinding. 
They  are  unexcelled  for  design  and 
simplicity  and  ease  of  adjustment. 
The  eccentrically  relieved  blades  are 
stronger  than  others,  do  not  chatter, 
and  produce  a  smoother  hole.  The 
hand,  shell  and  fluted  chucking  reamers 
have  interchangeable  nuts,  screws  and 
wrenches.  The  bottom  of  a  hole  can 
readily  be  faced.  By  a  simple  adjust- 
ment of  the  blades  the  reamers  can 
easily  be  set  to  size  without  regrinding. 


PROMPT  SERVICE 


is  assured  at  our  nearest  store,  where 
P.  &  W.  Small  Tools  are  carried  in  stock. 
Always  order   P.  &  W.  Small   Tools. 


Precision  Machine  Tools  Standard  and  Gauges 


PRATT  &  WHITNEY  CO. 

OF  CANADA,  LIMITED 


Works  :    DUNDAS,     ONTARIO 


MONTREAL 
723  Drnmmond  Bldg. 


TORONTO 
1002  C.P.R.  Bldg. 


WINNIPEG 
1205  McArtknr  Bldg. 


VANCOUVER 
B.C.  Equipment  Co. 


JOURNAL   OF   THE   ENGINEERING   INSTITUTE   OF   CANADA       3 


Be^tivxim 

Machine  Tools 

EQUIPMENT  FOR 

Locomotive  and  Car  Shops 
Structural  Steel  Shops 
General  Machine  Shops 


WE    MANUFACTURE    A    COMPLETE    LINE    OF    TOOLS    FOR 

FABRICATING  STEEL  PLATE  AND  SHAPES 

FOR    SHIPBUILDING 

LET    US     SEND    YOU    PHOTOS    AND    ESTIMATES 


The  John  Bertram  &  Sons  Co.,  Limited 

Dundas,  Ontario,  Canada 

MONTREAL                        TORONTO                           VANCOUVER  WINNIPEG 

723  Drummond  Bldg.             1002  C.P.R.  BIdg.              609  Bank  of  Ottawa  Bldg.  1205  McArthur  BIdg. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Dominion  Bridge  Company,  Limited 

MONTREAL,  P.O. 


Coal  Handling  Conveyor — Designed  and  Built  by  Dominion  Bridge  Company,  Limited 


Engineers,  Manufacturers  and  Erectors  ot 

STEEL    STRUCTURES 

RAILWAY  and   HIGHWAY  BRIDGES,   BUILDINGS,   TURNTABLES,   ELECTRIC  and  HAND   POWER   TRAVELLING 

CRANES,    COAL  and  ORE  HANDLING   MACHINERY,    LIFT  LOCKS  and  HYDRAULIC 

REGULATING  GATES,  TRANSMISSION  POLES  and  TOWERS. 

TANK  AND  PLATE  WORK  OF  EVERY  DESCRIPTION 


FORGINGS 


Gear  Cutting  and  General  Machine  Work 

MARINE    BOILERS    AND    ENGINES 


Head  Office  and  Works: 
LACHINE,  P.Q.  Canada. 


P.O.    Address:   Montreal,  P.Q. 
Cable  Address:  "DOMINION". 


Branch  Offices  and  Works: 
TORONTO,    OTTAWA,    WINNIPEG. 


Sales  Offices: 
MONTREAL,      TORONTO,      OTTAWA,     WINNIPEG,     EDMONTON,     REGINA,     VANCOUVER 


LARGE  STOCK  OF  STRUCTURAL  MATERIAL  AT  ALL  WORKS 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


EFFICIENCY  OF  COUNTRY  ROADS 
MUST  BE  INCREASED 

"Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts  are  Effective  and  Economical.'* 


"  Look  at  the  deep  tire  tracks  in  the  thick  dust  on  this 
road.  Dust  is  a  sure  sign  of  deterioration,  the  result  of 
the  heavy,  fast  moving  traffic  and  the  ravages  of  the 
elements." 

"  Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts  effectively  overcome  this 
without  changing  the  type  of  road.  Read  the  following 
extract  from  an  official  report  of  the  long-experienced 
Highway  Commission  of  Massachusetts: — 

'A  PLAIN  GRAVEL  ROAD  15  feet  wide  is 
destroyed  by  50  to  75  automobiles  per  day,  but 
if  treated  with  a  good  asphaltic  oil  will  with- 
stand 500  to  700  cars  per  day.' 
'A  WATERBOUND  MACADAM  ROAD  15  feet 
wide  will  fail  under  50  high-speed  motors  per 
day,  while  with  a  good  asphaltic  oil  blanket, 
dust  is  wholly  eliminated  and  the  road  will 
carry  and  prove  economical  with  1,500  auto- 
mobiles and  50  trucks  per  24  hours.'  " 
"  Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts  increase  the  traffic- 
carrying  capacity  of  earth,  gravel  and  macadam 
roads.    They  establish  an  elastic  '  traffic  mat ' 
which  absorbs  the  shock  of  heavy  loads  and 


IMPERIAL 

CANADIAN      MADE 

ASPHALT 


reduces  abrasion  from  steel  tires  and  horse  shoes.  They 
also  prevent  and  suppress  dust  on  these  types  of  roads. 
They  seal  and  make  waterproof  the  surface,  preventing 
ruin  by  rain,  frost  and  wind.  They  stop  the  grinding  and 
wearing  of  road  surfaces." 

"Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts  have  no  objectionable  odors 
and  road  surfaces  on  which  they  are  used  do  not  remain 
messy  and  sticky.  They  are  easily  and  economically 
applied.  They  are  unsurpassed  for  country  roads  and 
suburban  areas." 

"  Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts  are  of  uniform  high  quality. 
They  are  scientifically  refined  from  only  the  finest  Mexican 
Asphaltic  crudes.  They  are  Canadian  made  for  Canadian 
use  and  can  be  delivered  at  short  notice  in  any  quantity 
to  all  parts  of  the  Dominion." 

"  There  are  also  Imperial  Paving  Asphalts  for  preparing 
Hot-Mix  Asphalt  (Sheet  Asphalt  or 
Asphaltic  Concrete )  and  Imperial  Asphalt 
Binders  for  Penetration  Asphalt 
Macadam". 


"  Our  Engineers  and  Road  Experts  are  always  at  your  service  and  will  gladly  advise  or  assist  you  free 
of  charge  in  all  matters  relating  to  road  construction  and  paving." 


IMPERIAL   OIL   LIMITED,     Imperial  Oil  Building,     Toronto 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


Recommend  Imperial  Fuel  Oil 

IMPERIAL  Fuel  Oil    has    proved  itself  most  efficient  for  use 
under  boilers  for  steam  generation. 

Great  Munition  Plants  that  used  Imperial  Fuel  Oil  during  the 
war  are  already  supplied  with  most  of  the  necessary  equipment. 
Many  of  these  plants  will  find  it  a  real  economy  to  continue  to 
use  oil  as  fuel  for  firing  their  boilers. 

Good  heating  engineers  know  that  Imperial  Fuel  Oil  is  an  ideal 
fuel.  It  is  highly  concentrated,  always  absolutely  uniform,  easily 
stored  and  easily  handled. 

Imperial  Fuel  Oil  makes  possible  steady  maximum  heat  under 
boilers,  hence  it  increases — practically  doubles — the  steaming 
efficiency  of  any  boiler  under  which  it  is  properly  used. 

Judged  by  final  results,  Imperial  Fuel  Oil  is  one  of  the  most  economical  fuels 
available  to-day. 

Imperial  Fuel  Oil  is  also  excellent  for  heating  Hotels,  Apartment  Houses, 
Public  Buildings,  Churches  and  Schools,  where  cleanliness  and  quick,  reliable 
heat  is  of  vital  importance. 

Those  interested  will  obtain  full  details  regarding  Imperial  Fuel  Oil  and  the 
installation  of  any  equipment  necessary  to  burn  it  by  writing  or  calling  at 
Room  704,  Imperial  Oil  Building,  56  Church  St.,  Toronto,  Ontario. 


IMPERIAL  OIL  LIMITED 


Power  *  Heat  -  Ligh*  "  Lubrication 
Branches  in  all  Cities 


JOURNAL   OF   THE   ENGINEERING   INSTITUTE   OF   CANADA 


Little  David   in  Action 


"  LITTLE  DAVID "  tools  are  ideal  in  the  foundry, 
the  sand-rammer  is  simple  and  fast,  the  chipper  is 
powerful  and  reliable,  the  grinder  is  strong  and  sure. 
Then  you  have  the  "  IMPERIAL  "  hoist  for  lifting  copes, 
and  the  "CIRCO"  direct  lift  air  hoist  to  operate 
drying  furnace  doors. 

Behind  all  these  you  have  C-I-R-Co.,  service — 
the    service    that    begins   with    purchase    and    lasts. 


CANADIAN  INGERSOLL  -  RAND  CO.,  Limited 


SYDNEY  SHERBROOKE 

WINNIPEG 


MONTREAL 
NELSON 


TORONTO  COBALT 

VANCOUVER 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


The  Man  of  the  Hour 

The  Canadian  Engineer 

CANADIAN]  ENGINEERS,    by   their    services    on    the    Firing    line   and    behind   it, 
have    secured    the    confidence    and    the    esteem    of    the     Allies    by    their    quick 
adaptability  to  the  conditions  to  be  met.      They  have  won  the  right  to  a  larger 
place  in  the  Councils  of  our  own  Country. 

Canadian  Engineers,  in  war-time  or  peace-time,  will  increase  their  prestige  to  the 
extent  that  they  solve  successfully  and  economically  the  problems  entrusted  them. 

One  of  the  ways  in  which  the  Engineer  of  to-day  may  best  prove  his  worth — his  fitness 
for  the  great  trust  the  country  reposes  in  him — is  by  far-sighted  consideration  of  the 
entire  life  of  a  project. 

In  planning  road  or  street  work  the  man  who  is  most  loyal  to  his  trust  is  he  who  thinks 
not  merely  of  present  conditions  but  also  of  what  will  happen  in  the  life  of  the  debenture 
covering  the  construction  of  the  pavement.  And  the  members  of  the  profession  know 
that  a  broad  outlook  such  as  that,  means  including  the  specification  of  Concrete. 


CANADA  CEMENT 

CONCRETE 

FOR    PERMANENCE 


Canada  Cement  Company  Limited 

509  Herald  Building  —  MONTREAL 

Sales  Offices  at  MONTREAL,  TORONTO,  WINNIPEG,  CALGARY. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


The  Journal  of 
The  Engineering  Institute 

of  Canada 


January,    1919 


CONTENTS 


Volume  II,  No.   1 


SUGGESTED  BRANCH  BY-LAWS 1 

MONTREAL  TUNNEL,  FROM  AN  ECONOMIC  POINT  OF  VIEW 3 

REMARKS  REGARDING  RURAL  ROADS 10 

DOUBLY  REINFORCED  BEAMS 14 

EDITORIAL 15 

Annual  General  Meeting 

Canada's  Need 

Canada's  Maps  Catalogued. 

New  Certificates 

Institute  Fraternity 

Branches  Memorialize  Government 

Salaries  of  Engineers 

Legislation  Situation 

Programme  of  Meetings 

REPORT  OF  COUNCIL  MEETINGS 19 

BRANCH  NEWS 22 

Victoria  Branch 

Toronto  Branch 

Calgary  Branch 

Sault  Ste.  Marie  Branch  Proposed 

Ottawa  Branch 

Hamilton  Branch 

Montreal  Branch 

CORRESPONDENCE 27 

PERSONALS 33 

OBITUARIES 34 

PRELIMINARY  NOTICE  OF  APPLICATIONS 37 

ENGINEERING  INDEX 41 

EMPLOYMENT  BUREAU 58 

The  Institute  does  not  hold  itself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed  by  the  authors 
of  the  papers  published  in  its  records,  or  for  discussions  at  any  of  its  meetings  or  for 
individual  views  transmitted  through  the  medium  of  the  Journal. 

Published  by 

THE    ENGINEERING    INSTITUTE    OF    CANADA 

176  Mansfield  St.,  Montreal 

BRANCHES: 

Halifax,  N.S.;  St.  John.  N.B.;  Quebec,  P.Q.;  Montreal,  P.Q. ;  Ottawa,  Ont.;  Toronto,  Ont. ;  Winnipeg,  Man.; 
Hamilton,  Ont.;  Regina,  Sask. ;  Calgary,  Alta. ;  Edmonton,  Alta.;  Vancouver,  B.C.;  Victoria,  B.C. 


10 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


PUMPS 


GIVEN  A  PUMP  PROBLEM  — TO  FIND  THE  SOLUTION 

APPLY    A    FAIRBANKS-MORSE     OR     GOULDS     PUMP. 

SIMPLEX  -DUPLEX— TRIPLEX 

RECIPROCATING— CENTRIFUGAL— TURBINE 

STEAM— ELECTRIC— POWER  ANY  COMBINATION— ANY  CAPACITY 


The  Canadian  Fairbanks -Morse  Co.,  Limited 

"  CANADA'S    DEPARTMENTAL    HOUSE    FOR    MECHANICAL    GOODS  " 

DISTRIBUTORS  FOR  LACO  LAMPS 

HALIFAX,        ST.  JOHN,         QUEBEC,         MONTREAL,         OTTAWA,         TORONTO,  HAMILTON,         WINDSOR, 

WINNIPEG,  SASKATOON,  CALGARY,  VANCOUVER,  VICTORIA. 


THE  JOURNAL  OF 

THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE 

OF  CANADA 


Volume  II 


A     MONTHLY     JOURNAL 

Published   By 

THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 

INCORPORATED    IN    1887    AS 
THE    CANADIAN    SOCIETY    OF    CIVIL    ENGINEERS 

JANUARY    1919 


Number  1 


Suggested  Branch  By-Laws 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Council  held  on  December  17th,  Branch  By-Laws  were  submitted  which  were  the  result  of  several 

months'  deliberation  on  the  part  of  the  Legislation  Committee  of  the  Council  and   a   special  committee  of 

the  Montreal  Branch.     These  By-Laws  have  been  submitted  to  the  various  Branches  in 

the  hope  that  they  will  receive  consideration  for  adoption,  unless 

there  are  local  reasons  why  changes  should  be  made. 


Object 

Section  1.  The  Branch  shall  promote  the  objects 
and  interests  of  The  Institute  and  shall  encourage  the 
preparation  of  papers  and  addresses  on  engineering 
subjects,  or  on  subjects  of  scientific  or  engineering  interest, 
both  for  presentation  at  meetings  of  the  Branch  and  for 
publication  by  The  Institute. 

Membership 

Section  2.  (a)  The  members  of  the  Branch  shall 
consist  of  the  Members  of  The  Institute  of  all  classes  who 
reside  within  a  distance  of  twenty-five  miles  of  the  head- 
quarters of  the  Branch,  and  of  those  residing  at  a  greater 
distance  who,  desiring  to  join  the  Branch,  so  notify  the 
Secretary-Treasurer,  who  in  turn  shall  notify  the  Secretary 
of  The  Institute. 

The  Branch  may,  at  the  option  of  the  Executive 
Committee,  admit  persons,  not  members  of  The  Institute, 
who  shall  be  termed  "  Affiliates  of  the  Branch." 

(b)  Any  person  interested  in  the  engineering 
profession  may  become  an  "Affiliate  of  the  Branch." 
Affiliates  shall  be  elected  by  vote  of  the  Executive 
Committee  upon  nomination  by  two  corporate  members 
of  the  Branch.  The  fee  shall  be  five  dollars  per  year, 
including  the  annual  subscription  of  two  dollars  for  the 
Journal  of  The  Institute. 


Affiliates  may  attend  all  meetings  of  the  Branch  but 
shall  not  discuss  or  vote  upon  any  matter  affecting  the 
administration  of  the  Branch. 

Management 

Section  3.  The  Branch  shall  be  managed  by  an 
Executive  Committee  consisting  of  a  Chairman  and  a 
Secretary-Treasurer,  or  a  Secretary  and  a  Treasurer,  and 
six  committee  men,  all  of  whom  shall  be  elected  by  letter 
ballot  of  the  corporate  members  of  the  Branch.  A 
Vice-Chairman  may  be  similarly  elected  at  the  option 
of  the  Executive  Committee.  The  immediate  Past 
Chairman  of  the  Branch  and  the  members  of  the  Council 
of  The  Institute  resident  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Branch,  shall  be  ex-officio  members  of  the  Executive 
Committee.  All  members  of  the  Executive  Committee 
shall  be  corporate  members  of  The  Institute.  Five 
members  shall  constitute  a  quorum. 

Tenure  of  Office 

Section  4.  The  Chairman,  Vice-Chairman  and 
Secretary-Treasurer  shall  hold  office  for  one  year.  Other 
members  of  the  Executive  Committee  shall  hold  office 
for  two  years,  three  being  elected  each  year.  Elections 
shall  be  held  each  year  during  the  first  two  weeks  of  May 
and  members  so  elected  shall  take  office  the  first  of  June 
following. 


JOURNAL   OF   THE   ENGINEERING   INSTITUTE   OF   CANADA 


Nominations  for  Executive  Committee 

Section  5.  On  or  before  the  fifteenth  day  of  March 
in  each  year,  the  corporate  members  of  the  Branch  shall 
be  called  upon  by  the  Secretary  to  nominate,  by  letter, 
candidates  for  the  offices  of  Chairman,  Vice-Chairman, 
Secretary-Treasurer  and  three  Committee  men.  Each 
nomination  shall  be  signed  by  at  least  five  corporate 
members  of  the  Branch,  and  shall  reach  the  Secretary  on 
or  before  the  first  day  of  April. 


Letter  Ballot  for  Executive  Committee 

Section  6.  The  Secretary  shall  mail  to  each 
Corporate  Member  of  the  Branch,  before  the  end  of 
April,  a  letter  ballot  stating  the  name  and  class  of  member- 
ship of  each  nominee.  Instructions  for  voting  shall  be 
printed  on  the  ballot,  which  shall  be  returned  to  the 
Secretary  by  a  date  fixed  by  the  Executive  Committee. 
All  ballots  shall  be  enclosed  within  two  sealed  envelopes. 
The  outer  envelope  shall  bear  the  signature  of  the  voter, 
but  the  inner  envelope  containing  the  ballot  shall  have  no 
identification  mark  upon  it. 

The  ballot  shall  be  counted  by  scrutineers  appointed 
by  the  Executive  Committee.  All  ballots  which  do  not 
comply  with  the  printed  instructions  shall  be  rejected. 

The  scrutineers  shall  report  the  result  of  the  ballot 
to  the  Annual  Meeting,  and  the  nominee  receiving  the 
highest  number  of  votes  for  any  office  shall  be  declared 
elected  to  that  office.  Should  a  tie  result  between  two 
or  more  nominees  for  the  same  office,  the  corporate 
members  present  shall  elect  by  ballot,  the  officer  from 
those  nominees.  In  case  a  tie  again  results,  the  Chairman 
of  the  Meeting  shall  give  a  casting  vote. 

The  Chairman  shall  announce  the  names  of  the 
officers  duly  elected. 

Sections  of  Branches 

Section  7.  At  the  request  of  ten  corporate  members 
of  the  Branch,  made  in  writing  to  the  Secretary  and 
approved  by  the  Executive  Committee,  sections  of  the 
Branch  shall  be  established,  corresponding  to  any  of  the 
generally  recognized  branches  of  the  engineering  profession, 
such  as  chemical,  civil,  electrical,  mechanical,  mining, 
industrial,  etc. 

The  Chairman  of  the  Branch  shall  be  ex-officio  the 
Chairman  of  each  of  the  sections  and  each  section  shall 
have  as  executive  officer,  a  Vice-Chairman,  who  shall  be 
appointed  by  the  Executive  Committee  at  its  first  meeting 
after  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Branch,  or  on  the 
authorization  of  any  section  of  the  Branch.  He  shall 
hold  office  until  the  thirty-first  day  of  May  following  the 
date  of  his  election. 


Meetings  of  the  Branch 

Section  8.  Ordinary  meetings  shall  be  held  on  alter- 
nate Thursdays  from  October  to  April  inclusive,  or  on 
such  other  days  as  the  Executive  Committee  may 
determine. 

Special  meetings  may  be  called  by  the  Secretary 
on  resolution  of  the  Executive  Committee,  or  on  the 
written  request  of  seven  corporate  members,  stating  the 
objects  of  the  meeting.  The  notice  stating  the  object  of 
the  meeting  shall  be  mailed  at  least  five  days  before  the 
date  of  the  meeting. 

The  Chairman  may  call  a  special  meeting  without 
such  formalities  for  any  purpose  other  than  the  transaction 
of  business. 

Annual  Meeting 

Section  9.  The  Annual  Meeting  shall  be  held  at 
the  headquarters  of  the  Branch  on  or  before  the  second 
Tuesday  in  May,  or  on  such  other  date  in  May  as  the 
Executive  Committee  may  determine.  Notice  of  the 
meeting  shall  be  mailed  to  each  member  at  least  seven 
days  before  the  date  of  the  meeting.  The  Executive 
Committee  shall  submit  a  report  of  the  operations  of  the 
Branch,  and  shall  determine  the  order  of  business  of  the 
meeting. 

Annual  Report  to  the  Institute 

Section  10.  The  Branch  shall  submit  an  annual  report 
of  its  proceedings  and  of  its  finances  to  the  Secretary 
of  The  Institute  who  shall  present  it  to  the  Annual 
General  Meeting  of  The  Institute.  The  report  shall 
cover  the  operations  of  the  calendar  year  and  shall  be 
approved  by  the  Executive  Committee  and  signed  by  the 
Chairman  and  Secretary-Treasurer  of  the  Branch. 

Alterations  of  By-Laws 

Section  11.  By-Laws  may  be  adopted,  amended 
or  repealed  by  letter  ballot  only.  Such  alterations  may 
be  suggested  either  by  the  Executive  Committee,  or,  in 
writing,  by  any  ten  corporate  members,  and  the  proposed 
alterations  must  reach  the  Secretary  on  or  before  the 
first  day  of  April. 

Alterations  shall  only  be  made  at  the  Annual  Meeting, 
and  the  ballot  for  such  alterations  shall  be  issued  with  the 
ballot  for  the  elections  of  members  of  the  Executive 
Committee.  An  affirmative  vote  of  two-thirds  of  all 
valid  ballots  shall  be  necessary  for  the  alteration  of  by-laws. 

The  votes  shall  be  counted  by  the  scrutineers  appoint- 
ed for  the  election  of  members  of  the  Executive  Committee. 

General 

Section  12.  Where  not  otherwise  provided  for,  the 
Branch  shall  conform  in  rules  of  order  and  general 
procedure  to  the  methods  and  rules  adopted  by   The 

Institute. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


The  Montreal  Tunnel  From  an  Economic  Point  of  View 

By  H.  K.  Wicksteed,  B.A.Sc,  M.E.I. C. 


In  response  to  your  very  kind  invitation,  I  have  come 
before  you  to-night  to  give  you  something  of  interest  in 
connection  with  the  history  of  the  Montreal  tunnel  — 
What  were  the  considerations  which  led  up  to  it,  and  made 
it  seem  a  practical  scheme  ?  As  the  Canadian  Northern 
Passenger  Department  has  put  it  in  its  window  dressing 
"  Why  was  the  Tunnel  built  ? "  And  I  have  given 
my  dissertation  the  title  of  "  The  Montreal  Tunnel  from 
an  Economic  Point  of  View." 

With  the  actual  construction  of  the  Tunnel  I  do  not 
propose  to  deal  with  to  any  greater  extent  than  is  necessary 
to  enable  you  to  understand  the  problem, —  not  because 
there  were  not  a  great  number  of  intensely  interesting 
points  about  it,  and  not  because  I  was  not  in  the  Tunnel 
a  great  many  times  during  its  progress, —  but  because  the 
construction  side  has  been  dealt  with  very  ably  by  my 
colleague  Mr.  Brown,  and  I  believe  is  to  be  dealt  with 
further  by  one  of  his  assistants,  Mr.  Busfield,  and  they 
are  both  better  posted  in  details  of  it  than  I.  Mr.  Brown 
has  made  tunnelling  a  specialty,  and  his  whole  soul  was 
in  his  work,  and  I  may  say  that  it  is  a  pretty  large  and 
comprehensive  soul. 

Economic  Side  of  Engineering  Problems 
Both  by  temperament  and  training,  it  is  the 
"  economic  "  side  of  things  which  has  always  appealed 
to  me  most.  Railways  are  commercial  concerns,  and 
the  Tunnel  is  an  essential  part  of  a  great  railway.  If  it 
can  not  be  justified  in  a  commercial  sense,  if  it  can  not  pay 
interest  on  its  cost,  it  has  no  right  to  exist. 

This  economic  aspect  of  engineering  works  has 
come  into  great  prominence  of  late  years,  and  notably 
since  the  introduction  of  railways.  Nearly  all  our  great 
tunnels  have  been  built  to  carry  railways  past  or  under 
obstructions  of  one  kind  or  another,  so  that  the  history 
of  tunnelling  is  almost  altogether  confined  to  the  last 
70  or  80  years,  and  most  of  the  great  tunnels  are  much 
younger    than    that. 

Difference  between  English  and  American  Roads 
Railroad  construction  started  on  a  large  scale  first 
in  England,  where  population  was  already  dense,  and 
traffic  was  waiting  to  be  carried  in  large  volume.  A 
railway  once  built  even  on  what  we  should  now  consider 
very  crude  lines,  was  practically  sure  of  paying  its  way 
from  the  very  start,  and  the  cost  was  a  minor  consideration 
as  soon  as  the  potentialities  of  the  steam  railway  came 
to  be  understood. 

It  was  when  the  building  of  railways  extended  to 
this  continent  of  great  distances  and  at  the  same  time 
sparse  population  that  it  was  found  that  not  only  were 
fixed  charges  a  very  heavy  drain  on  railway  earnings, 
but  that  capital  was  very  hard  to  get  in  any  case,  and 
had  to  be  brought  in  from  outside,  hence  the  difference 
in  cost  between  the  early  American  roads  and  the  English 
ones,  and  the  expedients  of  sharp  curvature,  heavy  grades, 
and  cheap  construction,  which  were  used  to  reduce  the 
capital  cost;  and  hence  the  fact  that  so  much  English 
capital  went  into  American  roads. 

*Read  before  Toronto  Branch,  December  3rd,  1918. 


Effect  of  Competition 

As  time  went  on,  and  the  traffic  became  heavier, 
and  as,  too,  other  lines  were  built  between  the  same 
termini  and  competition  became  keen,  there  came  the 
era  when  the  balancing  of  cost  against  more  perfect  loca- 
tion and  construction  began  to  be  a  regular  study,  and 
while  I  think  a  good  many  of  the  earlier  engineers,  Latrobe 
for  instance,  had  thought  a  good  deal  about  these  matters 
(their  works  shewed  that  they  did)  it  was  Wellington  who 
first  committed  his  ideas  to  paper  and  his  writings  are 
still  useful  as  well  as  monumental. 

Classification  of  Tunnels 

The  element  of  location  which  conduces  more  than 
any  other  to  reduce  the  cost  of  haul  is,  of  course,  that  of 
gradients,  and  in  reducing  gradients  in  rough  country 
there  is  very  often  a  strong  temptation,  less  often  an  abso- 
lute necessity,  to  resort  to  tunnelling.  Hence  nearly 
all  our  tunnels  are  in  the  two  great  mountain  ranges  of 
the  continent,  one  east  and  the  other  west  of  the 
Mississippi  River.  There  are  a  few,  however,  on  this 
continent,  for  the  construction  of  which  there  are  other 
or  contributing  causes;  and  a  great  many  on  the  other 
side  of  the  Atlantic  —  cases  where  property  damage  was 
to  be  avoided  at  almost  any  cost,  or  where  navigation 
interests  were  paramount,  and  a  tunnel  was  more  practi- 
cable than  a  high  level  bridge.  The  Detroit-Sarnia  and 
Hudson  River  Tunnels  are  instances  of  the  latter  class, 
and  the  Baltimore  &  Washington  tunnels  are  instances 
of  the  former,  and  to  this  class  our  own  Montreal  Tunnel 
also  properly  belongs. 

Caiiad tan  Northern  Location  Considerations 

Towards  the  close  of  1906,  more  than  twelve  years 
ago,  I  was  instructed  to  commence  surveys  and  location 
for  the  Canadian  Northern  Railway  from  Montreal  west- 
ward, primarily  to  the  Georgian  Bay  and  eventually,  as  it 
turned  out,  to  Port  Arthur  to  connect  with  the  western 
system  which  had  already  developed  to  very  considerable 
proportions.  My  headquarters  were  at  that  time  in 
Montreal,  so  that  it  was  natural  that  a  great  deal  of  my 
spare  time  was  devoted  to  what  was  in  any  case  the  prob- 
lem of  greatest  interest  and  best  worth  studying  out. 
Montreal  and  its  problems  and  growth  were  not  a  new 
matter  to  me,  for  I  had  spent  three  years  of  my  earlier 
life  at  McGill,  had  geologized  on  Montreal  Mountain 
with  Sir  William  Dawson,  and  one  of  my  closest  friends 
was  a  prominent  business  man  and  an  ex-mayor  of 
Westmount. 

Acquired    Roads 

The  Canadian  Northern  two  or  three  years  before 
had  purchased  and  completed  the  Chateaugay  &  Northern 
Railway  from  Hochelaga  to  Joliette,  and  about  the 
same  time  the  Great  Northern  Railway  of  Canada, 
extending  from  Hawkesbury  to  Riviere  a  Pierre  on  the 
Quebec  &  Lake  St.  John,  which  constituted  a  sort  of  over- 
flow system  by  which  part  of  the  grain  brought  from 
Parry  Sound  by  the  Canada  Atlantic  found  its  way  to 
an  elevator  in  Quebec. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Ocean  Terminal 
The  superintendent  of  this  Eastern  System  was 
offered  one  of  the  farms  near  Longue  Pointe  and  we  com- 
bined to  purchase  this  for  the  railway,  and  by  this  means 
secured  an  approach  to  the  river  front,  and  within  a 
very  short  time  thereafter,  a  connection  with  the  Harbor 
Commissioners'  tracks. 

Freight  Entry 

This  had  already  secured  for  the  road  an  ocean 
terminal,  and  it  developed  later  that  from  this  farm,  now 
the  Longue  Pointe  Yard  (and  a  very  busy  yard  indeed), 
there  extended  a  very  marked  depression  clear  across  the 
Island  to  the  Riviere  des  Prairies,  and  the  only  one  of  its 
kind  between  Lachine  and  Bout  de  1'Ile.  Everywhere  else 
there  was  a  high  broad-backed  ridge  of  limestone  to  the 
north  of  the  Mountain  itself,  and  to  the  south  a  long  talus 
slope  of  sand  and  glacial  drift. 

The  Northern  Colonization,  afterwards  Quebec 
Montreal  &  Occidental,  and  now  C.  P.  R.,  climbed  over 
the  top  of  the  limestone  at  Mile  End  at  an  elevation  of 
200  feet  above  the  River  and  down  again  with  a  very 
strenuous  grade  of  90  feet  to  the  mile,  to  Hochelaga. 
The  Ontario  &  Quebec,  the  C.  P.  R.'s  entry  from  the 
southwest,  climbed  over  the  talus  debris  and  dropped 
similarly  although  not  so  viciously,  to  the  Windsor  Station. 

Our  discovery  gave  us  an  entry  somewhat  circuitous, 
it  is  true,  but  with  a  short  maximum  grade  of  30  feet 
to  the  mile. 

Development    of    Transcontinental    Route 

This  then  was  the  obvious  route  for  a  freight  line  from 
the  West  to  the  harbour  of  Montreal,  and  it  must  be 
remembered  that  the  C.  N.  R.  was  at  that  time  purely  a 
granger  road  and  interested  almost  exclusively  in  the 
hauling  of  wheat  to  the  seaboard.  Here,  therefore,  was 
the  starting  point  of  the  survey  to  Port  Arthur,  and  we 
still  hope  to  see  this  line  built  at  a  very  early  date.  The 
surveys  West  shewed  that  an  excellent  line  could  be  had 
north  of  the  Great  Lakes  to  Port  Arthur  at  moderate 
cost;  in  proportion  to  cost  probably  the  best  long  distance 
line  in  the  world.  The  Pacific  coast  extension  also  gave 
wonderful  results,  and  the  System  promised  to  be  easily 
the  best  of  all  the  Transcontinental  lines  on  this  continent 
or  any  other. 

Terminal 

While,  however,  this  arrangement  was  entirely  satis- 
factory as  regards  through  freight  traffic  to  and  from  the 
West,  it  did  not  meet  the  requirements  of  the  local  traffic, 
both  passenger  and  freight,  of  the  City  itself.  Moreover, 
a  transcontinental  such  as  that  described  must  of  necessity 
have  a  suitable  terminal  in  the  Eastern  Metropolis  to  make 
it  complete  and  well-balanced,  and  this  became  the  new 
study  of  the  location  staff. 

Montreal  Topographically 

Montreal  proper,  as  everyone  knows  and  many 
have  said,  is  wedged  in  between  the  River  and  the 
Mountain  on  a  narrow  strip  of  territory  consisting  first 
of  a  river  flat  half  a  mile  wide,  and  farther  back  a  terrace 
70  feet  higher,  and  of  about  the  same  width,  extending  to 
the  Mountain  Slope. 


Up  to  thirty  years  ago  the  site  was  an  ideal  one  for 
a  city  of  moderate  size  although  even  then  it  was  re- 
markable among  American  cities  for  its  density  of  popu- 
lation. While  Toronto  was  building  up  with  detached 
houses  with  lawns  and  gardens,  Montreal  adhered  to 
long  terraces  of  houses  of  gray  limestone  built  right 
up  to  the  street,  and  extending  for  miles  almost  without 
a  break.  Only  on  the  slopes  of  the  Mountain  the  "  Seats 
of  the  Mighty  "  of  the  Allans,  the  Redpaths,  the  Angus, 
and  other  merchant  princes  shewed  more  attractive 
surroundings,  even  if  built  on  a  sharp  slope.  Westmount 
was  then  in  its  infancy  and  was  deterred  in  its  growth 
by  the  long  distances  from  the  commercial  centre  of  the 
City. 

Growth  due  to  C.  P.  R.  Entry 

Thirty  years  ago  was  marked  by  the  advent  of  the 
C.  P.  R.  and  the  selection  of  Montreal  as  its  headquarters. 
Montreal  began  to  grow  very  rapidly  indeed,  and  is 
said  to  be  increasing  in  population  nearly  10%  per  annum, 
and  has  now  a  population  of  over  800,000. 

Congestion 

Montreal  a  few  years  ago  had  an  area  of  19  square 
miles,  and  a  population  of  580,000.  Cleveland,  with 
about  the  same  population  occupied  45  square  miles, 
Boston  with  670,000  —  43  square  miles.  Between  1900 
and  1910  Montreal  added  10,000  people  to  each  square 
mile.    New  York  only  4,000  and  Chicago  only  2,500. 

Montreal,  to  use  the  words  of  a  writer  in  an  American 
paper  was  "  choking  to  death  for  want  of  room".  In 
its  efforts  to  find  this  it  has  extended  down  the  River 
almost  to  Bout  de  1'Ile,  and  upwards  almost  to  Lachine, 
and  answers  much  more  closely  even  than  Duluth  itself 
to  the  Eastern  Yankee's  description  of  that  City  as 
being  "  25  miles  long,  1  mile  wide,  and  pretty  nearly 
one  mile  high." 

Schemes  for  Expansion 

The  long-sighted  men,  my  business  friend  for  one 
and  Sir  William  Van  Home  for  another,  had  repeatly 
cast  wistful  and  prophetic  eyes  towards  the  "  hinterland  " 
"  the  Great  Beyond  "  on  the  other  side  of  the  Mountain. 
The  Montreal  Tramways  built  a  line  around  it  and  Sir 
William  suggested  a  tunnel  of  about  1,000  feet  to  reduce 
the  extreme  summit  of  the  Cote  des  Neiges  Hill.  Only 
at  one  point  had  any  actual  expansion  taken  place,  and 
this  was  largely  due  to  the  C.  P.  R.  Mile  End  Station 
and  the  Tramways'  extensions  to  it.  This  was  along  the 
extensions  of  St.  Lawrence  Main,  St.  Denis  and  later 
of  Park  Avenue. 

This  question  of  city  expansion  was  one  consideration 
which  led  to  the  conception  and  inception  of  the  Montreal 
Tunnel,  but  it  was  not  by  any  means  the  only,  or  the 
principal  one. 

Topography 

To  most  Canadians  the  mention  of  the  St.  Lawrence 
suggests  a  river  running  east  and  west.  It  carries  east 
and  west  commerce,  and  Sault  Ste.  Marie  is  pretty  nearly 
due  west  of  Montreal,  and  Port  Arthur  only  three  degrees 
further  north;  but  the  St.  Lawrence  proper  from  Lake 
Ontario  to  the  sea  flows  northeast,  and  at  Montreal 
it  runs  almost  due  north  and  south. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OFJ    CANADA 


It  is  the  Ottawa  which  is  the  east  and  west  river,  and 
it  is  the  Ottawa  Valley  which  has  been  in  the  past  the  great 
highway  of  commerce,  and  which  has  resumed  its  place 
as  the  route  of  the  two  transcontinental  roads.  The 
result  is  that  the  direct  route  from  the  heart  of  Montreal 
to  the  West  lies  directly  through  the  Mountain,  and 
almost  at  right  angles  to  the  River  and  the  great  thorough- 
fares of  St.  Catherine,  St.  James  and  Notre  Dame,  which 
parallel  it.  As  grade  separation  was  an  essential  feature 
of  any  terminal  scheme  this  was  a  very  important 
consideration. 

Existing  Railways 

Three  railways  had  already  entered  Montreal  from 
the  West. 

The  Grand  Trunk  had  entered  it  when  the  problem 
was  a  comparatively  simple  one.  The  Victoria  Bridge 
was  located  at  what  was  considered  the  best  point  for  a 
bridge,  as  was  the  St.  Anne's  Bridge  over  the  Ottawa. 
The  intermediate  line  was  built  as  directly  as  possible 
between  them,  and  one  of  the  pioneer  roads  of  Canada, 
the  Lachine  Portage  Railway,  was  used  as  an  approach 
to  a  dead  end  station  in  the  outskirts  of  the  city  at  that 
time.  The  main  line  did  not  touch  Montreal  as  it  then 
existed. 

Thirty  years  later  the  Northern  Colonization  was 
built  from  Ottawa,  and  it  climbed  over  the  northern  toe 
of  the  Mountain  as  already  described,  and  entered  the 
extreme  northern  end  of  the  city,  and  after  absorption 
by  the  C.  P.  R.,  the  Place  Viger  Station. 

Ten  years  later  still  came  the  Ontario  &  Quebec, 
which  paralleled  the  Grand  Trunk  from  Vaudreuil  to 
Dorval,  and  then  rose  over  the  terrace  and  followed 
along  its  edge  to  the  present  Windsor  Street  Station. 
What  the  governing  ideas  were  in  selecting  this  location 
I  can  only  guess,  having  never  met  the  designer,  but  a 
desire  to  eliminate  property  damages  and  grade  crossings 
as  far  as  possible  is  evident,  and  the  solution  has  been 
accomplished  in  a  very  clever  way.  It  is  on  the  whole  a 
very  satisfactory  entry,  but  the  C.  P.  R.  is  under  the 
disadvantage,  with  the  double  approach,  of  having  to 
keep  up  two  separate  terminals  and  a  great  number  of 
passengers  have  to  travel  across  town  from  one  to  the 
other  —  in  coming,  for  example,  from  Quebec  to  Toronto. 
It  may  almost  be  said  that  there  are  three  terminals  for 
the  Mile  End  Station  is  getting  to  be  very  popular  with 
short  distance  passengers  to  and  from  the  north  and  west. 
The  Windsor  Street  approach  is  very  interesting  not  only 
as  a  very  good  piece  of  work,  but  as  shewing  the  develop- 
ment of  railway  ideals,  and  the  demands  of  the  Public  in 
respect  of  abolition  of  crossings  and  concealment  and 
suppression  of  smoke  and  noise. 

Advent  of  C.   N.   R. 

Nearly  thirty  years  after  the  C.  P.  R.  comes  the 
Canadian  Northern.  Thirty  years  makes  a  great  differ- 
ence in  a  problem  of  this  kind.  Land  values  have  grown 
prodigiously  in  the  meantime  due  to  the  ever  increasing 
congestion.  And  the  education  of  the  Public  assisted 
by  a  Railway  Commission  anxious  to  please  it  has  gone 
on  apace.  Grade  separation  has  become  absolutely 
essential  and  the  absolute  abolition  of  smoke  and  noise 
almost  so. 


At  the  same  time,  and  from  the  railway  point  of  view, 
passenger  trains  have  become  longer  and  heavier  and 
harder  to  haul,  so  that  grades  must  be  flattened  to  the 
utmost,  especially  in  regard  to  starting  and  stopping. 
Maintenance  of  way  and  operating  expenses  have  been 
increasing  in  a  much  faster  ratio  than  the  corresponding 
passenger  rates  and  receipts.  Only  the  increasing  volume 
of  traffic  offsetted  the  growing  discrepancy  and  served 
to  stave  off  the  bankruptcy  of  the  railways. 

Local    Freight 

The  passenger  business  alone  was  not  the  only  thing 
to  be  considered.  The  Grand  Trunk  during  its  60  years 
of  occupancy,  and  the  C.  P.  R.  during  its  shorter  term  of 
existence  had  surrounded  and  honey-combed  Montreal 
with  a  network  of  industrial  spurs,  sidings,  and  yards, 
in  every  direction.  The  Canadian  Northern  had  only 
one  small  yard  in  the  extreme  north  end,  and  its  connection 
on  the  same  terms  as  the  other  lines  with  the  Harbour 
Commissioners'  tracks  for  overseas  business.  But  busi- 
ness to  and  from  the  local  industries,  the  wholesale  houses, 
cold  storage  plants,  etc.,  etc.,  has  to  be  hauled  from  three  to 
five  miles  by  motor  trucks  to  Moreau  Street.  The 
handicap  is  altogether  too  great.  In  the  district  bounded 
by  McGill  Street,  the  Lachine  Canal,  Windsor  Street 
produced,  and  Lagauchetiere  St.  alone  there  are  something 
like  150  of  these  smaller  industries  and  plants,  and  a  great 
many  more  within  a  mile  radius  of  the  Haymarket  Square. 

Passenger  business  may  perhaps  be  described  as  the 
spiritual  and  intellectual  function  of  the  railway  body 
coporate,  but  freight  is  the  wholesome  and  nourishing 
food  which  enables  it  to  do  its  work  and  carry  on  its  func- 
tions. The  passenger  service  is  the  side  which  appeals 
to  the  ordinary  layman  passenger  just  as  a  man's  face 
and  bearing  does  to  a  new  acquaintance,  but  he  can't 
keep  up  the  prepossessing  appearance  unless  he  has  his 
stomach  full,  and  some  little  money  in  his  pocket. 

Financial 

We  have  here  a  number  of  essentials  to  be  provided 
for  and  a  still  greater  number  of  desiderata,  also  many 
things  to  avoid.  The  most  important  necessity  of  all 
at  the  moment  perhaps  was  the  finding  of  the  necessary 
capital. 

Railway  terminals  are  expensive  things  at  the  best, 
and  this  was  an  era  of  extravagance  in  this  respect.  The 
Pennsylvania  had  spent  all  kinds  of  millions  on  its  New 
York  entry.  The  New  York  Central  was  following  suit 
with  a  magnificent  scheme,  better  balanced  financially, 
but  still  enormously  expensive.  Kansas  City  was 
building  a  joint  45-mi  lion  terminal,  and  St.  Paul  was 
considering  a  scheme  which  involved  encroachment  on 
the  rights  of  its  very  respectable  and  oldest  citizen,  the 
Mississippi  River  —  almost  as  old  and  respectable  as 
the  Montreal  Mountain  itself  although  somewhat  dirtier. 

But  these  were  all  in  connection  with  roads  of  long 
standing  and  financial  strength.  They  were  improvements 
and  consolidations  rather  than  new  schemes. 

The  Canadian  Northern  while  it  had  been  earning 
at  a  great  rate  was  also  extending  and  building  equally 
fast,  and  had  largely  discounted  its  future  in  its  borrowings. 
Even  in  a  growing  North  West  it  takes  some  months 
before  a  new  piece  of  road  can  earn  its  own  living,  and 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


some  of  the  C.  N.  R.  construction  was  of  a  nature  and 
through  such  country  as  could  not  be  expected  to  yield 
any  adequate  income  except  as  part  of  the  completed 
system. 

Selection    of   Route 

The  most  obvious  route  was  to  parallel  the  two  older 
roads  and  it  was  very  seriously  proposed,  but  the  writer 
for  one  never  took  to  the  proposition.  It  was  neither  the 
inexpensive  route  of  the  older  Grand  Trunk,  nor  could 
the  very  neat  grade  separations  which  the  C.  P.  effected 
thirty  years  ago  be  repeated  and  duplicated. 

The  line  of  the  C.  P.  had  been  badly  bent  in  order  to 
effect  its  entry.  Everything  pointed  to  the  north  instead 
of  the  south  shore  of  the  Ottawa  as  being  the  proper 
route  of  the  Canadian  Northern,  and  in  this  case  the  bend 
would  become  a  right  angle  elbow.  The  right-of-way 
would  be  absolute  destruction  for  two  miles  or  more,  and 
grade  separation  could  be  effected  only  by  a  continuous 
track  elevation  for  the  same  distance.  It  would  have 
been  plagiarism  of  the  worst  and  most  expensive  type. 

It  was  proposed  to  join  the  Grand  Trunk  but  this 
would  merely  have  mitigated  some  of  the  evils  of  parallel- 
ism, not  removed  them,  and  the  C.  N.  would  have  lost 
its  identity  and  its  independence  at  a  most  important 
point,  and  neither  of  these  propositions  would  have  been 
any  solution  of  the  freight  problem. 

Tunnel  the  Obvious  Solution 

The  Tunnel  was  the  obvious  solution  of  the  whole 
question,  and  it  was  adopted  by  the  writer  at  a  very 
early  stage,  but  how  was  the  money  to  be  found  ? 


The   Model   City 

Here  came  in  the  question  of  expansion,  of  a  Greater 
Montreal.  The  piercing  of  the  Mountain,  the  inaugur- 
ation of  a  fast  and  frequent  electric  service  through  it, 
would  vastly  enhance  the  value  of  the  inaccessible  lands 
beyond.  Thousands  of  acres  sloping  gently  towards 
the  Back  River  were  available,  if  they  were  once  brought 
within  easy  reach  of  the  business  and  shopping  district. 

As  soon  as  the  programme  was  announced  real 
estate  men  would  quickly  absorb  all  the  available  land, 
subdivide  it  and  sell  at  enormous  profit.  Why  should 
not  a  syndicate  be  formed  which  would  take  this  part 
of  the  business  out  of  the  hands  of  the  real  estate  men, 
buy  up  the  land  and  out  of  the  prospective  profits  finance 
the  construction  of  the  Tunnel  ? 

The  idea  once  suggested  took  root,  and  some  of  the 
great  financiers  of  the  world  became  directly  interested  in 
it,  and  the  idea  of  the  tunnel  entrance  became  an  esta- 
blished one. 

Construction  Considerations 

But  this  merely  fixed  the  principle  of  the  Tunnel, 
not  the  line  of  it,  and  there  were  several  lines  suggested 
other  than  that  adopted.  A  line  just  south  of  Park 
Avenue  was  strongly  advocated,  the  reason  given  being 
that  it  would  be  closer  to  the  surface  and  much  of  it  could 
be  built  by  the  cut-and-cover  method. 

It  was  pointed  out  in  rebuttal  that  this  would  dis- 
organize all  the  underground  economy  of  the  district, 
sewers,  water  pipes,  and  gas,  and  that  the  streets  would 


be  impassable  and  the  abutting  property  uninhabitable 
during  the  whole  time  of  construction,  unless  the  enor- 
mously costly  methods  of  the  New  York  Subways  were 
adopted.  So  far  from  being  an  extravagance,  the  bold 
line  under  the  highest  part  of  the  Mountain  was  the 
cheapest  in  that  it  avoided  all  property  damage  except 
for  a  couple  of  thousand  feet  on  the  City  end. 

Selection    of   Western    Portal 

This  argument  prevailed  finally  and  the  bolder  line 
was  adopted,  but  there  was  still  a  good  deal  of  latitude 
in   the   choice  of  line. 

At  the  West  end  a  long  strip  of  property  was  offered 
reaching  nearly  to  the  Back  Rvier.  It  so  happened 
that  on  this  property  was  the  best  point  at  which  to  cross 
the  C.P.R.'s  Atlantic  and  North  Western  line,  so  this  end 
was  promptly  and  satisfactorily  settled. 

Selection  of  Eastern  Portal 

The  east  end  was  the  subject  of  longer  debate  and 
some  warmth  of  argument.  Most  English-speaking 
people  think  of  Montreal  as  extending  from  the  Mountain 
to  Dorchester,  and  from  Park  Avenue  to  the  confines  of 
Westmount,  with  an  addition  for  business  purposes 
extending  east  and  south  for  half  a  mile  from  the  Place 
D'Armes,  and  of  St.  Catherine  Street  as  being  the  main 
and  only  important  artery.  This  is  only  a  small  part  of 
Montreal  in  reality  but  the  conviction  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
mind  that  this  is  Montreal,  the  whole  of  Montreal,  and 
nothing  but  Montreal  is  almost  as  fixed  and  ineradicable 
as  the  Englishmen's  idea  that  the  whole  world  is  centred 
about  his  own  tight  little  island. 

As  a  result  of  this  obsession,  it  was  difficult  to  get 
any  site  off  of  St.  Catherine  Street  even  seriously  con- 
sidered. A  line  near  University  Street  was  actually 
adopted  and  abandoned  only  when  it  was  shewn  that  this 
was  of  no  use  except  for  purely  passenger  business,  that 
there  was  no  chance  for  extension  eatward,  and  that  it 
must  for  all  time  to  come  remain  a  dead  end  branch  6  miles 
in  length,  and  worse  in  this  respect  than  either  the  C.  P.  R. 
or  the  Grand  Trunk. 

Connection  with  Harbor  Tracks 
Finally,  the  present  line  was  adopted  mainly  for 
the  reasons  that  it  gave  a  continuous  line  from  the 
Mountain  to  the  water  front  with  opportunity  to  connect 
with  the  Harbor  Commissioners'  tracks,  and  through 
them  with  the  system  extending  to  Quebec  and  Chicou- 
timi;  that  in  doing  this  it  passed  through  some  of  the 
best  freight  producing  district  in  Montreal,  and  that  it 
did  all  this  with  a  minimum  of  property  damage  and  with 
an  absolute  avoidance  of  grade  crossings  or  even  distortion 
of  street  grades. 

There  is,  further,  an  avowed  intention  on  the  part  of 
the  Commission  to  build  a  dam  across  the  River  to  St. 
Helen's  and  a  bridge  from  it  to  the  east  shore  which  will 
furnish  a  route  for  such  roadways  and  railways  as  care 
to  avail  themselves  of  it.  It  is  more  than  probable  that 
the  Quebec  Montreal  &  Southern  and  the  Intercolonial 
will  avail  themselves  of  the  chance,  for  the  Grand  Trunk's 
great  bridge  is  already  congested  and  overcrowded, 
but  this  is  a  matter  for  the  future. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Station  Site 
The  choice  of  a  station  site  on  this  route  was  another 
matter  of  debate,  which  it  is  somewhat  irrelevant  to  go 
into  now.  The  choice  for  the  present  at  any  rate  is  that 
I  am  shewing  you  on  Lagauchetiere,  within  easy  reach  of 
Dorchester,  but  not  so  far  below  the  surface  as  the  latter. 

Grades    Through    Tunnel 

Closely  allied  to  the  question  of  alignment  and  in 
some  respects  even  more  important  is  that  of  grades. 
I  have  already  alluded  to  the  increasing  length  and 
weight  of  passenger  trains.  The  C.  P.  standard  trans- 
continental train  averages  11  coaches,  and  with  this  their 
Pacific  type  engines  get  over  the  1%  grades  of  the  Lake 
Superior  division  with  reasonable  ease.  An  extra  car  is 
liable  to  make  them  lose  time.  On  the  other  hand,  if 
the  grade  is  flattened  too  much,  on  a  long  tunnel  and 
approach  such  as  this,  trouble  with  drainage  is  apt  to 
occur,  expecially  in  winter. 

The  grade  through  the  tunnel  is  6/10  of  1%,  or  32  feet 
per  mile,  and  is  continuous  from  end  to  end;  the  West 
Portal  being  thus  100  feet  higher  than  the  East. 

From  the  West  Portal  the  same  rate  of  grade  carries 
us  down  through  the  Model  City  for  nearly  the  same 
distance.  The  long  cutting  on  the  west  approach  was 
introduced  with  a  purpose,  viz. :  to  allow  the  civic  expan- 
sion to  go  on  overhead  without  too  much  distortion  of 
street    grades. 

Headroom 

In  consideration  of  the  electrical  operation  the  head- 
room required  under  the  bridges  was  reduced  from  the 
regulation  22  ^  feet  to  16 Yi  feet,  and  the  problem  of 
grade  separation  rendered  so  much  the  easier  of 
accomplishment . 

Near  Cartierville  the  Park  &  Island  Railway  and  a 
mainroad  alongside  it  have  been  carried  underneath. 

Absolute  grade  separation  is  thus  secured,  not  only 
through  the  City  itself  and  its  transmontane  annex, 
but  for  the  entire  length  of  the  electric  zone,  nearly  9 
miles,  and  Cartierville,  a  promising  suburban  settlement 
on  the  bank  of  the  Riviere  des  Prairies,  is  now  brought 
within  18  or  20  minutes  of  the  heart  of  the  City. 

Description    of    Tunnel 

The  Tunnel  itself  is  a  very  interesting  one  and  ranks 
among  the  great  tunnels  of  the  world,  being  3.25  miles 
in  length.  Only  the  three  great  Alpine  Tunnels,  the 
Mount  Cenis,  the  St.  Gothard  and  the  Simplon,  com- 
pletely eclipse  it  in  length,  and  there  is  only  one  in  Can- 
ada which  is  longer,  the  Rogers  Pass  Tunnel  of  the 
Canadian  Pacific. 

Difficulties 

It  was  predicted  beforehand  that  the  difficulties 
would  be  comparatively  few,  and  so  it  turned  out. 

Very  little  water  was  met  with,  and  this  where  it 
was  expected,  near  the  West  Portal  at  the  contact  between 
the  limestone  and  the  older  rocks  on  which  it  rests  un- 
conformably. 

The  core  of  the  Mountain  was  almost  exclusively 
Essexite  a  basaltic  volcanic  rock,  somewhat  hardtodrill, 
but  otherwise  quite  unobjectionable. 


Lining 

It  was  at  first  thought  that  most  of  it  would  not 
require  lining,  and  had  it  been  a  steam  operated  road 
in  the  open  country,  it  is  still  probable  that  very  little 
lining  would  have  been  put  in,  but  its  nearness  to  the 
terminal  and  the  adoption  of  the  trolley  system,  which 
meant  support  from  the  roof,  made  even  a  small  fall 
a  very  serious  matter,  as  it  would  both  delay  and  endanger 
the  traffic.  Some  little  seaminess  and  disintegration 
shewed  itself  after  exposure  to  the  air,  and  in  the  end  it 
was  all  lined  with  a  thin  sheeting  of  concrete,  except  for 
about  1,000  feet.    This  applies  to  the  rock  section. 

Use  of  Shield 

For  something  over  half  a  mile  at  the  City  or  East 
end,  the  roof  ran  into  clay,  although  the  bottom  and  most 
of  the  wall  remained  in  limestone.  This  clay  was  known 
beforehand  to  exist,  and  it  is  of  a  very  plastic  and  semifluid 
formation  and  contains  numerous  shells  such  as  now  exist 
in  Northern  seas.  On  account  of  its  semi-fluid  nature,  and 
because  this  section  led  under  streets  and  close  to  the 
foundations  of  buildings,  it  was  decided  to  take  this  out 
under  a  shield  protection,  the  shield  being  followed  up 
with  an  arch  of  concrete  blocks  pre-cast  in  voussoir  shape. 

Practically  no  leakage  even  of  water  was  ever  visible 
during  the  progress  of  the  work,  and  yet  considerable 
settlement  of  the  street  overhead  took  place.  Probably 
the  moisture  evaporated  and  escaped  as  invisible  vapour. 
A  great  many  of  the  houses  had  been  set  down  on  this 
soft  clay  and  had  suffered  from  settlement  before  the  work 
was  started;  the  further  settlement  was  therefore  of  less 
consequence  than  it  would  otherwise  have  been. 

Separate    Tunnels 

Through  this  section  the  individual  tracks  are  carried 
in  separate  tunnels  with  a  thin  wall  between  them. 
The  same  is  true  of  a  few  hundred  feet  at  the  West  Portal, 
but  the  body  of  the  tube  is  a  single  opening. 

Heading   and  Speed 

The  heading  was  a  "  bottom  "  one  8'  x  12'  and  was 
put  through  with  very  good  speed.  For  a  time  in  fact 
the  American  record  for  hard  rock  tunnelling  was  broken 
by  an  average  advance  of  26  ft.  per  day  for  a  whole 
month. 

As  soon  as  a  sufficient  advance  had  been  made  the 
enlargement  to  full  section  was  commenced,  the  arch  being 
taken  out  first,  and  the  two  "  benches  "  afterwards. 

As  the  east  end  was  in  the  City  and  there  was  no 
means  of  getting  rid  of  large  quantities  of  material  except 
by  means  of  teaming  for  several  miles,  this  work  had  to 
be  done  from  the  West  end,  and  for  this  reason  the  heading 
was  driven  faster  from  this  end  and  this  meant  working 
down  hill.  Under  these  circumstances  the  small  flow 
of  water  was  particularly  fortunate  as  the  amount  of 
pumping  was  small. 

Shafts 

In  order  to  expedite  the  work  a  shaft  was  sunk 
250  ft.  one  mile  from  the  west  end.  This  made  it  possible 
to  follow  up  with  the  enlargement  on  the  westerly  mile 
without  interference  from  the  heading  from  the  shaft, 
but  as  a  matter  of  fact  the  rapid  progress  of  the  heading 


JOURNAL   OF   THE   ENGINEERING   INSTITUTE   OF   CANADA 


was  to  a  large  extent  wasted  because  the  war  intervened 
and  work  on  the  enlargement  was  impeded  by  the 
difficulty  in  finding  the  necessary  capital  to  carry  it  on. 

Instrumental  Work 

The  shaft  was,  however,  designed  to  carry  an  elevator 
in  the  future  to  a  substation  at  its  foot,  and  with  this  in 
view  was  sunk  to  one  side  of  the  centre  line  of  the  tunnel. 
This,  as  may  be  imagined,  greatly  increased  the  difficulty 
of  alignment  of  the  tunnel.  To  offset  a  line  on  the  surface 
to  two  plumb  lines  only  some  12  feet  apart  and  250  feet 
long,  and  then  offset  this  line  again  at  the  bottom  of 
the  shaft,  was  an  operation  requiring  care  and  patience, 
but  it  was  accomplished  without  appreciable  error  by 
H.  T.  Fisher  and  his  staff. 

Other   Shafts 

A  second  shaft  was  sunk  some  70  feet  just  to  the  north 
of  Sherbrooke  Street  and  at  the  bottom  of  this  the  shield 
was  put  together. 

A  third  shaft  was  projected  at  Pine  Avenue  but 
considerable  opposition  was  met  with  from  the  wealthy 
residents  of  the  neighbourhood  and  it  was  abandoned, 
and  undoubtedly  to  advantage  for  it  would  merely  have 
expedited  the  driving  of  the  heading,  not  of  the  completed 
tunnel. 

A  fourth  shaft  was  sunk  on  Dorchester  Street  and  it 
was  from  this  that  a  large  quantity  of  material  was 
removed  because  there  happened  to  be  a  very  large  and 
almost  vacant  piece  of  property  at  this  point  on  which 
material  could  be  wasted  for  the  time  being,  until  the 
Tunnel  became  available  for  hauling  it  away. 

Reasons  for  Electrification 

As  mentioned  above,  the  Tunnel  was  planned  from 
the  beginning  for  electric  traction.  No  effort  was  made 
to  avoid  the  inevitable  in  this  respect.  It  was  felt  that 
while  very  much  cheaper  in  initial  cost,  a  steam  service 
through  such  a  long  tunnel  would  not  be  popular  with 
the  Public,  and  there  would  have  to  be  installed  fans  and 
artificial  ventilation,  and  that  even  outside  the  tunnel, 
on  the  City  end,  there  would  be  a  strong  opposition  to 
steam  operation  over  the  streets,  and  justly  so,  for 
Montreal  is  already  more  saturated  with  coal  smoke  than 
even  Toronto. 

Some  of  you  will  remember  the  fatal  disaster  in  the 
St.  Clair  Tunnel  when  it  was  operated  by  steam  loco- 
motives, although  this  is  not  much  more  than  one-third 
the  length  of  the  Montreal  one.  Some  minor  mishap 
necessitated  a  stop  at  the  lowest  point  in  the  tunnel, 
and  some  of  the  train  hands  were  asphyxiated  by  the 
waste  gases  from  the  locomotive  before  help  could  be  got 
to  them.  Even  on  a  passenger  train,  although  the  trip 
lasted  a  very  few  minutes,  there  was  a  certain  sense  of 
suffocation  and  a  feeling  of  relief  when  the  trip  was  over. 

This  accident  precipitated  the  inevitable  change  to 
electric  traction  and  in  the  case  of  the  Pennsylvania 
and  Detroit  tunnels,  electricity  was  installed  from  the 
very  first. 


Air  Current  in   Montreal   Tunnel 

In  the  Montreal  Tunnel,  in  actual  experience,  the 
air  is  just  as  fresh  as  it  is  outside  and  there  is  quite  a 
marked  natural  circulation  through  it.  The  air  at  the 
City  end  is  nearly  always  warmer  than  that  at  the  West 
or  country  end,  and  rises  from  the  terminal  excavation, 
causing  a  strong  draught  of  cool  air  from  west  to  east. 
With  the  West  end  warmed  up  by  a  westerly  sun, 
while  the  East  is  in  shadow,  the  current  will  very  probaly 
be  reversed,  but  the  normal  conditions  seem  to  be  as  above. 

The  electrification  work  is  a  very  interesting  study 
in  itself,  and  was  under  the  very  able  charge  of  W.  A. 
Lancaster. 


St. 


POWER 

Ursule    Falls 


A  study  was  made  for  developing  power  at  St.  Ursule 
Falls  on  the  Canadian  Northern  line  some  60  miles  east 
of  Montreal,  and  transmitting  to  Montreal,  but  the 
power  was  not  very  reliable  and  to  make  it  so  meant 
a  lot  of  interference  with  vested  rights  and  privileges 
which  threatened  to  raise  the  capital  cost  and  resultant 
interest  charges  to  a  point  which  meant  that  it  would  cost 
more  per  H.  P.  than  it  could  be  obtained  for  from  the 
Montreal  Light  Heat  &  Power,  and  an  arrangement  was 
made  with  them  to  supply  the  necessary  power. 

Description  of  System 

The  system  is  a  direct  current  of  2,400  volts,  much 
higher  than  we  have  been  accustomed  to  up  to  the  present. 
The  locomotives  take  the  current  by  means  of  a  penta- 
graph  from  a  trolley  wire,  and  weigh  eighty  tons. 

The  third  rail  system  was  considered  but  on  account 
of  the  heavy  snowfall  about  Montreal  and  occasional 
accumulations  of  ice,  it  was  not  considered  desirable. 

In  actual  test  these  locomotives  haul  a  seven  or  eight 
car  train  against  the  adverse  6/10%  grade  through  the 
Tunnel  in  7  minutes,  or  practically  thirty  miles  per  hour. 

Electric  Zone 

The  electric  zone  extends  at  present  only  to  Cartier- 
ville,  which  on  account  of  its  being  a  convenient  point 
at  which  to  establish  a  divisional  yard  with  engine  house 
and  shops,  was  considered  the  best  point  at  which  to  make 
the  change. 

Extension  and  Route  to  Ottawa 

It  is  altogether  probable  that  as  the  intermediate 
country  gets  settled  up  with  suburban  residences,  a 
movement  which  has  already  commenced,  it  will  be  ex- 
tended to  St.  Eustache,  a  very  prosperous  town  with 
beautiful  surroundings,  and  we  hope  eventually  to 
Ottawa.  Only  the  heavy  cost  of  installation  prevented 
this  being  done  in  the  first  place. 

The  route  to  Ottawa  lying  as  it  does  along  the  banks 
of  the  River,  and  generally  within  sight  of  it  and  of  the 
Laurentian  Hills  beyond,  is  quite  the  most  attractive 
of  the  four  existing  ones,  and  within  a  mile  of  being  the 
shortest.  It  has  already  made  a  good  start  in  popularity, 
and  with  the  additional  attraction  of  electric  traction, 
it  should  pretty  nearly  monopolize  this  business. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


10,000      15.000     20,000 

I 


Fig.  3. — Canadian  Northern  Railway  Terminal  Lines  in  Montreal,  with  Tunnel  under  Mount  Royal  to  Central  Passenger  Station. 


10 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Remarks  Regarding  Rural  Roads 

By  J.  N.  deStein,  M.E.I.C. 


You  may  have  noticed  that  the  Manitoba  Motor 
League  intend  to  petition  the  government  of  their 
province  to  take  over  the  control  of  main  highways, 
and  a  Manitoba  weekly  expresses  itself  in  this  con- 
nection as  follows: 

"  The  present  system  of  municipal  roads  is  a 
howling  farce.  The  great  majority  of  rural 
councils  know  even  less  about  building  and 
maintaining  roads  than  the  daily  press  of 
Toronto  knows  about  farming  in  Manitoba." 

I  thought  it  unfortunate  that  a  man  likely  without 
any  engineering  qualifications,  as  the  editor  of  said 
weekly,  should  express  an  opinion,  which  properly  should 
have  originated  in  some  engineering  body. 

We  are  leaning  back  in  our  chairs  and  enlarging  at 
length  upon  small  theoretical  points,  perhaps  how  many 
inches  to  crown  our  main  roads  or  whether  to  use  eight  or 
ten  percent  maximum  grades,  while  annually  tens,  yes  even 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  of  public  monies  are 
wasted  through  the  present  faulty  system  of  supervision 
of  our  rural  roads.  Our  duty  —  it  seems  —  should  be 
first  to  devise  a  proper  organization  in  this  connection. 

There  are  plans  on  foot  for  provincial  highways, 
linking  up  the  various  cities  and  towns  of  importance  in 
our  province,  and  even  a  possible  federal  interprovincial 
highway  is  being  contemplated  —  but  our  rural  travel 
will  still  use  mainly  our  market  roads,  as  heretofore 
under  the  supervision  of  the  rural  councils. 

Just  a  few  words  about  the  present  organization. 
Our  municipalities  comprise  as  a  rule  from  nine  to  twelve 
townships  and  are  governed  by  a  reeve  (elected  annually) 
and  six  councillors  (elected  by  a  ward  system),  three  coun- 
cillors retiring  every  year,  keeping  thereby  the  individual 
councillor  in  ofhce  for  two  years.  The  councillor  has  the 
immediate  supervision  over  the  roads  in  his  ward  (13^  to 
2  townships),  which  consists  of  about  80  to  110  miles  of 
road.  The  annual  portion  of  the  taxes  devoted  to  road 
purposes  is  divided  amongst  the  councillors  and  forms  the 
appropriation  at  their  disposition  for  road  construction 
and  maintenance  in  their  respective  wards,  usually  called 
divisions. 

The  trouble  seems  to  be  firstly  in  the  continuous 
change  of  officials.  Our  aim  should  be  to  devise  some 
more  permanent  form  of  rural  government,  after  the  com- 
mission form  in  our  cities  or  in  the  form  of  a  municipal 
manager,  aided  by  an  elected  reeve  and  council.  All 
executive  work,  especially  in  connection  with  road 
planning,  construction  and  maintenance  should  be  left 
in  the  commissioner's  or  manager's  hands. 

There  might  be  an  objection  raised  on  account  of 
the  increased  financial  outlay  in  salaries  etc.,  but  the 
ratepaying  farmer  would  soon  realize  that  their 
"  investment "  is  not  only  earning  a  very  high  rate  of 
interest  indeed,  but  probably  showing  a  considerable 
saving  on  Capital  account. 


*Read  before  Saskatchewan  Branch,  E.I.C.,  December  12th. 


The  second  remedy  should  be  a  change  in  our 
Municipal  Act,  whereby  a  more  adequate  remuneration 
should  be  allowed  for  municipal  reeves  and  councillors. 
The  honors  are  all  theirs  —  but  that  is  about  all !  —  We 
find  a  large  number  of  public  spirited  men  in  our  rural  com- 
munities, who  devote  their  time  in  the  best  interests  of 
their  electors  —  but  let  us  admit  the  fact:  are  not  quite 
a  few  tempted  to  seek  an  adequate  remuneration  for  their 
services  in  improving  the  roads  in  the  vicinity  of  their 
farms,  sometimes  even  beyond  the  importance  of  such 
road. 

Even  the  small  rural  division  is  again  split  into 
districts.  One  year  the  south  end  are  trying  to  get  their 
man  in,  another  year  the  north  end,  mainly  in  order  to 
get  roads.  "Roads"  is  the  issue  in  the  campaign! 
Every  councillor  looks  in  many  instances  upon  his 
division  as  a  little  kingdom  of  its  own.  I  could  mention 
instances  where  some  councillor  in  the  past  developed, 
in  a  very  remote  portion  of  the  municipality,  a  splendid 
net-work  of  roads,  but  only  a  few  miles  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  his  farm  and  entirely  disconnected  with  any 
market  road.  In  the  future  they  are  left  without  neces- 
sary upkeep,  as  the  next  councillor  refuses  to  spend 
any  more  money  in  that  corner,  with  the  result  that  the 
original,  often  large,  expenditure  is  wasted  eventually. 

Recently  our  provincial  government  is  requesting 
the  rural  municipalities  to  submit  plans  showing  a  proper 
system  of  main  roads.  Some  very  queer  documents  must 
reach  our  highway  department  in  this  connection.  I  know 
of  some  intances,  where  in  one  division  nearly  every 
road  was  shown  as  a  main  road,  in  another  division  a 
main  road  was  contemplated  —  to  suit  the  requirements 
of  the  councillor  in  question  —  every  mile  of  which 
involved  an  outlay  of  about  one  thousand  dollars  for 
earthwork  alone,  besides  being  topographically  entirely 
unsuitable  for  its  purpose.  The  main  road  system  as  at 
present  is  a  variable  item,  directly  proportionate  to  the 
council,  that  is  with  every  change  of  council  the  main  road 
system  used  to  change  as  a  rule.  It  should  therefore  be 
our  duty  to  compel  the  municipalities  legally,  not  only 
to  adopt  a  comprehensive  system  of  main  roads,  but 
to  adhere  to  it! 

What  difficulties  does  the  local  councillor  encounter 
in  this  respect  ?  Mainly  the  objection  of  the  ignorant 
rate  payer,  who  figures  that  his  taxes  should  be  expended 
on  the  piece  of  road  immediately  adjacent  to  his  pro- 
perty. He  seems  to  loose  sight  of  the  fact,  that  he 
travels  sometimes  many  miles  over  expensively  con- 
structed road,  upon  which  the  expenditure  of  a  frontage 
tax,  sometimes  even  on  maintenance  alone,  would  result 
in  an  entirely  impassable  roadway.  He  overlooks  the 
fact,  that  the  heaviest  tax  he  has  to  pay,  which  never  shows 
up  in  his  tax  notice  is  the  "  Poor  Road  Tax  "  which 
however  takes  its  heavy  toll  in  depreciation  of  implements, 
waggons,  cars  and  more  especially  in  loss  of  valuable  time. 
Perhaps  a  main  road  assessment  could  be  worked  out, 
similar  to  drainage  assessments,  taxing  the  direct  benefits. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE       ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


11 


This  might  overcome  some  of  the  objections.  Amongst 
others  a  wheel  tax  has  been  suggested,  which  would  most 
adequately  distribute  the  expense. 

I  found  an  instance,  where  a  municipality  intends  to 
try  and  set  aside  annually  a  certain  sum  for  the  develop- 
ment of  their  market  roads.  But  there  again  the  divisional 
method  of  road  supervision  has  its  great  disadvantages. 
Perhaps  a  contemplated  market  road  is  situated  right  on 
the  boundary  between  two  divisions,  and  one  councillor 
fails  to  understand  why  he  should  spend  some  of  his 
appropriation  on  a  road  used  by  rate  payers  living  in 
another  division.  May  I  cite  an  example  of  this  kind 
on  the  hand  of  a  sketch. 


The  councillor  in  the  west  division  did  not 
want  to  incur  the  expense  necessary  in  order  to  open 
up  a  new  road  through  Section  36.  The  main  road  had  to 
go  to  the  north  and  was  coming  from  the  south,  west  of 
Section  25,  but  had  to  jog  a  mile  east,  before  continuing 
to  the  north.  The  west  councillor  suggested  to  jog  it 
east  on  the  south  side  of  Section  25,  thence  to  carry  it 
north,  there  being  no  river  crossing  provided.  He 
reckoned,  this  would  give  him  \y2  miles  of  mainroad 
less  to  build  or  maintain  at  the  expense  of  the  councillor 
to  the  east  of  him.  His  suggestion  would  have  necessi- 
tated the  crossing  of  a  large  slough,  the  cost  of  which  alone 


was  estimated  at  about  $1,000,  while  the  total  expense  in 
connection  with  opening  up  the  new  road  through  Section 
36  was  about  $350  (including  necessary  right-of-way), 
besides  giving  topographically  a  road  much  superior  to  the 
other  solution. 

The  municipality  in  question,  like  several  others, 
adopted  the  form  of  road  committee,  in  order  to  overcome 
the  autocratic  tendencies  of  some  councillors  and  to  con- 
sult with  the  individual  councillor  on  road  questions. 
That  is,  the  reeve  has  the  power  to  call  upon  any  councillor 
to  form  a  committee  in  each  individual  division  to  decide 
upon  questions  of  policy  and  expenditures  in  connection 
with  road  work,  the  decision  of  which  committee  is  binding 
upon  the  councillor. 

A  worse  case  even  is  the  boundary  between  two 
municipalities,  where  often  the  settlers  in  one  munici- 
pality can  hardly  reach  the  market  town,  if  the  market 
road  is  situated  on  the  boundary  between  the  two  munici- 
palities and  is  under  the  supervision  of  the  other  munici- 
pality, the  ratepayers  of  which  do  not  use  it  at  all. 

I  pointed  out  already  that  unfortunately  sometimes 
the  councillor  in  deciding  upon  his  road  work  is  governed 
by  anything  but  altruistic  motives.  I  can  however  men- 
tion one  instance  where  it  was  the  custom  of  the 
councillor  to  call  annually  a  meeting  of  his  divisional 
ratepayers  and  let  them  decide  on  a  road  program,  which 
he  tried  to  execute  to  his  best  ability  with  the  means 
at  his  disposition. 

Let  us  turn  now  from  mistakes  in  road  policy  in  the 
present  form  of  administration  of  rural  roads  to 
engineering  errors  made  in  this  connection.  H.  R. 
Mackenzie  very  ably  showed  in  a  preceeding  paper  the 
necessity  for  engineering  supervision  in  this  connection. 
May  I  be  permitted  to  add  a  few  examples  picked  at  ran- 
dom, even  the  work  of  a  common  road  grading  machine 
requires  some  knowledge  and  judgement,  especially  as 
to  the  necessary  width  of  road.  An  instance  came  to  my 
notice  where  a  councillor  personally  operated  the  grader 
over  several  miles  of  mainroad,  spending  considerable  time 
going  up  and  down.  Fortunately  the  road  allowance  is 
only  66  feet  wide,  so  that  his  activity  had  to  reach  a  limit. 
He  made  a  regular  boulevard  without  crown  and  in 
very  poor  shape,  at  double  the  expense  necessary. 

Running  the  grader  continuously  through  cuts  and 
over-fills,  as  it  is  sometimes  done,  creates  a  grave  danger 
to  the  surface  of  the  fill.  The  cut  ditch  is  being  continued 
unto  the  fill,  instead  of  being  turned  off  at  the  mouth  of 
the  cut.  This  means  that  the  water,  accumulated  in  the 
cut,  is  being  drained  right  unto  the  fill.  Mostly  however 
the  cut  ditch  is  conspicuous  through  its  absence,  creating 
as  much  danger  as  in  the  former  case. 

Why  should  a  councillor,  who  might  be  a  very  success- 
ful farmer,  have  to  decide  on  engineering  questions  for 
which  a  special  training  is  required.  Naturally  errors 
involving  the  loss  of  considerable  money  will  often  occur. 

I  would  call  your  attention  to  sketch  No.  2. 
depicting  a  section  on  a  creek  crossing  east  of 
Regina.  The  fill  on  the  upper  side  was  about  ten  feet, 
on  the  lower  side  about  18  feet.  A  36"  pipe  about 
24  feet  long  was  stuck  through  the  fill  as  indicated.  What 
happened  last  spring  ?    Half  of  the  fill  washed  out  with 


12 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


the  spring  freshet  and  when  inspected  by  the  writer  the 
damage  to  the  road  bed  had  been  repaired,  but  a  large  hole 
had  been  created  at  the  foot  of  the  lower  slope.  A  36" 
stream  of  water  dropping  about  8  feet  has  naturally  some 
force.  What  remedy  did  the  councillor  suggest?  He 
reckoned  that  by  placing  another  36"  pipe  of  the  same 
length  a£  the  same  elevation,  he  should  be  able  to  improve 
conditions.  What  would  have  happened  ?  Two  36" 
streams  dropping  without  an  apron  straight  down  would 
have  at  least  doubled  the  cavity  at  the  lower  end,  besides 
still  creating  a  considerable  head  of  water  in  the  spring. 
From  information  gathered  I  judged  that  about  45  sq. 
feet  of  area  were  required  to  carry  the  spring  flow,  while 
provision  would  have  been  made  for  only  14  sq.  feet. 
Another  washout  with  a  likely  damage  to  the  pipes 
would  have  occurred  and  the  hole  at  the  bottom  would 
have  gained  such  dimensions,  that  the  whole  crossing 
might  have  had  to  be  shifted.  Fortunately  I  persuaded 
the  councillor  to  desist  from  placing  the  additional  pipe 
and  after  taking  out  the  pipe  he  had  in  at  present,  we 
constructed  a  small  wooden  bridge,  about  10  feet  wide 
and  6  feet  high,   leaving  enough  room  inside  of  this 


structure  for  a  permanent  concrete  culvert  of  the  necessary- 
water  carrying  capacity. 

In  my  sketch  No.  3  I  show  a  piece  of  an  east-west 
road  allowance  which  a  coulee  crosses  twice  in 
about  600  feet.  What  had  been  the  solution  in  this 
case  ?  Two  36"  pipes  had  been  placed  at  each  crossing, 
necessitating  an  outlay  of  nearly  700  dollars.  The  whole 
piece  of  road  allowance  was  low  and  had  been  filled  about 
4  feet  high,  the  material  being  taken  from  the  west  end. 
What  should  have  been  done?  The  coulee  should  have 
been  diverted  and  kept  on  the  south  side  of  the  road 
allowance  entirely.  The  proposed  diversion  would  not 
have  involved  any  additional  expenditures,  as  the  material 
from  same  would  have  made  the  adjacent  fill.  An 
objection  was  raised,  that  the  water  would  have  been  shut 
off  from  the  settler  north  of  the  road,  who  used  his  land 
for  pasture.  A  remedy  could  have  been  easily  provided 
by  placing  a  15"  pipe  at  the  bottom  end  of  the  stream 
(Point  A)  and  another  15"  pipe  about  3  feet  above  the 
lower  end  (Point  B),  thereby  creating  a  reservoir  for  the 
landowner  and  supplying  him  with  more  water,  than  he 
ever  had  before,  as  at  the  time  of  my  inspection  —  about 
July  —  the  creek  was  dry.  The  total  expenditure  for 
pipes  in  this  connection  should  have  been  about  120 
dollars,  as  against  700  dollars  actually  spent. 

Time  after  time  a  councillor  will  insist  on  opening 
up  a  market  road  on  the  road  allowance,  where  topography 


would  only  permit  the  construction  of  a  fairly  good  pack 
trail.  After  spending  considerable  time  and  money  on 
this  impossible  problem,  it  is  eventually  abandoned  and 
a  road  diversion  substituted.  But  on  the  other  hand 
there  are  numerous  instances,  where  the  road  should  have 
been  kept  on  the  road  allowance  but  a  diversion  made 
instead.  The  councillor  seems  to  dread  to  have  to  build 
a  grade  through  water,  no  matter  how  small  a  pool  he 
encounters.  The  rate-payer's  horseflesh  is  likely  un- 
willing to  tackle  this  moist  problem.  This  consideration 
of  having  to  do  the  work  by  day  labor  calls  often  for 
execution  against  all  proper  rules  of  earthwork  con- 
struction. As  already  pointed  out  by  me  at  out  Saskatoon 
meeting:  "As  long  as  we  do  not  abolish  day-labor,  as 
long  we  shall  cause  the  taxpayer's  money  to  be  wasted 
without  providing  roads."  A  large  number  of  munici- 
palities are  already  doing  contract  work,  though  in  most 
cases  the  work  is  laid  out  by  the  contractor  himself  and 
measured  by  the  councillor  with  results  far  from  correct 
and  satsifactory. 


/r/vr,  ///  la*ot+S. 


Most  sins  are  however  committed  in  connection 
with  bridges  and  culverts.  It  is  nearly  criminal  how 
little  consideration  is  paid  to  the  required  size  of  the 
opening.  We  find  streams  in  which  originally  only  a  12" 
pipe  was  placed,  because  it  might  have  happened  to  have 
been  on  hand.  Let  the  next  man  take  care  of  it  is  often 
the  rule.  In  the  spring  after  that  a  48"  pipe  was  placed 
on  top  of  it,  the  year  after  another  large  pipe  was  put  in 
a  couple  of  hundred  feet  away  at  a  place  over  which 
the  spring  flow  had  gone,  because  as  very  often  happens 
the  fill  at  the  bridge  or  culvert  is  considerably  higher  than 
the  rest  of  the  grade.  Creek  diversions  or  corrections  are 
mostly  unknown.  No  matter  how  little  work  is  necessary 
to  straighten  a  run  so  as  to  bring  it  at  right  angles  to  the 
road  and  save  length  of  structure  and  damage  to  the  fill, 
invariably  the  culvert  or  bridge  are  placed  at  an  angle. 
Some  of  our  roadbuilders  got  so  used  to  this  way  of  placing 
pipes  or  boxes,  that  I  found  several  cases  where  pipes  in 
sloughs  had  been  placed  at  an  angle  without  any  reason 
whatsoever. 

For  structural  errors  let  me  call  your  attention 
to  the  simplest  possible  instance,  the  small  wooden 
box,    which    you    see   on    my    sketch    No.    4.      The 


JOURNAL   OF   THE   ENGINEERING   INSTITUTE   OF   CANADA 


13 


top  is  nearly  always  placed  at  right  angles  to  the  road. 
Taking  a  12"  plank  of  3"  stuff  (the  dimension  which 
should  be  recommended  for  this  class  of  work)  a  maximum 
width  of  only  6  inches  can  be  obtained  this  way.  Where 
an  increased  width  was  necessary,  the  roadbuilder  tried 
to  overcome  the  difficulty  by  nailing  strips  across  the  top. 
I  looked  at  a  newly  built  culvert  placed  about  two 
weeks  prior  to  my  inspection.  The  same  was  already 
half  full  of  earth  coming  in  naturally  through  the  large 
holes.  The  most  natural  solution  would  be  to  lay  the  top 
of  bottom  pieces  parallel  to  the  road,  enabling  the  use  of 
a  span  up  to  about  20  inches  without  any  bottom  support, 
besides  meaning  a  considerable  saving  in  maintenance, 
by  having  to  renew  only  the  few  short  pieces  generally 
worn  in  the  line  of  the  rut. 

But  when  it  comes  to  larger  culverts  and  bridges, 
it  is  certainly  astonishing  what  structures  a  lay-mind 
will  produce  in  this  connection.  Our  Highwgy  Depart- 
ment has  prepared  a  set  of  standard  plans,  covering  various 


Mass*  vj>»W>^tf^»^*««'^ 


yvr,i  ,Mj  Ab?<&™*#>~B~r*- 


4 


V, 
VBBZZm 


rpTj 


~M 


were  some  old  Cyclopean  walls,  if  I  had  not  been  assured 
that  they  were  built  in  our  generation.  One  type  of 
structure  we  should  recommend  however,  which  is  more 
permanent,  easily  built  and  maintained  if  properly 
designed  and  constructed,  that  is  culverts  and  small 
bridges  with  concrete  abutments  and  timber  deck,  which 
concrete  abutments  should  only  be  recommended  when 
there  is  no  sign  of  alkali  in  the  soil.  Any  carpenter 
can  make  the  necessary  forms  for  the  abutments.  In 
the  last  few  years  this  type  of  structure  is  gaining 
popularity,  but  again  the  layman  makes  gross  errors, 
mainly  putting  in  a  centre  supporting  pier,  when  his 
stringers  would  have  carried  the  entire  length  between 
abutments,  bedding  his  wooden  stringers  solid  in  the 
concrete,  keeping  his  abutments  straight,  never  thinking 
of  reinforcements,  not  providing  enough  foundation 
area,  etc.  I  saw  even  concrete  abutments  resting  on 
a  pile  of  fairly  large,  but  loose  boulders  over  two  feet 
high  above  the  ground. 

I  could  enlarge  upon  this  subject  ad  libitum,  but  think 
it  is  time  to  summarize  some  of  my  statements. 

Firstly:  The  executive  organization  of  our  rural 
municipalities  especially  as  far  as  the  road  planning, 
construction  and  maintenance  are  concerned  should  be 
placed  on  a  more  permanent  basis.  It  should  further  be 
more  centralized  than  the  divisional  work  is  at  present. 
The  rural  municipality  is  a  small  enough  unit ! 

Secondly :  Road  engineering  is  a  recognized  branch 
of  our  great  profession,  requiring  considerable  training 
and  education.  Why  let  the  ratepayer's  money  be 
wasted  by  amateur  attempts  at  road-building.  Make  it 
independent  of  local  petty  politics  and  put  it  in  the  hands 
of  an  engineer  Many  councillors  in  rural  municipalities 
agree  with  the  engineer  most  heartily  in  this  respect. 


openings  and  though  —  especially  their  plan  for  wooden 
bridges  —  is  not  entirely  above  criticism,  yet,  if  their 
standards  were  adhered  to,  some  useful  structures  might 
result.  The  necessity  for  mudsills,  the  importance  of 
obstructing  the  watercourse  as  little  as  possible,  the  fact 
that  wood  will  not  stick  together  by  mere  friction,  the 
building  of  the  structure  with  a  view  for  easy  inspection 
and  maintenance  are  nearly  always  overlooked.  I  could 
cite  numerous  examples  of  not  only  faulty  construction, 
but  of  actual  waste  of  monies  spent  for  this  purpose  by 
building  culverts  and  bridges  entirely  unfit  to  serve 
their  purpose  and  which  will  require  a  very  early  renewal, 
besides  calling  for  continuous  maintenance  expenditures. 
Even  the  lack  of  expert  inspection  of  bridges  and  culverts 
built  in  the  past  by  the  municipalities  or  the  government 
will  necessitate  early  renewals  where  a  comparatively 
small  sum  spent  at  present  might  prolong  the  life  of  the 
structure  considerably. 

Several  municipalities  have  experimented  in  the  past 
with  concrete  structures.  I  found  archculverts  the  gene- 
rous dimensions  of  which  would  have  made  me  think  they 


Thirdly :  Make  the  position  of  reeve  and  councillor 
more  attractive,  especially  in  reimbursing  them  more 
adequately  for  the  time  spent  on  their  public  duties,  of 
which  the  superintendence  of  the  road- work,  as  at  present, 
is  the  most  strenuous.  You  will  receive  more  cheerful 
attention  and  less  resignations. 

Fourthly:  Abolish  the  entirely  unsatisfactory  day- 
labor  system  by  substituting  contract  work 

In  conclusion  I  might  state,  that  it  was  my  aim  in 
this  paper  to  show  the  fallacy  of  our  present  system  in 
letting  the  rural  councils,  with  their  continuous  change  in 
policy  and  composed  mostly  of  lay  men  in  our  profession, 
handle  the  important  problem  of  providing  rural  roads. 
I  hope  that  our  road-committee  and  more  especially  our 
representative  on  the  road-committee  of  western  branches 
of  our  Institute  will  work  out  some  organization  in  this 
respect  to  be  embodied  in  our  Highway  Act. 

If  my  modest  contribution  has  furnished  even  one 
of  the  small  pebbles  of  the  future  foundation  of  this 
structure,  I  shall  be  more  than  satisfied  with  my  work  in 
this  connection. 


14 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING       INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Doubly  Reinforced  Beams 

By  E.  G.  W.  Montgomery,  A.M.E.I.C.,  Saskatchewan  Branch. 


There  is  at  present  no  simple  method  of  analysis 
by  which  the  requisite  section  of  a  doubly  reinforced 
concrete  beam  can  be  determined,  and  it  has  occurred  to 
the  writer  that  a  method  used  by  him  might  prove  of 
use  to  others. 

If  the  position  of  the  centre  of  compression  in  a 
concrete  section,  having  compression  reinforcement,  be 
known,  the  analysis  of  such  a  section  is  simple.  The 
obvious  thing  therefore  is  to  know  where  the  centre  of 
compression  falls. 

The  figure  shows  the  compression  area  of  a  beam 
having  steel  in  compression.  If  the  centre  of  gravity  of 
the  steel  be  placed  at  §  kd  above  the  neutral  axis,  the 
centre  of  compression  will  also  lie  at  that  height.  For 
the  height  of  the  Centre  of  Compression  above  the  N.A.  = 
b  (kd)3  +nSc  (2  kd)2 

3  3  _2^ 

3 

b(kd)2+nSc(2_kd) 
2  3 


kd 


,    b      . 

Sc  =pbd  -^ 

*                                   T 

N 

2 

I        " 

2 

kd 

T 

kd 

N.A 

By  thus  placing  the  compression  steel,  the  length  of 
the  couple  arm  is  the  same  as  for  beams  with  single 
reinforcement,  and  the  percentages  of  compression  and 
tension  reinforcement  are  easily  determined  for  any 
given  working  stresses. 

Consider  stresses  of  600  and  15,000  with  n  =  15. 
Ht.  of  section  above  N.A.  nfc  _  600  x  15  _  3 

Depth  of  section  below  N.A.  "     Is"    ~  15,000       =  ~5~ 
Distance  of  compression  steel  from  N.A.  _  2 
Distance  of  tension  steel  from  N.A.  ~  5 

Sc      *> 
.'.cr  =  f»   ty being  the  excess  steel  in  tension  required  to 

balance  the  steel  in  compression. 

The  percentage  value  of  St  (ordinary  tension 
reinforcement)  required  for  the  given  stresses  = 

kfc      3      600 

2fs 


_3_ 

~~  8  x30000 


.0075 


and  the  total  tension  reinforcement  required  viz., 

ST  =  St  +  Sti 
If  now  any  percentage  value,  say,  .0075,  be  assigned  toSc 
then 

Stj  %  =  \  Sc%  -  .003%;  and  ST%=  (.0075  +  .003)%  = 

.0105%. 

It  is  known,  and  will  appear  from  a  preceding  result, 


that,  k 

the  data  required, 


§and 


7 
j  =  q  and    as    this    completes    all 


B.M.  -STx  15000  x  j  d 


.0105  bdx  15000x-' d 

o 


d  =  0.0852  \/ 


B.M. 


This  determines  the  concrete  section  and  the  areas 
of  tension  and  compression  steel  required  are  obtained 
from  percentages  above  stated. 

The  reader  will  notice  that  the  values  fork,  j,  and  St 
are  the  same  as  for  beams  having  tension  reinforcement 
only;  while  the  value  for  Sj  varies  with  the  choice  of  a 
value  for  Sc  as  does  the  equation  to  d.  It  is  therefore, 
a  matter  of  current  practice  as  to  what  percentage  value 
shall  be  assigned  to  Sc  and  therefore  as  to  what  the 
equation  to  d  shall  be.  The  writer's  purpose  is  only  to 
show  how  simply,  percentage  values  and  an  equation  to 
d  (or  b)  can  be  obtained,  for  any  assigned  stresses. 

It  might  be  urged  against  this  method  that  it  sets 
the  compression  steel  too  low  in  the  section  and  is  there- 
fore extravagant.  Such  an  objection  would  be  debatable, 
but  it  can  be  met  by  showing  that  the  centre  of  compres- 
sion can  be  set  at  any  point  in  a  section  and  percentage 
values  and  an  equation  to  d  be  derived  therefor. 

The  figure  shows  the  compression  area  of  a  beam 
containing  steel. 


Sc  =pbd- 


rd, 


6 


^ 


X? 


N.A 

If  k  denotes  the  depth  of  concrete  in  compression,  and 
the  modular  ratio  is  assumed  to  be  15,  and  if  rdx  _  Jen4.t. 
to  centre  of  compression,  it  can  be  shown  that  k2  ='     " 


k-d 


3^-x  QOpdxCrdx 
k  (1-1) 


■di).  Then  if  dx  =  -^  k  and  rdi 


"16  k'  k2 


k(l- 


-15 

16 


x  90  pd  x  k_ 
16 


135  pd 
2 


For  any  given  stresses  k  (the  usual   kd)    is   known   in 
terms  of  d.    Thus  for  stresses  of  600  and  15000  in  concrete 

and  steel  respectively  k  =  5  d  .-.  ^  d  =  — ^ — 


/.  p  (percentage  value  of  Sc)  =  .0055;  like  value  for 
Sti  =  ?xgx.0055=  .0025/. percentage  value  for  ST  =  .0075 
+  .0025  =  .01. 
•     fi      5     3 


=  .883  and  d 


.0869  >/ 


B.M. 


In  conclusion  it  might  be  said  that  doubly  reinforced 
T  beams  can  be  as  simply  analysed  as  rectangular  beams. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


15 


THE  JOURNAL  OF 

THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE 

OF  CANADA 


Board  of  Management 

President 

H.  H.  VAUGHAN 

Vice-President 

J.  M.  R.   FAIRBAIRN 

Councillors 

ERNEST  BROWN  WALTER  J.  FRANCIS 

R.  A.  ROSS 
H.  R.  SAFFORD  ARTHUR  SURVEYER 

Editor  and  Manager 

FRASER  S.  KEITH 

Associate  Editors 

C.  M.  ARNOLD Calgary 

FREDERICK  B.  BROWN Montreal 

J.  B.  CHALLIES Ottawa 

A.  R.  CROOKSHANK St.  John 

A.  G.   DALZELL Vancouver 

J.  N.  deSTEIN Regina 

GEO.  L.GUY Winnipeg 

R.  J.  GIBB      Edmonton 

GEO.  HOGARTH Toronto 

J.  A.  BUTEAU Quebec 

J.  B.  HOLDCROFT Victoria 

K.  H.  SMITH Halifax 

H.  B.  DWIGHT Hamilton 

Vol.  II.  January  1919 


No.  1 


Jlineteen  2£unbreb  anb  Jlineteen  opens  a  neto 
pear  on  the  calenbar,  a  neto  epoch  in  tfjc  historp  of  the 
toorlb  anb  a  neto  hope  in  the  hearts  of  manfeinb.  Un 
this  neto  era  totoarbs  tohich  toe  look  fortoarb  toil!) 
confibence,  let  us  resolbe  that  as  members  of  a  great 
profession,  toe  toil!  bo  all  in  our  potoer  to  bring  the 
profession  to  its  rightful  exalteb  position. 

JHap  the  members  of  this  institute  enjop  buring 
tfje  coming  pear,  a  periob  of  blessing  greater  than  anp 
in  the  past,  toith  health,  happiness  anb  prosperitp  in 
full  measure. 


Annual  General  Meeting 

Remember  the  dates  of  the  Annual  General 
Meeting  and  the  General  Professional  Meeting.  On 
January  28th,  the  Annual  Meeting  will  be  held  in 
Montreal,  at  which  time  auditors  will  be  appointed 
and  scrutineers  named  to  count  the  ballots,  after 
which  adjournment  will  take  place  to  meet  at  the 
Chateau  Laurier,  Ottawa,  on  February  11th.  The 
General  Professional  Meeting  will  continue  February 
12th  and  13th. 

Canada's  Need 

Under  the  above  heading,  Julian  C.  Smith,  M.E.I.C., 
member  of  Council,  whose  established  position  places 
him  in  a  position  of  authority,  has  written  a 
symposium  of  the  situation  in  Canada  in  relation  to  re- 
quirements for  the  future.  After  speaking  of  the  heavy 
debt,  he  outlines  what  it  is  desirable  to  accomplish,  as 
follows : — 

1.  We  desire  that  all  the  industries  of  this  country 
as  nearly  as  may  be,  shall  operate  successfully,  and  that 
all  workers  in  Canada  shall  have  work  to  do,  and  proper 
recompense   therefor. 

2.  We  desire  to  accomplish  the  first  item  without 
increasing  the  burden  of  our  own  country,  and  passing 
along  a  greater  debt  to  our  successors. 

3.  In  order  to  accomplish  the  two  conditions  above, 
we  desire  that  the  taxation  levied  by  the  Dominion, 
Provincial  and  Municipal  Governments  shall  be  kept  to 
the  minimum  requirements,  and  yet  shall  be  sufficient  so 
that  proper  sinking  funds  may  be  established  to  the  end 
that  within  a  reasonable  time  the  debts  which  have 
accrued  may  be  substantially  reduced. 

4.  The  above  points  all  resolve  themselves  into  the 
problem  of  increasing  the  available  wealth  of  this  country 
as  rapidly  as  possible. 

Following  a  discussion  of  the  question  of  increasing 
wealth  by  economy,  he  states  that  the  most  important 
increase  of  wealth  is  by  means  of  agriculture  which 
should  be  increased  in  every  way  possible.  Mining  also 
should  be  developed  with  a  view  to  encouraging  the  pro- 
duction of  minerals  so  that  the  burden  of  mining  companies 
may  be  kept  within  reasonable  bounds. 

This  would  lead  to  an  increase  of  the  export  and  the 
sale  of  mineral  products.  The  policy  should  be  pursued 
and  the  encouragement  of  such  industries  as  that  of 
paper  and  pulp  and  the  development  of  water  power. 
In  connection  with  this  important  matter  Mr.  Smith  says: 

Canada  is  fortunate  in  possessing  a  large  number 
of  valuable  waterpowers.  It  is  unfortunate  in  possessing 
apparently  a  large  number  of  people  who  are  anxious 
to  prevent  the  development  of  these  waterpowers. 

Although  in  the  muck-raking  literature  of  the  last 
ten  years,  the  development  of  waterpowers  has  come  in 
for  an  undue  share  of  attention,  few  people  realize  that 
after  all  some  90  per  cent  of  the  total  amount  of  power 
utilized  on  the  continent  of  North  America  is  developed 
from  coal  by  means  of  steam  plants,  and  that  only  about 
10  per  cent  is  developed  from  waterpower. 


16 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


This  overwhelming  use  of  steam  power,  as  against 
waterpower,  is  due  altogether  to  the  economic  reason 
that  it  was  cheaper  to  put  in  the  steam  plants  and  operate 
them,  than  to  develop  waterpowers  under  the  conditions 
surrounding  the  development  of  these  waterpowers. 

Waterpowers  have  important  uses.  The  principal 
economic  use  of  waterpowers  to-day  is  to  serve  these  in- 
dustrial purposes  where  the  load  is  practically  continuous. 
Such  loads  include  the  grinding  of  wood  pulp,  the  operation 
of  large  industrial  plants  which  operate  continuously,  and 
principally  the  operation  of  electric  furnaces  where,  com- 
bined with  the  continuous  use  of  power,  is  to  be  had  a 
further  advantage  in  the  high  temperature  of  the  electric 
arc. 

Canada  is  similar  to  some  other  northern  countries, 
such  as  Norway,  in  having  waterpowers.  The  coal  which 
Canada  possesses  is  limited  and  located  in  the  extreme 
East  and  West  of  the  country,  so  that  the  expense  of 
getting  the  coal  is  now,  and  probably  will  be  higher  than  in 
countries  like  England  and  the  United  States.  It  is  there- 
fore essential  that  the  waterpowers  be  utilized  to  the 
maximum  extent  possible,  so  as  to  decrease  the  amount 
of  coal  which  is  purchased  from  abroad.  By  using  one 
of  our  own  resources  instead  of  buying  the  material 
outside  the  country,  a  distinct  economic  gain  accrues, 
always  provided  that  the  expenditure  for  the  waterpower 
itself,  the  method  of  development  etc.,  are  undertaken  and 
carried  through  in  such  a  fashion  that  there  really  be  a 
saving  by  its  operation. 

The  total  amount  of  energy  used  for  lighting  purposes, 
and  for  the  small  user,  that  is  the  home  user  or  the  minor 
factory,  does  not  exceed  25  per  cent  of  the  total  energy 
developed  for  electric  power  purposes.  The  other  75  per 
cent  is  used  for  industrial  purposes  by  a  relatively  small 
number  of  consumers,  namely  —  the  capitalists  who  have 
been  held  in  such  scorn. 

The  Dominion  of  Canada,  and  particularly  the 
Province  of  Quebec,  has  a  great  opportunity  in  the  next 
few  years  of  establishing  a  vast  series  of  waterpower 
developments.  Such  developments  will  lead  to  the 
investment  of  large  amounts  of  money,  the  employment 
of  many  men  during  the  construction  period,  and  the  esta- 
blishment of  huge  industries  to  use  the  electric  power 
when  developed. 

With  the  creation  of  these  industries  will  come  the 
ability  to  export  from  this  country  the  products  made  with 
electric  power;  and  we  will  thus  be  turning  into  money 
natural  resources  which  are  now  being  wasted,  and 
bringing  that  money  back  into  this  country  to  add  to  our 
wealth. 

From  this  brief  summary  of  the  conditions  which  are 
going  to  face  us,  it  seems  obvious  that  those  natural 
resources  which  exist  in  this  country  should  not  be  kept 
for  our  distant  successors.  We  will  find  the  natural 
conditions  such,  that  however  great  may  be  our  haste, 
the  development  of  our  resources  must  take  much  time, 
so  that  we  need  not  worry  over  their  too  rapid  exhaustions. 

We  have  in  Canada  the  best  sources  of  wealth  in 
the  shipping  of  our  agricultural  products,  our  mining 
products,  and  the  possibility  of  obtaining  products  from 
our  waterpowers.  We  are  rich  in  potential  things,  and 
we   must  convert   these  potentialities  into  actualities. 


A  policy  of  expansion  and  development  of  such  resources 
must  be  carried  out,  and  it  must  be  recognized  that  in 
order  to  carry  out  such  a  policy,  the  promoters  of  the 
desired  enterprises  must  be  granted  proper  compensation 
for  their  efforts.  The  cry  for  conservation  of  our 
resources  which  one  has  heard  so  much  for  the  last  few 
years,  should  be  toned  down,  until  it  means  for  the 
greatest  benefit  of  Canada,  an  immediate  development  of 
all  of  our  available  resources  so  that  we  can  become  more 
powerful,  more  wealthy  and  pay  the  debts  we  have 
incurred. 

Canada's  Maps  Catalogued 

Engineers  will  learn  with  interest  that  a  catalogue 
of  maps  has  been  published  by  the  Geographic  Board 
of  Canada  by  which  it  is  possible  to  tell  at  a  glance 
whether  a  certain  area  of  the  Dominion  has  been  mapped, 
what  the  maps  of  this  area  are  and  by  whom  published. 

A  map  is  the  representation  of  surveys;  usually,  it 
originates  in  a  survey  department.  The  survey  may  be 
an  elaborate  topographical  survey  or  a  more  or  less 
superficial  one;  hence  there  are  maps  of  many  different 
kinds. 

In  Great  Britain,  a  detailed  topographical  survey  of 
the  whole  country  has  been  executed  by  one  organization, 
the  Ordnance  Survey.  The  results  are  published  in  a 
few  series  of  maps,  each  series  on  a  suitable  scale.  It  is 
a  simple  matter  to  select  any  sheets  of  a  series  that  may 
be  required  for  any  particular  purpose;  these  sheets  give 
all  the  information  that  can  be  looked  for  in  a  topogra- 
phical map,  and  so  there  is  no  need  to  search  elsewhere 
for  anything  better.  The  same  work  is  carried  out  in 
France  by  the  Service  Geographique  de  l'Armee,  an 
organization  corresponding  to  the  Ordnance  Survey  of 
Great  Britain.  Italy,  Austria,  Germany  and  other 
European  countries  have  similar  organizations  and  publish 
regular  series  of  topographical  maps. 

A  small  beginning  has  been  made  in  Canada  but  only 
a  few  topographical  sheets  have  been  issued  and  they 
include  but  a  very  small  portion  of  the  Dominion.  With 
this  exception,  the  maps  available,  where  there  are  any, 
are  more  or  less  rudimentary.  For  the  outlying  regions, 
rough  exploratory  maps  are  the  only  ones  in  existence. 

Many  government  organizations  are  engaged  in 
mapping.  The  federal  services  who  are  executing  surveys 
for  that  purpose  are  the  Geological  Survey,  the  Topogra- 
phical Surveys  (Surveyor  General's),  the  Hydrographic 
Survey  and  the  Military  Survey.  The  Geological  Survey 
has  the  greatest  number  of  maps  to  its  credit ;  our  know- 
ledge of  the  geography  of  the  outlying  portions  of  the 
Dominion  is  almost  entirely  due  to  its  explorers.  The 
Surveyor  General  comes  next;  the  sectional  maps  issued 
by  his  office  cover  the  western  provinces  with  the  exception 
of  British  Columbia,  and  his  publications  include  many 
topographical  and  other  maps.  Charts  of  the  sea  coasts 
and  inland  navigable  waters  are  issued  by  the  Hydro- 
grapher.  The  Military  Survey  is  a  topographical  survey; 
some  sheets  in  Ontario  and  Quebec  have  been  completed. 

The  lands  and  mines  departments  of  the  several 
provinces  are  also  making  surveys  and  issuing  maps  The 
British  Admiralty,  the  U.S.  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey, 
the  U.S.  Hydrographic  Office,  the  U.S.  Lake  Survey,  the 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


17 


French  Service  Hydrographique,  are  publishing  charts 
which  include  parts  of  Canada.  Other  maps  of  Canada 
are  found  in  the  bulletins  or  journals  of  geographical 
societies  and  in  books  of  travel  and  exploration. 

After  their  publication  by  the  survey  organizations, 
the  maps  are  frequently  copied,  re-arranged,  compiled, 
or  put  in  a  different  shape,  by  other  services  or  editors 
of  geographical  publications.  Some  of  these  compilations 
may  be  the  work  of  persons  unskilled  in  surveying  and 
may  actually  be  misleading. 

Among  such  a  multiplicity  of  maps  and  variety  of 
origin,  it  was  somewhat  difficult  for  anyone  but  an  expert 
to  ascertain  what  maps  of  any  particular  region  or  locality 
had  been  published,  and  where  they  could  be  obtained. 
This  difficulty  is  removed  by  the  "  Catalogue  of  the 
Maps  in  the  Collection  of  the  Geographic  Board." 

The  nature  of  the  work  of  the  Geographic  Board 
requires  as  large  and  comprehensive  a  collection  of  maps 
of  Canada  as  can  be  obtained.  The  collection,  which 
on  the  1st  January,  1918,  consisted  of  1258  maps,  may  be 
considered  as  fairly  complete.  With  few  exceptions,  it 
includes  all  the  important  maps  issued  during  the  last 
fifty  years  and  many  earlier  ones.  Generally,  plans  on 
a  scale  greater  than  one  mile  to  the  inch  have  been  left 
out  but  a  few  were  included  for  special  reasons. 

A  graphical  index  of  eleven  sheets  accompanies  the 
list  of  maps.  The  outlines  of  each  map  are  shown  in 
blue  on  the  index  sheet,  the  catalogue  number  of  the 
map  being  inserted  in  the  upper  right  hand  corner. 

The  catalogue  is  divided  into  five  parts,  the  first 
one,  "  Dominion,"  containing  all  maps  of  more  than 
400  miles  in  length  or  breadth;  these  are  shown  on  sheet 
No.  1  of  the  index.  The  other  parts  are  Maritime 
Provinces, —  Quebec,  Ontario,  Manitoba,  Saskatchewan, 
Alberta  and  the  Northwest  Territories, —  British  Columbia 
and  Yukon.  Any  map  less  than  400  miles  in  extent  is 
outlined  on  the  index  sheet,  or  one  of  the  index  sheets  of 
the  province  in  which  the  greater  part  of  the  map  lies; 
generally  it  is  not  shown  on  the  sheet  of  the  adjoining 
province. 

Copies  of  the  Catalogue  can  be  obtained  from  the 
Secretary  of  the  Geographic  Board  of  Canada,  Royal 
Bank  Building,  Ottawa. 


New  Certificates 

Many  corporate  members  who  have  been  elected 
within  the  past  nine  months  have  been  wondering  why 
they  have  not  received  their  certificates  of  membership. 
The  delay  has  been  due  to  the  fact  that  a  new  certificate 
has  been  under  consideration  and  was  given  final  approval 
at  the  meeting  of  Council  on  December  17th.  It  is 
intended  that  the  certificates  will  be  prepared  as  soon  as 
possible  and  forwarded  to  those  who  have  been  elected 
since  the  change  of  the  name  has  been  effected. 

A  number  of  inquiries  have  been  received  regarding 
changing  the  old  certificate,  and  this  question  will  rest 
entirely  with  the  members.  All  who  desire,  may  receive 
one  of  the  new  certificates  by  paying  the  regular  rate. 


Institute  Fraternity 

On  December  4th,  a  letter  was  forwarded  by  the 
Council  of  The  Institute  to  the  Council  of  the  American 
Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  which  is  reproduced  below 
and  a  similar  letter  to  the  Councils  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,  American  Institute  of 
Mining  Engineers  and  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers 
of  Great  Britain.  As  the  American  Society  of  Mechanical 
Engineers  was  holding  its  Annual  Meeting  at  that  time, 
a  telegram  of  good  will  was  forwarded  which  was  read 
at  one  of  the  sessions  and  received  with  enthusiasm.  The 
letters  in  question  were  as  follows : 

Gentlemen: — 

Taking  advantage  of  the  occasion  offered  by  the  signing  of  the 
armistice  terms  imposed  by  the  Allies  and  the  United  States,  we  desire 
to  extend  to  the  Council  and  Members  of  the  American  Society  of  Civil 
Engineers,  our  cordial  greetings  of  felicitation  and  good  will. 

It  is  with  unusual  satisfaction  that  we  find  ourselves  banded 
together  in  having  helped  to  achieve  a  common  purpose.  Members  of 
our  respective  organizations  have  played  no  small  part  in  the  world 
events,  which,  we  believe,  should  lead  to  a  greater  recognition  of  the 
part  the  engineer  plays  in  the  world's  development. 

Assuring  you  of  our  highest  regard  and  cordial  good  will  and 
expressing  the  hope  that  in  our  common  aim  to  work  for  the  elevation 
of  the  engineering  profession  we  may  be  drawn  closer  together  in  our 
mutual  endeavours. 

On  behalf  of  the  Council  of 

The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada, 
Yours  faithfully, 

Fraser  S.  Keith, 

Secretary. 

Replies  to  this  letter  show  how  cordial  is  the  feeling 
which  exists  between  ourselves  and  our  sister  engineering 
societies  in  the  United  States.  Quite  recently  the  question 
has  come  up  of  closer  co-operation  between  the  two 
branches  of  the  American  societies,  which  have  been 
established  in  Canada  and  ourselves,  leading  to  affiliation 
or  amalgamation,  which  has  been  discussed  but  as  there 
is  nothing  in  our  By-Laws  which  will  enable  us  to  admit 
corporate  members,  except  inasmuch  as  the  individual 
is  qualified,  it  is  not  possible  to  adopt  such  a  procedure. 
In  the  new  By-Laws  the  Branches  have  power  to  establish 
sections  representing  the  main  divisions  of  engineering 
and  through  these  sections  a  member  interested  in  any 
particular  line  may  receive  the  greatest  benefit.  The 
suggestion  has  been  received  that  members  of  other 
engineering  societies  in  good  standing  be  admitted  with 
a  lower  entrance  fee. 

The  Presidents  and  Secretaries  of  all  our  sister 
societies  have  been  invited  to  attend  our  Annual  General 
Meeting  and  it  is  expected  that  several  will  accept  the 
invitation.  Already  the  President  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,  Comfort  A.  Adams, 
has  intimated  that  he  will  be  in  attendance,  and  also 
Alfred  D.  Flinn,  Secretary  of  the  Engineering  Council. 
The  attendance  of  men  prominent  in  other  societies  will 
give  an  opportunity  of  discussing  matters  of  mutual 
interest. 

The  following  letter  has  been  received  from  the  Sec- 
retary of  the  American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers: 

Dear  Sir: — 

Your  communication  of  December  4th  was  presented  to  the 
Board  of  Directors  of  this  Institute  at  a  meeting  held  in  Philadelphia, 
December  13th. 


18 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


The  Board  directed  me  to  convey  to  you  its  sincere  appreciation 
of  the  sentiments  expressed  in  your  letter,  which  are  heartily  recip- 
rocated, and  to  advise  you  that  this  Institute  is  in  full  accord  with 
your  organization  in  the  belief  that  the  coming  economic,  social,  and 
technical  developments  impose  obligations  upon  and  afford  opportu- 
nities to  the  engineering  profession  which  demand  the  close  co-operation 
of  all  engineering  societies. 

This  Institute  will  be  glad  at  all  times  to  work  with  your  organiza- 
tion of  our  brother  engineers  in  Canada  in  the  interests  of  the  entire 
profession. 

Very  truly  yours, 

F.  L.  Hutchinson,  Secretary. 

American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers. 

Branches  Memorialize  Government 

On  December  18th  a  deputation  representing  the 
Ottawa,  Hamilton  and  Toronto  Branches,  in  all  fifteen 
members  of  The  Institute,  presented  a  memorial  to  the 
Honourable  the  Provincial  Secretary  of  Ontario,  which 
included  the  recommendations  made  by  the  Committee 
on  Sewage  Disposal  of  the  Toronto  Branch  consisting 
of  Professor  Peter  Gillespie,  Fred  A.  Dallyn,  William  R. 
Worthington,  Irving  H.  Nevitt  and  Willis  Chipman. 
The  report  forwarded  by  the  chairman  of  the  Committee, 
Willis  Chipman,  to  Geo.  Hogarth,  Secretary  of  the  Toronto 
Branch,  and  which  constituted  the  memorial  to  the 
Provincial  Secretary,  is  as  follows: 

Dear  Sir: — 

The  committee  appointed  by  the  Toronto  Branch  re  Sewage 
Disposal  has  held  five  meetings  since  September  last,  at  which  many 
questions  connected  with  Sewage  Disposal  were  discussed  and 
considered,  and  at  a  final  meeting  held  on  the  14th  instant,  it  was 
decided  to  submit  the  following  recommendations  to  the  Branch  for 
submission  to  the  Parent  Institute: — ■ 

1.  That  the  Provincial  Public  Health  Acts  of  the  different 
provinces  should  provide  that  two  or  more  members  of  each  Provincial 
Board  of  Health  shall  be  engineers  and  corporate  members  of  The 
Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

2.  That  the  Provincial  Public  Health  Acts  should  provide  that 
all  reports,  plans,  etc.,  respecting  schemes  for  sanitation  and  sewage 
disposal  required  to  be  filed  by  Provincial  authorities,  shall  be  prepared, 
signed  and  submitted  by  an  engineer,  a  corporate  member  of  The 
Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

3.  That  Dominion  Legislation  should  be  enacted  respecting  the 
pollution  of  International  and  Inter-Provincial  Waters,  and  that 
Provincial  Legislation  in  the  different  Provinces  respecting  stream 
pollution  be  made  uniform  as  far  as  practicable. 

4.  That  the  Public  Health  Acts  of  each  Province  should  give  to 
the  Provincial  Boards  of  Health  some  measure  of  control  over  the 
operation  of  municipal  water  purification  plants  and  sewage  disposal 
works. 

5.  That  all  Provincial  Public  Health  Acts  should  stipulate  that 
no  municipality  can  submit  to  the  votes  of  the  electors  any  by-law 
providing  for  the  raising  of  money  for  the  construction,  alteration  or 
extension  of  any  water  works  system  or  water  purification  works,  or 
of  any  sewage  system  or  sewage  disposal  works,  without  having  had 
the  approval  of  the  Provincial  Board  of  Health,  based  on  plans,  reports 
and  designs  submitted  by  engineers. 

6.  That  the  keeping  of  accurate  and  up-to-date  records  of  all 
extensions  and  services  added  to  sewer  and  waterworks  systems,  should 
be  required  of  municipalities  by  the  Provincial  Board  of  Health. 
Where  municipalities  have  no  system  of  their  own  for  keeping  such 
records  the  adoption  of  a  method  endorsed  by  the  Provincial  Board 
might  be  insisted  upon. 

7.  That  where  Provincial  Boards  of  Health  maintain  laboratories 
for  the  investigation  of  problems  in  public  sanitation,  such  laboratories 
might,  under  reasonable  conditions,  and  with  much  advantage  to  the 
country,  the  engineering  profession  and  the  Boards  themselves,  be 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  this  Institute  and  through  it,  of  its  members  who 
have  problems  in  municipal  sanitation  for  which  they  desire  solutions 

The  Provincial  Secretary  promised  full  consideration 
by  his  colleagues  of  the  memorial  as  presented  by  the 


Ontario  Branches.  The  action  of  the  Branches  in  this 
connection  is  worthy  of  the  highest  praise  as  it  is  by  such 
public  spirited  action  that  a  better  appreciation  of  the 
profession  is  to  be  obtained. 

Salaries  of  Engineers 

Correspondence  on  this  subject,  published  in  this 
and  previous  issues  of  The  Journal,  shows  how  acute  is 
the  feeling  respecting  remuneration  being  received  by 
engineers,  particularly  those  employed  in  the  Government 
service.  In  many  cases  salaries  received  by  men  doing 
responsible  engineering  work  have  been  distressingly 
low,  so  much  so  in  some  cases,  as  to  be  an  affront  to  the 
profession. 

For  many  years  members  of  our  profession,  of  whom 
C.  E.  W.  Dodwell,  M.E.I.C,  of  Halifax,  is  noteworthy, 
have  made  earnest  efforts  to  the  end  that  engineers  in 
the  Government  service  should  receive  recognition  as 
such,  and  not  as  clerks,  the  accomplishment  of  which 
would  not  only  give  a  standing  to  the  engineer  in  his 
technical  capacity,  but  would  also  increase  his  monetary 
reward.  A  number  of  years  ago  a  bill  was  submitted  to 
the  then  Prime  Minister,  Sir  Wilfrid  Laurier,  by  a 
committee  of  this  organization,  and  the  promises  made  at 
that  time  led  members  of  The  Institute  to  believe  that 
an  Act  would  be  passed  placing  engineers  in  the 
Government  employment  on  a  proper  basis.  Shortly 
after,  the  Government  experienced  difficulties  and  went 
out  of  power.  In  1917  the  question  was  revived  and  a 
strong  committee  of  men  in  the  civil  service  was  appointed 
to  go  into  the  subject  thoroughly  and  make  recommenda- 
tions which  would  raise  the  standard  of  the  engineer  in 
the  civil  service.  At  that  time  the  hearty  co-operation  of 
Council  was  promised  and  given.  However  a  change 
made  by  the  Government  in  appointing  a  Civil  Service 
Commission,  designed  to  remove  all  appointments  from  the 
realm  of  politics,  has  presented  a  further  opportunity 
for  the  engineer  to  receive  recognition.  A  strong 
committee  of  the  Council  has  been  appointed,  consisting 
of  W.  F.  Tye,  chairman,  President  H.  H.  Vaughan  and 
President-elect,  Lieut.-Col.  R.  W.  Leonard,  to  represent 
The  Institute  in  securing  more  adequate  recognition  and 
remuneration  from  the  Government  for  engineers.  This 
committee  has  made  an  appointment  with  the  Civil 
Service  Commission,  at  which  time  its  members  will,  no 
doubt,  prove  to  the  Commission  that  the  standard  of 
reward  for  the  technical  men  in  the  Government  service 
should  be  raised  by  a  very  considerable  amount.  In  meeting 
the  representatives  of  The  Institute  the  Commission  has 
shown  a  willingness  to  be  educated  in  this  connection, 
and  the  education  they  will  receive  from  the  committee 
will  work  to  the  advantage  of  every  engineer  employed 
in  the  Government. 

In  the  reclassification  that  will  take  place  shortly 
it  is  expected  that  a  very  substantial  increase  will  be 
accorded  to  engineers  in  the  Civil  Service. 

Legislation  Situation 

Nearly  every  branch  of  The  Institute  has  had  this 
important  subject  under  discussion  during  the  past  two 
months.  A  resume  of  the  situation  throughout  Canada 
from  the  viewpoints  of  the  various  branches  will  be 
published  in  the  February  issue  of  The  Journal. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


19 


Programme  of  Meetings 

At  the  time  of  going  to  press  a  complete  programme 
of  the  Annual  Meeting  and  the  General  Professional 
Meeting  is  not  available.  Below  is  published  a  tentative  pro- 
gramme for  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  and  Thursday,  February 
11th,  12th  and  13th,  forwarded  by  the  Secretary  of  the 
Professional  Meeting  Committee,  G.  Blanchard  Dodge, 
M.E.I.C. 

Tuesday 


Morning,  10  a.m. 

Luncheon  and 

Addresses 


Afternoon, 

4  p.m. 
Evening 

Morning 


Luncheon  and 
Address 

Afternoon 


Evening 


Morning 


Luncheon  and 
short  address 


President  Vaughan,  presiding. 

Business  session. 

His  Excellency,  the  Duke  of  Devon- 
shire, Hon.  M.E.I.C. 

C.  A.  Adams,  President,  A.  I.E.E. 

A.  D.  Flinn,  Secretary,  United  En- 
gineering Council  on  International 
Engineering  Affiliation. 

Business  session. 

President's  Address  (invitations) 

Informal  dinner  and  smoker. 

Wednesday 

Unfinished  business  of  annual  meeting 

(if  any). 
"  Standards  in  Engineering,"  by  Capt. 

R.  J.  Durley,  M.E.I.C. 
'  'Soldiers  Re-establishment , "  by  Major 

Anthes. 
"The   Development   and  Future    of 

Aviation  in  Canada,"     by    M.  R. 

Riddell,  Chief  Engineer,  Canadian 

Aeroplanes  Ltd. 
Dr.    Ira    N.     Hollis,     representing 

American   Society   of   Mechanical 

Engineers. 
National       Highways      and     Good 

Roads,  by  J.  Duchastel,  M.E.I.C. 

Hon.  President,    Canadian    Good 

Roads  Association. 
Frazil,  by  R.  N.   Wilson,  M.E.I.C. 

Chief  Engineer,   Montreal   Light, 

Heat  &  Power  Company,  Ltd. 
Standard      Datum      Planes      in 

Canada,     by     W.    Bell    Dawson, 

M.E.I.C.,  Supt.    of  Tidal  Survey, 

Department  of  Naval  Service. 
Formal  gathering. 
Reception      by      President:    Ladies, 

Music,  Refreshments,  Dancing. 
Thursday 

(1)  Topical  discussion  on  the  Econ- 
omics of  Railway  Electrification, 
opened  by  John  Murphy,  M.E.I.C, 
Dept.  of  Railways  and  Canals,  and 
Railway  Commission. 

(2)  Mining  and  Metallurgy  of  Cobalt 
Silver  Ore,  by  Lt.-Col.  R.  W. 
Leonard,  M.E.I.C.  President, 
Coniagas  Mines. 

by  Hon.  F.  B.  Carvell,  Minister  of 
Public  Works,  to  be  followed  by  a 
visit  to  the  New  Parliament  Build- 
ings, Ladies. 


4.30  p.m.  Motion  Pictures,  by  B.  E.  Norrish, 

A.M.E.I.C. 
Luncheon — Tuesday  11.00  -  1.00  p.m.,  at  Chateau  Laurier* 

Complimentary  tickets  to  visiting  members. 
Informal  Dinner  and  Smoker — 

Tickets  $2.50,  to  be  obtained  on  registering. 
Luncheon — Wednesday  and   Thursday,   Feb.    12th  and 

13th,  1.00  p.m.,  at  Chateau  Laurier.    Tickets  $1.00 

to  be  obtained  on  registering. 
In  connection  with  the  arrangements  for  hotel 
accommodation  which  may  constitute  somewhat  of  a 
problem,  visiting  members  are  earnestly  requested  _  to 
make  their  own  arrangements,  concerning  which  mention 
was  made  in  the  December  Journal.  If  when  arranging 
for  reservations  a  copy  of  the  letter  is  also  forwarded  to 
G.  Blanchard  Dodge,  M.E.I.C,  Topographical  Surveys. 
Department  of  the  Interior,  Ottawa,  the  Reception 
Committee  will  assist  in  securing  reservations. 


REPORT  OF  COUNCIL  MEETINGS 


Special  Meeting 

A  special  meeting  of  the  Council  was  held  at  head- 
quarters on  Tuesday  evening,  December  3rd,  at  8.15  P.M., 
at  the  call  of  the  President,  to  discuss  an  urgent  request 
received  from  the  Saskatchewan  Branch,  that  approval 
be  given  for  the  submission  of  an  Act  to  the  Saskatchewan 
Legislature,  immediately. 

The  Secretary  presented  a  draft  just  received  from 
the  Saskatchewan  Branch  which  was  presumed  to  be 
similar  to  the  one  submitted  by  Council  to  the  Branch. 
It  was  found,  however,  to  contain  radical  points  of 
difference. 

The  minutes  of  the  meeting  of  a  special  committee 
of  The  Institute  and  the  Canadian  Mining  Institute  were 
read,  in  which  it  was  pointed  out  that  as  far  as  the  draft 
Act  regarding  legislation  published  in  the  November 
issue  of  The  Journal  was  concerned,  it  did  not  contain 
any  points  that  could  be  classed  as  objectionable  by  the 
Mining  Institute,  from  the  viewpoint  of  working  to  the 
disadvantage  of  its  members.  This  meeting  further 
recommended  that  legislation  should  have  the  careful 
consideration  and  approval  of  the  majority  of  the 
Canadian  engineers  before  being  enacted.  The  members 
of  the  Mining  Institute  would  recommend  to  their  Council 
that  legislation  be  opposed  until  it  had  more  mature 
consideration  but  that  the  Mining  Institute  would  co- 
operate with  The  Engineering  Institute  towards  securing 
legislation. 

After  general  discussion  it  was  decided  that  Council 
had  no  power  to  authorize  the  Saskatchewan  Branch  to 
proceed  to  secure  legislation,  as  such  an  important  matter 
should  be  laid  before  the  entire  membership.  The 
Secretary  was  instructed  to  send  a  nightlettergram  to  the 
Saskatchewan  Branch  as  follows: — 

"  At  a  special  meeting  of  Council  held  at  your 
request  I  was  instructed  to  advise  the  Saskatchewan 
Branch  that  it  does  not  lie  within  the  power  of  the 
Council  to  approve  an  act  for  submission  to  a 
legislature  without  the  mandate  of  the  membership 
at  large.  My  communication  of  October  second 
was  intended  to  convey  to  your  Branch  that  Council 


20 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


is  sympathetic  towards  the  endeavours  of  your 
Branch  to  draft  suitable  legislation  and  would  assist 
in  framing  and  submitting  a  suitable  Act  for  the 
consideration  of  the  membership.  The  action  of 
other  Branches  in  submitting  to  the  Council  drafts 
of  proposed  Acts  and  discussion  of  the  general 
question  subsequent  to  the  submission  of  your 
first  draft,  strengthen  the  feeling  of  Council  that 
action  should  be  deferred  until  all  the  Branches  have 
had  an  opportunity  of  expressing  their  views." 

Regular  Monthly  Meeting 

The  regular  monthly  meeting  of  the  Council  was  held 
at  headquarters  on  Tuesday,  December  17th,  at  8.15  P.M. 

When  the  minutes  of  the  previous  meeting  had  been 
approved  the  report  of  the  Executive  Committee  was 
presented  and  their  recommendations  approved  as  follows : 

Co-operation  for  National  Reconstruction:  It  was 
decided,  in  view  of  the  letters  received  from  the  Toronto 
and  Ottawa  Branches,  that  meetings  be  held  by  all  the 
Branches  to  obtain  expression  of  opinions  and  suggestions 
from  Branch  members  in  regard  to  the  co-operation  of 
The  Institute  for  national  reconstruction. 

Legislation:  Correspondence  from  various  Branches, 
giving  their  opinions  regarding  legislation  was  noted,  it 
being  intended,  when  the  view  points  of  all  the  Branches 
are  received  to  publish  same  in  The  Journal. 

Co-operation  with  the  Canadian  Branches  of  the  A.I.E.E. 
and  the  A.S.M.E.:  A  letter  was  received  from  Professor 
Peter  Gillespie  of  Toronto,  suggesting  co-operation  with 
the  American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers  and  the 
American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers.  A  lengthy 
discussion  took  place  and  it  was  decided  that  there  was 
no  way  in  which  the  Toronto  Branch  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers  or  the  Ontario  Branch 
of  the  American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers  could 
be  affiliated.  A  committee,  consisting  of  Walter  J. 
Francis,  Julian  C.  Smith,  President  H.  H.  Vaughan  and 
the  Secretary  was  appointed  to  meet  Mr.  Alfred  D.  Flinn, 
when  in  Ottawa  in  attendance  at  the  Annual  General 
Meeting,  to  discuss  the  question  of  The  Institute  joining 
the  Engineering  Council,  at  which  time  the  question  of 
branches  in  Canada  of  the  United  States  societies  could 
be  discussed.  The  Secretary  was  instructed  to  commu- 
nicate with  Mr.  Flinn  in  this  connection. 

Annual  General  Meeting:  The  following  replies  to 
invitations  to  attend  the  Annual  General  Meeting  were 
presented;  C.  A.  Adams,  President,  American  Institute 
of  Electrical  Engineers,  F.  L.  Hutchinson,  Secretary, 
American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,  Bradley 
Stoughton,  Secretary,  American  Institute  of  Mining 
Engineers,  A.  D.  Gresham,  for  President,  American 
Institute  of  Mining  Engineers,  D.  B.  Dowling,  President, 
Canadian  Mining  Institute,  H.  Mortimer-Lamb,  Secretary, 
Canadian  Mining  Institute,  C.  T.  Main,  President, 
American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers. 

Annual  Meeting,  A.S.M.E.:  Note  was  made  of 
the  telegram  sent  to  the  American  Society  of  Mechanical 
Engineers  on  the  occasion  of  their  Annual  Meeting  as 
follows:      '  The  President  and  Council  of  The  Engineering 


Institute  of  Canada  extend  to  the  Council  and  members 
of  the  American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers  cordial 
good  wishes  for  the  success  of  your  Annual  Meeting  and 
express  the  hope  that  with  the  close  of  the  world  war  we 
may  be  drawn  in  closer  co-operation  in  our  mutual 
endeavours  for  the  welfare  of  the  profession  "  and  of 
the  cordial  reply  received  from  Secretary  Rice. 

Joint  Committee  of  Technical  Organizations:  The 
consideration  of  Council  was  asked  in  connection  with  a 
suggestion  received,  that  the  Joint  Committee  of  Technical 
Organizations  was  not  worthy  of  further  support  or 
recognition.  It  was  resolved  that  the  principle  of 
scattering  the  energies  of  the  members  of  the  branches 
was  detrimental  to  their  strength,  and,  consequently, 
further  recognition  or  support  of  the  Joint  Committee  of 
Technical  Organizations  was  withdrawn.  The  Secretary 
was  instructed  to  so  advise  the  branches. 

Professional  Meeting,  Ottawa:  The  minutes  of  a 
meeting  of  the  Special  Professional  Meeting  Committee 
of  the  Ottawa  Branch  were  received  and  noted. 

Resolution  of  the  Quebec  Branch:  A  resolution 
received  from  the  Quebec  Branch  regarding  representation 
of  the  engineering  profession  on  commissions  was  received 
and  a  copy  passed  on  to  Mr.  Tye,  chairman  of  a  special 
committee  appointed  to  look  into  and  recommend  regard- 
ing the  Civil  Service  Commission. 

New  Certificates:  Approval  was  given  to  the  revised 
certificate  which  had  been  previously  submitted  to 
Council  and  in  which  Council  desired  a  slight  alteration. 
It  was  further  confirmed  that  the  title  of  the  certificate 
be  the  form  used  on  the  official  stationery  of  The  Institute, 
and  the  Secretary  was  instructed  to  publish  a  cut  of  the 
certificate  in  The  Journal  and  have  new  certificates 
prepared,  the  Committee  to  choose  the  paper  upon  which 
they  shall  be  printed.  As  to  new  certificates,  it  was 
decided  that  they  should  be  issued  to  any  members  who 
desired  them. 

Journal  Postal  Privileges:  It  was  decided,  in  view 
of  a  report  made  by  the  Secretary  in  regard  to  his  inter- 
view with  the  Post  Office  authorities,  including  Dr.  R.  M. 
Coulter,  Deputy  Post  Master  General,  that  a  letter  be 
sent  to  the  members  of  The  Institute  requesting 
subscriptions  to  The  Journal.  The  President  and  the 
Secretary  were  appointed  a  Committee  to  draft  the  letter. 

Branch  By-Laws:  The  By-Laws  drawn  up  by  the 
Special  Committee  of  the  Council  and  a  Committee  of 
the  Montreal  Branch,  were  submitted  and  the  Secretary 
was  instructed  to  send  a  copy  to  each  Branch  for  discussion 
and  approval. 

Co-operation  re  Civic  Development:  A  letter  from 
Frederick  Wright,  Editor  of  the  Canadian  Municipal 
Journal,  asking  the  co-operation  of  The  Institute  in  a 
movement  for  civic  development,  was  submitted.  Full 
approval  was  given  to  the  proposal  and  the  Secretary 
was  instructed  to  advise  Mr.  Wright  that  the  Council 
would  be  pleased  to  appoint  delegates  to  attend  the 
suggested  meeting. 

Classifications:  Classifications  were  made  for  a 
ballot  returnable  January  21st,  1919. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


21 


A  ballot  was  canvassed  and  the  following  elections 
and  transfers  effected : — 

Members 

Angus  Daniel  Campbell,  B.A.Sc,  M.E.  of  Cobalt, 
Ont.  Since  1911  mining  engineer  of  the  O'Brien  Mine. 
George  James  Jeffrey,  of  Vancouver,  B.  C.  (Since 
deceased).  William  Frederick  McLaren,  M.E.,  of 
Hamilton,  Ont.  With  the  Westinghouse  Company  since 
190L  and  since  1905  chief  draftsman  with  the  Canadian 
Westinghouse  Company.  Mr.  McLaren  has  seen  active 
service  at  the  front,  being  a  Captain  in  the  164th  Batt. 
C.E.F.,  during  1916  and  1917.  Walter  Taylor  Moodie, 
of  Winnipeg,  Man.  With  the  Canadian  Northern 
Railway  since  1908.  At  the  present  time  district 
engineer.  Harold  Allison  Russell,  of  Dartmouth,  N.S. 
Member  of  the  contracting  firm  Russell  &  McAulay. 
James  Alfred  Stairs,  of  Wayne,  Mich.  General 
superintendent,  ordnance  department,  Harroun  Motors 
Corporation,  Wayne,  Mich. 

Associate  Members 

Kenneth  Carling  Berney,  B.Sc,  of  Hamilton,  Ont. 
Electrical  engineer  for  Canadian  Westinghouse  Company 
since  1909.  Joseph  George  Cameron,  B.Sc,  of  Finch,  Ont. 
Since  1917  County  roads  superintendent  and  engineer  for 
the  Counties  of  Stormont,  Dundas  and  Glengarry. 
Walter  Francis  John  Cosser,  of  Schumacher,  Ont.  At 
the  present  time  mechanical  superintendent  in  charge  of 
plant  for  the  Mclntvre  Porcupine  Mines.  James  Simpson 
Galletly,  B.A.Sc,  of  Oshawa,  Ont.  Since  1912  in  charge 
of  parties  on  Dominion  Land  Surveys.  Harvey  Wilfred 
Harris,  B.Sc.  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  Engineer  for  Thomas 
Kelly  &  Sons,  general  contractors,  of  Winnipeg,  since 
1916.  Frederick  Innes  Ker,  B.Sc,  of  Montreal.  Since 
1912  chief  engineer  and  general  superintendent.  Cook 
Construction  Company.  Albert  Ernest  Kerr,  B.A.Sc, 
of  Hamilton,  Ont.  Electrical  draftsman,  Steel  Company 
of  Canada,  in  complete  charge  of  electrical  drafting. 
Albert  Levvy,  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  Managing  Director 
of  the  Levvy  Electrical  Company,  Limited,  Winnipeg. 
Donald  Lewis,  of  New  Glasgow,  N.S.  Since  1915  with 
the  Nova  Scotia  Steel  &  Coal  Company.  Since  1917  has 
occupied  the  position  of  chief  draftsman.  Edwin 
Markham,  B.C.E.,  of  Regina,  Sask.  Assistant  to 
Stewart  Young,  district  surveyor,  Highways  Department, 
Saskatchewan.  Emerson  Hibbert  Morse,  of  Norwood, 
Winnipeg,  Man.  Draftsman  with  the  GT.P.Ry., 
Winnipeg.  Christopher  Anthony  Newton,  of  Magnolia, 
Maryland.  At  the  present  time  progress  and  resident 
engineer  on  construction  of  water  works  for  the  United 
States  Government  chlorine  plant,  Edgewood  Arsenal, 
Maryland.  Roland  Foster  Palmer,  of  Winnipeg,  Man. 
Member  of  the  firm  of  Palmer  &  Hobson.  Francis 
William  Bertram  Scholefield,  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  With 
the  J.  McDiarmid  Company  Limited,  general  contractors, 
as  chief  engineer.  William  James  Stuart,  of  Vancouver, 
B.C.  At  the  present  time  on  active  service  as  lieutenant 
with  the  Third  Field  Company,  Royal  Engineers. 
Before  enlisting  he  was  resident  engineer  on  construction 
of    permanent    pavements    and    roadways,    Vancouver. 


Isaac  Joseph  Tait,  of  Montreal.  Associated  with  J.  T. 
Farmer  since  1917.  Previous  to  this  he  was  chief  engineer 
in  charge  of  mechanical  equipment  for  the  C.P.R. 

Associates 

William  McNeill,  of  Vancouver,  B.  C.  Since  1908 
assistant  general  manager  of  the  Western  Canada  Power 
Company.  Gerald  Steele  Roxburgh,  B.A.Sc,  of 
Winnipeg,  Man.  Since  1905  with  Fetherstonhaugh  & 
Company  as  Western  manager,  headquarters,  Winnipeg. 

Juniors 

Henry  Donald  Holland,  B.Sc,  of  Montreal,  superin- 
tendent of  construction  for  M.  J.  Stack,  contractor. 
Thomas  Earl  Gordon  Sissons,  of  Montreal.  Engineer  on 
construction  for  the  Abitibi  Power  &  Paper  Company, 
Iroquois  Falls,  Ont.  Hercules  Smart,  of  Ottawa,  Ont. 
American  Gauge  Production  representative,  Imperial 
Ministry  of  Munitions.  Albert  William  Swan,  B.A.Sc, 
of  Sherbrooke,  Que  Has  been  in  the  production 
department  of  Canadian  Ingersoll  -  Rand  Limited, 
Sherbrooke,  on  time-study  and  kindred  work  from  May 
1917  till  March  1918,  since  then  he  has  been  in  charge 
of  preparation  of  all  technical  publicity  for  the  company. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  Member 

William  Harvey  Carson,  C.E.,  of  Ottawa,  Ont.  Since 
1913  "  district  engineer  for  the  Province  of  Ontario, 
Department  of  Marine,  Ottawa.  Claude  Vernon  Johnson, 
of  Quebec,  Que.  Since  1914  engineer  in  charge  of 
construction  and  engineering  for  Joseph  Gosselin  Limited, 
General  Contractors  &  Engineers.  George  Douglas 
Mackie,  of  Moose  Jaw,  Sask.  (Chairman  of  the 
Saskatchewan  Branch,  and  Member  of  Council).  City 
Commissioner,  Moose  Jaw. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Junior  to  Associate  Member 

Seth  Wilson  Crowell,  B.A.,  of  Yarmouth,  N.S.  Town 
Engineer,  Yarmouth.  Harry  Wendell  Mahon,  B.Sc,  of 
Great  Village,  N.S.  Since  1917  with  the  C.C.H.A. 
Headquarters,  B.E.F.,  France.  Before  going  overseas 
was  assistant  engineer,  Water  Power  Branch, Department 
of  the  Interior,  Halifax.  Major  Alan  Bretell  McEwen, 
B.Sc,  M.C.,  of  Montreal.  At  the  present  time  principal 
assistant  to  R.  S.  &  W.  S.  Lea,  Montreal.  Major  McEwen 
served  with  the  C.E.F.,  from  1914  to  1918.  Peter  Scott, 
of  Glasgow,  Scotland.  Since  the  outbreak  of  the  War, 
senior  assistant  inspector  of  the  munitions  areas,  Glasgow. 
Previously,  with  the  C.P.R. ,  Eastern  Lines.  Briton  Oliver 
Smith,  B.Sc,  of  London,  Eng.,  formerly  of  Montreal.  At 
the  present  time  mechanical  engineer  with  Vickers 
Limited,  England. 

Transferred  from  Class  of  Student  to  Junior 

Captain  John  Frederick  Harkom,  M.C.,  of  Melbourne, 
Que.  Has  been  overseas  since  1914,  with  the  Royal 
Field  Artillery,  B.E.F.,  France,  in  command  of  the  57th 
Medium  Trench  Mortar  Batteries.  Joseph  Ovila  Rolland, 
C.E.,  Ch.E.,  of  Montreal.  At  the  present  time  chief 
analyst,  Canadian  Explosives  Limited,  Beloeil,  Que. 


22 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


BRANCH  NEWS 


Victoria  Branch 

J.  B.  Holdcroft,  A.M. E.I. C,  Secy.-Treas. 

The  November  meeting  of  the  Victoria  Branch  was 
held  on  the  25th  inst.  with  a  representative  attendance 
of  members,  and  nominations  were  received  for  officers  to 
guide  the  destinies  of  the  Branch  during  the  coming 
year.  Every  position  brought  forward  enough  applicants 
to  necessitate  a  ballot,  except  that  of  Secretary,  to  which 
J.  B.  Holdcroft,  A.M.E.I.C,  will  be  elected  by  acclama- 
tion. 

A  resolution  was  passed  that  the  Branch  volunteer 
to  co-operate  with  the  local  Government  representatives 
and  authorities,  in  the  work  of  returning  demobilized 
soldiers  to  civilian  life  and  fitting  disabled  men  for 
employment.  The  committee  appointed  to  report  on 
this  matter  promptly  proceeded  to  interview  Major 
Livingstone,  vocational  officer,  with  most  satisfactory 
results,  which  will  be  presented  to  the  Branch  at  next 
meeting. 

It  was  suggested  that  the  Council  at  Montreal  take 
similar  action  by  offering  the  support  of  our  Institute,  as 
a  national  body,  in  this  most  important  problem,  to  the 
Cabinet  at  Ottawa;  also  that  each  Branch  take  similar 
steps  with  the  local  authorities  in  charge  of  this  work. 
Further,  the  question  of  public  works  to  provide  employ- 
ment and  develope  the  country  should  be  taken  up  by 
our  Institute  without  delay,  and  on  sound  scientific  lines. 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Victoria  Branch,  of  The 
Engineering  Institute  of  Canada,  was  held  on  the  11th 
inst.,  the  principal  business  of  the  evening  being  the 
election  of  officers  for  the  ensuing  year. 

The  following  were  elected: —  Chairman,  W.  Young; 
Vice  Chairman,  R.  A.  Bainbridge;  Treasurer,  E.  Davis; 
Secretary,  J.  B.  Holdcroft;  Executive,  W.  Everall  and 
N.  A.  Yarrow.  These,  with  Messrs.  D.  O.  Lewis  and 
R.  W.  Maclntyre,  past  chairmen,  form  the  executive 
committee.    Auditors,  F.  Knewstubb  and  W.  Stokes. 

Following  the  taking  of  the  chair  by  Mr.  Young  a 
hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  tendered  the  retiring  chairman, 
Mr.  R.  W.  Macintyre,  and  general  appreciation  was 
expressed  for  his  untiring  efforts  towards  the  furtherance 
of  the  interests  of  the  profession  as  a  whole,  and  of  the 
Victoria  branch  in  particular. 

Among  other  new  business  which  will  engage  the 
attention  of  the  branch  during  the  coming  year  is  the 
problem  of  the  returning  soldiers  and  the  provision  of 
sufficient  and  suitable  employment  and  training.  A 
discussion  was  opened  on  this  subject,  and  it  is  hoped  that 
the  branch,  by  suggestion  and  influence,  may  be  able  to 
take  a  useful  part  in  the  work  of  re-establishing  our 
soldiers  in  civilian  life. 

Toronto  Branch 

W.  S.  Harvey,  A.M.E.I.C,  Secy.-Treas. 

On  Tuesday,  December  3rd,  a  well  attended  meeting 

of  the  Branch  was  held  in  the  Chemistry  and  Mining 

Building  of  the  University  of  Toronto,   when  H.  K. 

Wicksteed,    M.E.I.C.,    gave    an    interesting    illustrated 


address  on  the  Montreal  Tunnel  from  an  Economic  Point 
of  View.  This  paper  is  published  in  another  part  of  The 
Journal. 

On  Tuesday,  December  10th,  C.  H.  Rust,  M.E.I.C, 
gave  a  paper  on  the  Water  Supply  of  the  City  of  Victoria, 
B.C.,  which  was  illustrated  and  which  was  enjoyed  by 
the  members  present.  This  paper  will  be  published  in 
a  future  issue  of  The  Journal. 

Minutes  of  an  open  meeting  of  the  Branch  held  at 
the  Institute's  Rooms,  Engineers  Club,  at  8  p.  m.,  Tuesday, 
December  17th,  1918. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  canvass  the  ballot  for  the 
election  of  members  for  the  1919  Executive. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  at  8.15  p.  m.,  with 
G.  A.  McCarthy  in  the  Chair. 

The  scrutineers  appointed  by  the  meeting  to  canvass 
the  ballot  were  Geo.  Clark,  R.  E.  W.  Hagarty  and 
A.  F.  Stewart. 

While  the  scrutineers  were  preparing  their  report  a 
discussion  was  entered  into  by  the  members  present 
regarding  a  copy  of  a  communication  issued  by  the  Civil 
Service  Commission  of  Canada  and  dated  November  21st, 
1918,  regarding  an  opening  for  a  position  as  assistant 
engineer  on  the  staff  of  the  British  Columbia  Hydro- 
metric  Survey  at  a  salary  of  $1,500.00  per  annum.  The 
discussion  was  very  lively  and  Messrs.  Proctor,  Hewson, 
Cross,  Goedike,  Phelps  and  Hogarth  took  part  in  it. 

The  scrutineers  reported  that  the  following  members 
were  elected  to  office  for  1919  by  the  ballot  just  received: — 
Chairman,  A.  H.  Harkness;  Secretary,  W.  S.  Harvey; 
Committee  men,  H.  G.  Acres,  Willis  Chipman  and  W.  A. 
Bucke. 

The  members  of  the  Committee  elected  in  1918  for 
a  two-year  term,  and  therefore,  members  of  the  1919 
Executive  are  Professor  H.  E.  T.  Haultain,  J.  R.  W.  Ambrose 
and  R.  O.  Wynne-Roberts. 

The  retiring  Chairman,  Professor  Gillespie,  is  also  a 
member  of  the  Executive.  Members  of  Council  at 
Montreal  are  also  members  of  the  Executive  of  the 
Toronto  Branch. 

The  report  of  the  scrutineers  was  received  and  con- 
firmed. 

Mr.  Chipman  addressed  the  meeting  and  urged  on 
the  members  that  they  should  attend  the  meetings  of 
the  Branch  and  thus  encourage  the  Executive,  who  are 
endeavouring  to  create  a  greater  interest  in  the  affairs 
of  The  Institute.  Mr.  Wynne-Roberts  spoke  on  the 
subject  of  the  members  becoming  acquainted  with 
manufacturing  industries  in  the  city,  and  urged  that  the 
Branch  should  make  inspection  trips  to  various  plants  of 
interest.    The  meeting  adjourned  at  10  p.  m. 

Calgary  Branch 

C  M.  Arnold,  A.M.E.I.C,  Secy.-Treas. 
Christmas  Happiness  and  New  Year  Prosperity. 
The  Calgary  Branch  extends  a  Hearty  Greeting  to 
all  members  of  The  Institute,  wishing  them 

A  Happy  Christmas  and  Prosperous  New  Year. 
G.  W.  CRAIG,  C.  M.  ARNOLD, 

Chairman.  Sec.-Treas. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


23 


At  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Calgary  Branch,  held 
in  the  Board  of  Trade  rooms  on  the  afternoon  of  Saturday, 
December  7th,  the  following  officers  were  elected  for  the 
coming  year:  Chairman,  S.  W.  Craig,  Secretary- 
Treasurer,  C.  M.  Arnold,  Executive,  Wm.  Pearce,  A.  S. 
Dawson,  F.  H.  Peters,  B.  L.  Thorne,  A.  S.  Chapman, 
Executive  Alberta  Division,  F.  H.  Peters,  S.  G.  Porter, 
Auditors,  J.  S.  Tempest,  R.  C.  Gillespie. 

Mr.  Craig  was  given  a  hearty  reception  upon  assum- 
ing his  new  duties  and  made  a  short  address,  dealing  with 
the  desirability  of  publicity  on  engineering  matters. 
The  full  report  of  this  meeting  will  be  published  in  the 
February  issue. 

At  the  general  meeting  of  the  Branch  held  on 
November  30th,  with  F.  H.  Peters  in  the  chair,  there  were 
present  fifteen  members  and  Messrs.  L.  B.  Elliott  and 
R.  G.  Gibb  of  the  Edmonton  Branch  were  the  guests  of 
the  Branch. 

The  purpose  of  the  meeting  was  to  discuss  the  draft 
of  the  proposed  act  governing  the  practice  of  professional 
engineering  in  Alberta.  Edmonton  representatives  who 
had  attended  especially  for  this  purpose  were  introduced 
by  the  Chairman.  Mr.  Peters  drew  attention  to  the 
fact  that  the  preliminary  advertisement  dealing  with  the 
proposed  legislation  had  already  appeared  in  the  Alberta 
Gazette.  The  executives  of  both  branches  had  decided 
to  proceed  in  the  matter,  as  no  time  was  to  be  lost  if  the 
Bill  was  to  be  presented  this  coming  season.  The  Branch 
would  be  asked  to  confirm  the  action  of  the  Executive 
in  this  matter.  It  would  be  necessary  for  the  draft  to 
be  approved  by  both  branches  and  the  Alberta  Division 
and  it  was  proposed  to  send  a  delegation  to  Edmonton  to 
interview  the  Premier,  if  this  could  be  arranged,  to 
obtain  his  views. 

The  Secretary  was  then  called  upon  to  read  the 
minutes  of  all  previous  meetings  since  the  last  annual 
meeting  and  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Craig  seconded  by 
Mr.  Houston  these  were  approved  and  the  minutes  of 
the  last  meeting  held  were  signed  by  the  Chairman. 
Mr.  Peters  then  asked  Mr.  Gibb  to  read  the  draft  bill  on 
legislation.  Mr.  Gibb  stated  that  the  draft  had  been 
prepared  largely  by  the  late  Professor  Muir  Edwards  and 
had  been  gone  over  by  the  executives  of  eachbranch  and 
was  now  considered  to  be  in  shape  to  go  before  Parliament. 
Mr.  Cote,  a  prominent  engineer  of  Edmonton  who  was 
also  in  the  Provincial  Cabinet,  had  promised  to  do  all  in 
his  power  to  forward  the  passage  of  the  Bill,  provided  it 
received  the  approval  of  the  Premier.  He  had  therefore 
suggested  that  a  delegation  wait  on  the  Premier  to  learn 
his  views  on  the  matter.  Mr.  Gibb  then  read  the  draft 
Bill,  which  was  discussed  at  length  clause  by  clause,  and 
all  points  that  were  at  all  debatable  were  fully  explained 
to  the  satisfaction  of  the  meeting  by  the  Chairman  and 
Mr.  Gibb.  Mr.  Peters  stated  that  the  Bill  had  been 
framed  on  broad  lines  and  details  had  been  avoided  as 
far  as  possible.  Any  imperfections  found  to  exist  after 
the  Bill  had  been  enacted  could  be  dealt  with  in  the  future 
by  amendments.  The  delegation  would  consist  of  two 
members  from  each  Branch  and  two  non-resident  mem- 
bers of  these   could   be  obtained.    Mr.   Craig  moved 


that  the  draft  Bill  as  submitted  be  approved  by  this 
meeting  —  seconded  by  G.  N.  Houston.  Carried. 
Mr.  Houston  moved  that  delegates  be  appointed  to  wait  on 
the  Premier,  to  learn  his  disposition  towards  the  proposed 
legislation,  and  that  a  report  be  submitted  to  the  branch  — 
seconded  by  C.  M.  Arnold.    Carried. 

It  was  decided  to  provide  the  Councillors  of  the 
Alberta  Division  and  Executive  of  each  branch  with 
copies  of  the  draft  bill  and  also  that  a  copy  should  be 
forwarded  to  the  Saskatchewan  Branch. 

Mr.  Peters  moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Edmonton 
members  present  for  the  work  they  had  done  in  connection 
with  the  preparation  of  the  draft  bill  and  steps  taken  to 
present  it  to  the  proper  authorities.    Carried. 

Mr.  Craig,  seconded  by  Mr.  Peters,  moved  that 
a  message  of  condolence  be  sent  to  Mrs.  Sidenius,  widow 
of  the  late  Mr.  H.  G.  Sidenius.  The  Secretary  was 
requested  to  do  this  by  vote  of  all  present. 

The  meeting  adjourned  at  10.40  p.m. 


Sault  Ste.  Marie  Branch — Proposed 

In  keeping  with  the  increased  interest  in  Institute 
affairs,  and  as  a  result  of  a  desire  on  the  part  of  members 
of  the  profession  resident  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie  it  is  expected 
that  a  strong  branch  of  The  Institute  will  be  in  existence 
there  at  an  early  date.  On  Thursday,  December  19th, 
a  meeting  of  the  local  members  of  The  Institute  was  held 
at  the  Y.M.C.A.  at  which  time  it  was  decided  to  apply 
for  permission  to  form  a  Sault  Ste.  Marie  branch. 

An  application  was  consequently  prepared  and 
submitted  to  the  Council  as  follows: — 

"  We  the  undersigned  hereby  beg  to  apply  for  permis- 
sion to  form  a  local  branch,  to  be  known  as  the  Sault 
Ste.  Marie  branch  of  The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

R.  S.  McCormick 

B.  E.  Barnhill 
N.  L.  Somers 
William  S.  Wilson 
F.  F.  Griffin 

A.  G.  Tweedie 
L.  R.  Brown 

C.  H.  E.  Rownthwaite 
J.  W.  LeB.  Ross 

W.  J.  Fuller. 

At  this  meeting  a  temporary  executive  committee 
was  formed  consisting  of: 

J.  W.  LeB.  Ross,  Chairman,  B.  E.  Barnhill,  C.  H. 
E.  Rownthwaite,  J.  H.  Ryckman,  N.  L.  Somers,  L.  R. 
Brown,  Secretary. 

A  second  meeting  has  been  called  for  January  9th, 
at  which  time  the  Secretary  of  The  Institute  is  expected 
to  be  present  to  give  all  the  assistance  he  can  to  the 
members  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie  in  the  establishment  of  a 
strong  enthusiastic  branch. 


24 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Ottawa  Branch 

J.  B.  ('hollies,  M.E.I.C.,  Secy.-Treas. 
(load  Roads 

The  widespread  demand  for  constructive  considera- 
tion by  the  Dominion  Government  of  a  practicable  good 
roads  policy  has  resulted  in  definite  action  that  portends 
much  for  the  future.  The  rapid  advance  in  recent  years, 
especially  during  the  war,  of  motor  transportation,  both 
passenger  and  freight,  and  the  important  factor  the 
automobile  bears  to  rural  development  has  proven,  even 
to  the  most  skeptical,  the  absolute  necessity  for  good 
roads.  The  following  item  from  the  editorial  columns 
of  the  Ottawa  Journal  will  be  welcome  information  to  the 
engineering  profession,  and  an  assurance  that  at  last  the 
question  of  good  roads  will  be  given  adequate  attention 
by  the  Federal  authorities: — 

'  The  good  roads  movement,  which  must  be  one  of 
the  leading  factors  in  the  reconstruction  and  development 
of  the  country,  is  given  a  great  lift  forward  through  the 
Dominion  Government's  having  availed  itself  of  the 
experience  and  ability  of  Archie  W.  Campbell,  M.E.I.C., 
in  connection  with  it.  Mr.  Campbell  has  been  appointed 
to  advise  the  Government  as  to  what  its  position  should 
be  in  the  matter  of  roadway  improvement  and  construc- 
tion, and  it  is  probable,  as  it  should  be  —  that  he  will  be 
retained  permanently  to  supervise  the  carrying  out  of 
all  plans. 

No  better  choice  could  have  been  made.  Mr. 
Campbell  was  an  outstanding  champion  of  good  roads  a 
quarter  of  a  century  ago,  and  as  the  result  of  work  he  did 
then,  in  co-operation  with  the  late  Andrew  Patullo,  of  the 
Woodstock  Sentinel  Review,  he  was  appointed  Ontario 
Good  Roads  Commissioner,  subsequently  becoming 
Provincial  Deputy  Minister  of  Public  Works.  It  was  a 
serious  loss  to  the  better  highways  programme  when  he 
was  taken  from  that  position  and  made  Deputy  Minister 
of  Railways  and  Canals  at  Ottawa.  Better  highways 
are  for  him  almost  a  religion,  and  in  the  field  to  which 
he  has  returned  he  can  serve  the  country  better  than 
anyone  else  we  can  think  of.  It  is  well  that  Mr. 
Campbell's  exceptional  experience  and  interest  in  the 
subject  are  to  be  turned  to  the  advantage  of  the  country 
as  a  whole.  The  good  roads  development  must  be 
carried  out  on  an  orderly  and  progressive  programme, 
and  Mr.  Campbell's  appointment  will  insure  this. 

Mr.  Campbell  is  now  preparing  for  submission  to 
the  Government,  a  report  on  the  subject  of  highway 
construction  in  the  Dominion.  In  it  he  will  advise  as  to 
the  best  methods  of  obtaining  the  required  co-operation 
between  the  Federal  and  Provincial  authorities,  and  will 
recommend  the  adoption  of  legislation  necessary  to  secure 
greater  uniformity. 

Nailacrete  —  An  Important  Discovery 

Engineers  generally,  will  be  interested  to  learn  of 
the  important  discovery  made  by  one  of  the  Affiliates 
of  the  Ottawa  Branch,  E.  Viens,  Director  of  the  Public 
Works  Laboratory  for  Testing  Materials.  A  well- 
deserved  tribute  from  the  editorial  page  of  the  Ottawa 
Citizen  to  Mr.  Viens'  discovery,  under  the  caption, 
"  A  Civil  Servant's  Good  Work,"  follows:— 


"  Faithful  work  in  the  Civil  Service  has  been  so 
seldom  noticed  outside,  many  people  have  little  apprecia- 
tion of  it.  When  the  new  parliament  buildings  were 
being  inspected  by  a  party  of  visiting  engineers  last 
Saturday,  many  were  surprised  to  learn  for  the  first  time 
of  the  flooring  material,  called  "  Nailacrete,"  a  discovery 
made  by  Mr.  E.  Viens,  director  of  the  Public  Works 
Laboratory  for  Testing  Materials. 

"Nailacrete  has  a  strength  greatly  exceeding  wood, 
with  a  durability  of  concrete.  It  has  the  resilience  of 
wood,  a  nail  may  be  driven  into  it,  and  it  will  hold  with 
greater  firmness  than  in  wood.  Carpets  can  be  tacked  on 
Nailacrete,  and  desks  or  other  furniture  screwed  down 
to  it.  But  Nailacrete  does  not  need  a  carpet  covering. 
It  can  be  given  a  surface  finish  as  smooth  as  hardwood, 
glossy  and  more  durable.  It  is  fireproof,  waterproof, 
and  sanitary.  It  is  lighter  than  concrete,  can  be  laid 
without  forms  on  a  sloping  surface  —  such  as  for  roofing. 
It  is  an  insulator. 

'  The  Chief  Architect  of  the  new  parliament 
buildings,  John  A.  Pearson,  has  proven  the  reliability  of 
Nailacrete  by  severe  tests  before  adopting  it  for  the 
floors  in  the  main  building.  Credit  is  due  to  the  Chief 
Architect  for  being  sufficiently  without  prejudice  to 
adopt  Mr.  Viens'  discovery.  The  public  should  know, 
however,  when  a  public  servant  by  patient  research, 
carrying  out  experiments  in  the  first  instances  after 
work  hours,  at  his  own  expense  in  the  purchase  of 
experimental  materials,  has  contributed  something 
apparently  so  valuable  to  the  community  as  Mr.  E.  Viens' 
discovery  of  Nailacrete." 

Branch  Visits  New  House  of  Commons 

Tangible  evidence  of  the  splendid  progress  made  in 
the  construction  of  the  new  home  of  the  Canadian  Par- 
liament, according  to  the  Evening  Journal,  was  displayed 
on  Saturday,  December  7th,  to  the  members  of  the  Ottawa 
Branch  of  The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada  who,  after 
doing  full  justice  to  the  first  luncheon  served  in  what 
will  be  the  House  of  Commons  dining-room,  were  given  an 
opportunity  to  inspect  the  buildings  under  the  guidance 
of  the  staff  in  charge  of  the  reconstruction,  G.  Gordon 
Gale,  chairman  of  the  Ottawa  Branch,  presided  at  the 
luncheon,  and  about  135  members  and  their  friends  were 
present. 

The  trip  through  the  buildings  proved  of  unusual 
interest.  On  every  side  could  be  seen  evidence  of  the 
amount  of  work  already  done,  and  an  attempt  to  visualize 
the  buildings  as  they  will  be  when  completed  framed 
so  compellingly  a  mental  appraisal  of  the  work  still  to  do 
that  the  assurance  of  the  architect  that  the  buildings 
will  probably  be  ready  for  occupancy  by  January,  1920, 
was  almost  doubted. 

The  cornerstone  of  the  new  buildings  was  laid  on 
September  1st,  1916,  but  for  practically  nine  months 
thereafter  little  or  no  work  was  done  and  the  buildings 
as  they  now  stand  represent  about  17  months  of  actual 
labor,  conducted  for  at  least  part  of  that  time  under  a 
serious  handicap  due  to  difficulty  in  securing  workmen. 

In  external  appearance  the  buildings  convey  a  much 
stronger  inpression  of  soliditv,  massiveness  and  dignity 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


25 


than  did  those  they  replace.  While  the  frontage  is  the 
same  as  formerly  the  new  structure  contains  much  more 
accommodation  due  to  the  fact  that  a  solid  block  has 
been  built  in  at  the  rear  or  north  side.  The  general  plan 
is  of  one  great  structure,  in  part  divided  by  three  light 
courts  or  wells  into  five  smaller  buildings.  The  Commons 
chamber  is  situated  in  the  western  end,  then  alternate 
light  courts  and  offices,  with  reading  and  smoking  rooms, 
to  the  Senate  chamber  on  the  eastern  end.  Ample  main 
corridors,  broad  and  stately,  run  east  and  west  through 
the  entire  building  with  cross  corridors,  but  little  narrower, 
connecting  the  various  units.  In  all  there  are  more 
than  two  miles  of  corridors  in  the  building  —  ample 
opportunity  for  corpulent  statesmen  to  exercise  while 
pondering  questions  of  national  import. 

Possibly  the  feature  of  the  entire  structure  that, 
when  completed,  will  attract  most  attention  and 
Dominion-wide  interest,  is  the  splendid  hall  or  "  Court  of 
Honor."  As  planned,  this  leads  directly  from  the  main 
entry  through  the  width  of  the  building  to  the  Library, 
and  will  be  in  every  way  worthy  of  its  name.  Even  on 
Saturday,  while  complete  comprehension  of  its  majestic 
spaciousness  was  prevented  by  the  spidery  scaffolding 
which  fills  most  of  the  space,  it  was  evident  that  when 
finished  it  will  stand  alone  in  Canada  as  an  example  of 
the  dignity  and  beauty  that  can  be  attained  in  interior 
architecture  of  the  Gothic  school.  As  it  is,  it  is  reminis- 
cent of  the  sublimity  of  a  vaulted  cathedral,  and  when  the 
windows,  and  statuary,  silently  eloquent  testimonials 
of  the  men  who  made  Canada,  are  in  their  positions  the 
effect  will  be  imposing  in  its  majesty. 

The  Commons  chamber  is  spacious  and  lofty, 
gallery  accommodation  will  be  in  excess  of  that  contained 
in  the  former  House,  while  a  new  feature  will  be  the 
provision  of  private  boxes  for  visitors  to  whom  it  may 
be  desired  to  extend  signal  honor.  As  might  be  expected, 
ample  arrangement  has  been  made  for  the  press  gallery 
and  the  rooms  in  which  the  newspaper  workers  record 
the  achievements  or  errors  of  Canada's  statesmen  will  be 
more  commodious  and  convenient  than  heretofore.  The 
Senate  chamber  in  general  lines,  follows  that  set  aside 
for  the  members  of  the  elected  branch  of  Parliament. 

The  office  accommodation  for  ministers  and  the 
various  grades  of  private  members  will  be  much  superior 
to  similar  arrangements  in  the  former  building.  The 
individual  offices  will  be  larger  and  better  appointed. 
Nothing  will  be  spared  that  will  make  for  the  comfort 
and  convenience  of  those  who  devote  a  large  portion  of 
each  year  to  the  business  of  the  country. 

But  it  is  the  wonderful  wealth  of  detail,  already 
commencing  to  show,  that  will  make  the  new  Parliament 
buildings  one  of  the  show-places  of  Canada.  Carvings, 
typifying  events  in  Canadian  history,  broad  sweeping 
effects  representing  Canadian  life  and  industry,  delightful 
miniature  bits  characterizing  and,  in  some  cases  — ■ 
caricaturing  —  men  prominent  in  Canadian  public  life, 
present  or  past,  will  afford  days  of  pleasant  occupation  to 
students  of  art  as  revealing  character.  The  entire 
building  will  be  alive  and  vibrant  with  such  delights; 
few  of  them  are  as  yet  in  position,  but  numbers  are  to  be 
seen,  completed,  waiting  only  to  be  placed  in  their 
respective  niches. 


From  the  artistic  and  sublime  to  the  practical  brings 
one  to  consideration  of  the  arrangements  made  for 
heating  the  building  —  a  most  necessary  feature  in  this 
latitude.  The  heating  plant  is  situated  in  the  power 
house  at  the  foot  of  Cliff  street,  several  hundreds  of 
yards  from  the  buildings  themselves.  Forced  circulation 
of  hot  water  will  provide  sufficient  heat  to  serve  the  new 
buildings,  the  Supreme  Court  building  and  the  Langevin 
block,  and  the  plant  is  so  constituted  that  it  can  be  made 
to  heat  additional  buildings  in  that  vicinity  which  it 
may  be  necessary  to  construct. 

Dealing  more  particularly  with  the  progress  made 
on  the  building  within  the  last  year  it  may  be  said  that 
in  the  summer  of  1917  it  was  but  rising  from  its  four 
foundations.  Now  the  walls  and  roof  are  completed, 
many  of  the  inner  walls  run,  basic  floors  laid  and  in  some 
portions  work  has  started  on  the  floor  tiling.  Practically 
the  body  of  the  entire  structure  has  been  completed,  the 
interior  fitting  is  yet  to  be  done.  This,  it  is  expected,  will 
consume  another  year. 

Of  the  architect  in  charge,  John  A.  Pearson,  who 
already  has  a  national  reputation  as  one  of  Canada's 
master  builders,  it  need  only  be  said  that  nothing  he  has 
ever  done  will  surpass  his  work  in  the  provision  of  a 
beautiful  and  fitting  home  for  Canada's  Parliament.  A 
man  might  well  study  and  labor  for  a  life-time  to  produce 
but  one  such  monument  to  his  genius. 

Address  on   Ceramics 

One  of  the  most  interesting  evenings  held  by  the 
Ottawa  Branch  for  the  year  1918,  was  an  address  on 
"  Clay  and  Clay  Products  in  Canada,"  by  Joseph  Keele, 
chief  engineer  of  the  Ceramic  Division  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Mines.  Mr.  Keele  is  the  recognized  authority 
on  this  subject  in  Canada,  and  succeeded  in  conveying 
a  great  deal  of  exceedingly  valuable  information  respecting 
one  of  the  most  important  and  little  appreciated  industries 
in  the  Dominion.  So  important  is  this  industry  to 
Canada  generally,  and  of  such  immediate  interest  to  all 
branches  of  the  engineering  profession,  that  it  is  hoped 
Mr.  Keele  may  be  able,  in  the  near  future,  to  prepare  a 
similar  paper  for  presentation  to  The  Institute,  in  order 
that  all  of  its  members  may  enjoy  the  advantage  of  those 
who  attended  the  meeting  in  Ottawa. 

Transferred  to  Dept.  of  Trade  of  Commerce 

The  Electrical  Standards  Laboratory,  Ottawa, 
O.  Higman,  M.E.I.C.,  Chief  Engineer,  has  sent  out 
notice  that  the  administration  of  the  following  Acts  of  the 
Federal  Parliament  has  been  transferred  from  the 
Inland  Revenue  Department  to  the  Department  of 
Trade  and  Commerce;  the  Electrical  Units  Act;  the 
Electrical  Inspection  Act;  the  Electricity  and  Fluid 
Exportation  Act;  and  the  Gas  Inspection  Act. 

Dominion  Power  Board 

The  Government  has  added  to  the  personnel  of  the 
Power  Board,  W.  A.  Bowden,  M.E.I.C,  Chief  Engineer 
of  the  Department  of  Railways  and  Canals;  and  Arthur 
Amos,  M.E.I.C,  Chief  Engineer  of  the  Hydraulic  Service 
of  Quebec  and  a  member  of  the  Quebec  Streams  Commis- 
sion. 


26 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


The  Government  has  consented,  at  the  request  of 
the  Dominion  Power  Board,  to  have  A.  B.  Lambe, 
A.M.E.I.C.,  Asst.  Chief  Engineer  of  Gas  and  Electricity 
of  the  Department  of  Inland  Revenue;  and  A.  J.  Matheson, 
M.E.I.C,  Chief  Engineer  of  the  Montreal  Water  Levels 
Commission,  attached  to  the  Board  for  special  work. 

Hamilton  Branch 

II.  B.  Dwight,  A. M.E.I.C,  Secy.-Treas. 

It  was  with  considerable  regret  to  the  members  of 
the  Hamilton  Branch  that  Geo.  F.  Porter's  lecture  on 
the  Quebec  Bridge  had  to  be  cancelled  because  the 
prohibition  of  all  meetings  was  suddently  renewed  by  the 
Board  of  Health.  The  Health  Officer  had  intimated  several 
times  that  matters  were  not  serious  and  that  the  meeting 
could  be  held  as  scheduled.  However,  outside  pressure 
was  brought  to  bear,  as  matters  really  were  more  serious 
than  most  people  supposed,  and  the  ruling  was  made  on 
a  few  hours'  notice.  The  unfortunate  part  was  that 
there  was  no  time  to  telegraph  Mr.  Porter.  The  members 
of  the  Branch  had  a  very  enjoyable  visit  with  him,  how- 
ever, and  he  was  most  agreable  about  the  misfortune. 

Montreal  Branch 

F.  B.  Brown,  M.E.I.C,  Secy.-Treas. 

A  discussion  of  the  subject  of  legislation  has  occupied 
two  meetings  of  the  Montreal  Branch  held  on  November 
28th,  and  December  19th,  where  it  was  given  consideration 
in  an  exhaustive  manner.  At  the  meeting  of  the  Branch 
held  on  December  19th,  Lieut. -Col.  Dubuc  was  present 
and  in  addition  to  being  welcomed  by  the  chairman, 
Walter  J.  Francis,  one  of  his  classmates,  Arthur  Surveyer, 
voiced  the  sentiments  of  those  present  in  well-chosen 
words  of  appreciation.  Lieut. -Col.  Dubuc  was  given  a 
reception  in  keeping  with  his  distinguished  services  and 
made  a  happy  speech  in  reply  to  the  reception  accorded 
him. 

The  following  resolutions  passed  by  the  Montreal 
Branch  embody  the  result  of  the  two  meetings  on  the 
subject  of  legislation.  It  was  moved  by  W.  F.  Tye, 
seconded  by  G.  H.  Duggan  and  carried:— 

WHERE  A  S  it  seems  advisable  that  legislation  should 
be  sought  defining  the  statuts  of  engineers  throughout 
Canada,  AND 

WHEREAS  the  widespread  activities  of  the 
engineering  profession,  the  great  difference  in  the  interests 
and  occupations  of  the  individuals,  the  necessity  of 
getting  satisfactory  legislation  in  the  different  provinces, 
the  unsatisfactory  result  of  such  legislation  as  has  already 
been  obtained  and  the  dangers  and  difficulties  certain  to 
be  encountered  by  The  Institute  as  a  whole  during  the 
time  period  of  passing  of  Canadian  engineering  from  an 
open  to  a  closed  or  a  partially  closed  profession,  make  it 
inadvisable  and  inexpedient  to  ask  for  any  further 
legislation  in  any  province  until  the  whole  question  has 
been  thoroughly  studied,  reported  upon  and  submitted  in 
concrete  form  to  the  full  corporate  membership  of  The 
Institute. 


BE  IT  RESOLVED: 

THAT  the  Executive  of  the  Montreal  Branch  be 
instructed  to  ask  the  Council  to  arrange  for  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  Committee  representing  all  provinces  and  all 
branches  of  the  profession  to  inquire  into,  study,  and 
report  upon  the  whole  question  of  legislation,  including 
a  report  upon  the  best  method  of  getting  such  legislation 
as  will  ensure  a  satisfactory  and  uniform  status  of  engineers 
throughout  Canada,  also  to  draw  up  such  sample  legisla- 
tion as  it  may  deem  necessary  and  advisable  in  order  that 
the  member  of  The  Institute  in  the  different  provinces 
may  seek  legislation  on  some  uniform  basis. 

That  before  the  final  adoption  of  any  proposed  Act 
it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Committee  to  co-operate  as 
far  as  possible  with  similar  incorporated  technical  bodies 
with  a  view  to  harmonizing  clauses  which  might  contain 
points  of  contention. 

That  the  Secretary  of  the  Montreal  Branch  be 
instructed  to  forward  a  copy  of  this  resolution  to  the 
Secretary  of  The  Institute  and  to  the  Secretaries  of 
the  Provincial  Divisions  and  the  Branches,  and  to 
request  the  Executive  of  the  Provincial  Divisions  and 
the  Branches  to  assist  the  Council  in  securing  the 
appointment  of  a  strong  and  representative  committee." 

It  was  further  moved  by  Arthur  Surveyer,  seconded 
by  F.  B.  Brown  and  carried:  — 

"  THAT  the  Executive  of  the  Montreal  Branch  take 
immediate  steps  to  obtain,  in  co-operation  with  the 
Quebec  Branch  and  by  letter  ballot,  the  views  of  the 
members  of  The  Institute,  residing  in  the  Province  of 
Quebec,  on  the  question  of  licensing  engineers,  AND 

THAT  the  following  questions  for  this  letter  ballot 
be  suggested  to  the  Executives  of  the  Montreal  and 
Quebec  Branches  for  their  consideration: 

Question  1.  Are  you  in  favour  of  a  closed  corpora- 
tion for  engineers  having  responsible  charge  of  engineering 
works  ? 

Question  2.  If  so,  do  you  favour  legislation 
embracing  all  engineering  works,  or  only  public  works  ? 

Question  3.  In  the  event  of  the  majority  of  the 
members  of  The  Institute  residing  in  Quebec,  declaring 
in  favour  of  a  close  corporation,  what  are  your  opinions 
on  the  following  questions: 

(a)  Do  you  consider  that  the  only  method  of 
entrance  into  the  engineering  profession  should  be 
through  the  engineering  colleges  ? 

(b)  If  no,  do  you  think  that  candidates  who  do  not 
follow  college  engineering  courses  should  be  obliged  to 
pass  an  examination  for  admission  to  study  somewhat 
along  the  lines  of  the  matriculation  examination  required 
for  university  entrance  ? 

(c)  Do  you  think  that  candidates  should  be  required 
to  pass  an  examination  for  admission  to  practice,  similar 
to  the  examinations  required  by  the  Bar  and  Medical 
Associations  ? 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF   CANADA 


27 


(d)  Should  candidates  be  obliged  to  serve  a  period 
of  apprenticeship  or  employment  under  an  engineer, 
before  being  allowed  to  take  the  final  examinations  for 
admission  to  practice?  (The  word  practice  is  under- 
stood to  mean  taking  responsible  charge  of  engineering 
works) . 

(e)  If  in  favour  of  examination,  do  you  consider 
that  these  should  be  held  by  the  corporation  only  or  by  a 
joint  board  of  the  members  of  the  corporation  and 
representatives  of  the  McGill  and  Laval  faculties  of 
applied  science? 

(f)  Do  you  consider  that  graduates  of  engineering 
schools  should  be  exempted  from  any  or  all  the  examina- 
tions ? 

(g)  If  so,  from  what  examinations  should  they  be 
exempted  ? 

(h)  Do  you  think  that  graduates  of  engineering 
schools  should  be  required  to  prove  that  they  have  had 
experience  under  some  engineer  before  being  admitted 
to  take  charge  of  engineering  work  ? 

AND  THAT  the  results  of  this  letter  ballot  be  passed 
on  to  the  committee  appointed  under  Mr.  Tye's  motion 
for  their  information  irrespective  of  any  action  that  the 
members  of  The  Institute  in  Quebec  may  wish  to  take." 

Gallant  Officer  Returns 

Lieut.-Col.  Dubuc,  C.M.G.,  Croix  de  Guerre,  Cross 
of  the  Legion  of  Honor,  D.S.O.,  M.E.I.C,  commander  of 
the  famous  22nd  Battalion  of  Montreal,  which  has  added 
so  much  to  the  lustre  of  Canadian  arms,  arrived  at  his 
home  in  Montreal  recently  where  he  was  accorded  a 
reception  in  keeping  with  the  distinguished  services  he  has 
rendered.  This  gallant  officer,  who  has  seen  so  much  of 
actual  fighting,  has  been  three  times  wounded,  including 
the  loss  of  an  eye  from  machine  gun  bullet,  the  last  time 
so  dangerously  that  his  life  was  dispaired  of.  Going  to 
the  front  as  a  Captain  after  three  years  on  the  fields  of 
many  battles  he  returns  to  us  a  Lieutenant-Colonel, 
commander  of  his  old  battalion  and  bearing  decorations 
which  prove  him  a  warrior  of  great  courage. 

Of  the  engagement  in  which  he  was  wounded  the  last 
time,  he  said  that  out  of  23  officers  and  625  other  ranks, 
there  were  23  officers  casualties  (every  one  was  killed  or 
wounded)  and  505  of  the  other  ranks  either  laid  down 
their  lives  or  will  hereafter  wear  the  scars  of  battle.  This 
all  happened  in  24  hours.  It  was  on  August  27th,  in 
front  of  Cherisy,  in  the  attack  on  Cambrai  and  the  start 
of  the  great  Arras  battle,  that  was  the  beginning  of  the 
end,  that  Lieut.-Col.  Dubuc  was  hit,  by  a  machine  gun- 
bullet,  and  was  given  up  for  dead.  The  command  of  the 
22nd  automatically  passed  to  Major  Vanier  at  2.30  that 
day,  and  he  carried  on  until  he  lost  his  leg. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Montreal  Branch,  held  on 
December  19th,  Lieut-Col.  Dubuc  was  accorded  a  rousing 
reception  and  he  gave  a  brief  address  to  the  members 
present,  which,  coming  from  one  who  occupied  such  a 
proud  position  in  the  great  engagements  of  the  war,  was 
highly  enjoyed.  Every  member  of  The  Institute  will 
feel  a  personal  sense  of  pride  in  the  distinguished  part 
which  Lieut.-Col.  Dubuc  has  taken  in  the  mighty  conflict. 


CORRESPONDENCE 


Legislation  for  the  Engineer    (A  Western  View  Point) 

Editor  Journal: — 

"  These  engineers  were  priests  of  a  sort,  albeit  they 
did  not  preach  or  pray.  It  was  a  new  world.  Has  it  ever 
struck  you  that  with  every  victory  over  Nature  won  by  the 
human  spirit  a  fragment  of  their  omnipotence  is  wrested 
from  the  hands  of  the  gods  ?  /  always  feel  as  if  we  were 
using  fire  and  steel,  mechanical  energy  and  human  thought, 
as  weapons  of  revolt  against  the  Heavenly  tyranny."     Bojer. 

In  consideration  of  the  present  essential  effort  upon 
the  part  of  engineers  to  obtain  legislative  support  and 
recognition  as  a  class,  with  a  long  delayed  but  necessary 
acknowledgement  by  the  public  of  their  services  and  merits 
let  us  make  clear  to  each  other  that  this  "  object "  is 
what  we  aim  at  and  that  a  successful  issue  is  of  much 
greater  importance  than  the  "  method  "  by  which  this 
result  may  be  attained.  As  a  Westerner  from  Alberta 
I  view  the  position  so,  and  feel  that  whilst  pleas  for  unani- 
mity and  possible  similarity  of  action  are  insistent  from 
many  sources,  it  does  not  appear  at  all  possible  to  achieve 
this,  or  even  desirable  to  attempt  uniformity  for  the 
following  amongst  other  good  reasons,  especially  affecting 
the  West. 

We  have  four  Legislatures,  Manitoba,  Saskatchewan, 
British  Columbia  and  Alberta,  each  with  a  differing 
outlook  and  history,  a  varying  practice  and  local  condi- 
tions and  an  independent  legislative  personnel  distinctly 
enamoured  of  their  own  principles  and  practice,  so  much 
so  that  the  chance  of  common  action  is  of  very  remote 
possibility  and  to  spend  time  and  effort  upon  a  futile  aim 
such  as  uniformity  of  practice,  must  be  under  the  circum- 
stances of  urgency,  misplaced  energy  much  to  be  regretted. 

The  objects  to  be  attained  are  in  each  Province 
exactly  similar,  what  does  it  matter  about  the  plan  of  the 
road  by  which  the  goal  is  to  be  reached,  its  grade  or  the 
make  and  variety  of  its  bridges,  these  may  vary  as  does 
the  topography  of  these  Provinces  but  if  the  same  success- 
ful result  be  reached  why  worry  ?  Manitoba  has  had  a 
plan  since  1896,  why  this  has  not  been  travelled  is  not 
self  evident  and  having  had  all  these  years  of  experience 
of  the  "  lions  in  the  way  "  one  would  assume  they  should 
be  best  prepared  and  armed  to  take  action  immediately, 
so  that  their  claim  for  delay  to  secure  uniformity  does 
not  seem  to  rest  upon  sufficiently  definite  grounds  as  to 
warrant  suspension  of  effort  on  the  part  of  other  Western 
Provinces.  Saskatchewan  has  a  plan  which  doubtless 
meets  its  members'  requirements  and  it  is  to  be  hoped 
also  those  of  its  legislators  and  whilst  some  of  its  features 
would  not  pass  through  the  Alberta  House,  we  are  not 
so  placed  that  we  dare  ask  them  to  await  general  agree- 
ment upon  forms  and  procedure,  their  duty  is  to  secure 
from  their  legislature  the  best  terms  and  conditions  for 
effective  legislation  protecting  engineers  and  the  method 
by  which  this  is  gained  is  to  them  a  domestic  problem 
containing  factors  of  which  outsiders  cannot  judge. 


28 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


B.  C.  we  have  no  doubt  with  last  years  experience 
to  guide,  are  now  well  aware  of  the  lines  of  least  resist- 
ance and  likely  success  and  formulating  a  plan  for  sub- 
mission to  their  Legislature,  we  wish  them  well.  Montreal 
can  but  express  a  parental  solicitude  that  its  children 
whilst  struggling  with  varying  conditions  and  doing  the 
best  they  can  for  themselves  shall  do  their  utmost  to 
maintain  the  family  credit  and  its  highest  traditions. 
We  in  Alberta  are  in  a  measure  the  most  happily  situate 
of  all  in  that  a  well  travelled  road  has  been  cleared  for 
us  by  other  professions  with  lines  of  uniformity  laid  down 
by  the  Legislature,  satisfactory  to  them  and  to  us, 
achitecture,  law,  medecine,  dentistry,  chemistry,  survey- 
ing and  other  public  services  have  a  common,  accepted  and 
satisfactory  system  of  public  control  to  which  we  must 
conform  in  any  legislative  proposals  we  may  submit. 

In  technical  matters  the  Legislature  of  Alberta  has 
always  taken  the  stand  that  public  control  of  such  services 
had  best  be  exercised  by  the  first  body  of  educational 
standing  in  the  Province,  i.e.  the  Senate  of  the  University 
of  Alberta,  a  doctrine  of  economy  of  effort  on  the  part 
of  the  Legislature  and  of  success  from  the  viewpoint 
of  such  technical  services  already  so  associated  and  of 
satisfaction  from  the  public  point  of  view,  as  being  a 
simple,  effective  and  desirable  curb  upon  any  close 
corporation  practices  likely  to  injure  the  freedom  of  its 
best  interests.  Having  but  one  university  and  that  in 
the  nature  of  a  state  institution  we  are  most  favorably 
situated  and  we  hope  it  will  shortly  be  possible  to  submit 
the  draft  act  proposed  to  be  submitted  to  the  next  session 
of  the  Legislature,  this  follows  most  carefully  along  the 
lines  of  preceding  acts  governing  technical  and  professional 
services  and  will  we  hope  secure  the  approval  of  our  legis- 
lators as  well  as  that  of  our  fellow  engineers  in  this  and 
other  Provinces. 

May  attention  be  called  to  one  danger,  that  of  over- 
loading an  act  with  matter  more  properly  belonging  to 
by-laws  as  items  of  internal  government  and  the  relations 
of  Institute  members  with  each  other  do  not  require  to 
appear  in  the  Act,  this  should  be  explicitly  confined  to 
the  delimitation  of  relations  between  the  public  and  the 
service    in    question. 

This  is  not  a  plea  for  delay  but  a  call  for  action, 
engineers  are  usually  associated  with  realities  and  dealing 
with  matters  of  material  or  force  and  facing  the  reality 
of  an  unrecognized  profession  of  legally  indefinite  status 
without  protection,  and  the  presently  heavy  barrage  of 
the  H.  C.  L.,  action  definite,  direct  and  decided  cannot 
occur  any  too  soon. 

By  independent  action  but  free  co-operation  to  the 
desired  end  we  shall  secure  for  some,  or  more  happily 
we  hope,  for  all,  the  legal  status  and  recognition  which 
the  talents  and  services  of  our  members  deserve  and  to 
this  end  it  is  essentially  necessary  that  all  without  excep- 
tion shall  sink  their  differences  and  with  enthusiasm 
enter  into  all  measures  or  methods  devised  to  secure  this 
long  delayed  but  no  less  patiently  earned  reward,  giving 
full  support  and  countenance  to  all  who  in  any  measure 
or  position  endeavour  to  solve  the  attendant  difficulties. 


Lo:  a  cloud's  about  to  vanish 

From  the  day 
And  a  brazen  wrong  to  crumble 

Into  clay. 
Lo:  the  Right's  about  lo  conquer; 

Clear  the  way. 
With  the  Right  shall  many  more 
Enter  smiling  at  the  door; 
With  the  giant  Wrong  shall  fall 
Many  others,  great  and  small, 
That  for  ages  long  have  held  us 

For  their  prey. 
Men  of  thought  and  men  of  action, 

Clear  the  way. 

Mackay. 


DONENZ. 


Move  for  a  Raise 


Editor  Journal: — 

I  have  to  congratulate  you  and  the  other  executive 
officers  on  the  success  of  The  Journal  which  along  with  the 
other  matters  contains  an  employment  bureau.  The 
salary  paid  to  civil  engineers  to-day  is  ridiculously  small 
and  one  remedy  which  occurs  to  me  is  for  the  profession 
to  take  every  advantage  of  any  new  position  offering  a 
larger  salary.  This  shuffling  would  force  many  raises 
in  salary  in  order  to  hold  men  who  to-day  may  not  be 
in  touch  with  other  positions  which  are  available  and 
pay  more  money.  This  move  for  a  raise  policy  would  I 
think  improve  the  situation  as  there  are  too  many  of  our 
men  to-day  holding  down  positions  at  practically  the  same 
salary  which  they  received  five,  yes  and  ten  years  ago, 
thus  making  the  engineering  profession  the  greatest 
rut  in  existence. 

I  would  respectfully  suggest  that  you  give  more 
attention  to  the  employment  bureau  and  endeavour  to 
give  the  readers  of  The  Journal  the  benefit  of  all  positions 
which  are  open  in  Canada  and  as  many  as  practical  of 
those  in  foreign  countries  as  well.  I  have  noticed  that 
heretofore  you  have  not  even  included  all  the  appoint- 
ments which  the  Civil  Service  of  Canada  have  to  make. 


I  am, 


Yours  faithfully, 

District  Engineer. 


Error  re  Diving  Bell 

Editor    Journal: — 

With  reference  to  my  letter  of  October  24  to  you. 
Mr.  MacDonald  has  called  my  attention  to  an  error 
in  my  letter  on  page  2. 

In  my  letter,  I  have,  by  an  error  of  dictation,  mis- 
placed the  relative  positions  of  the  metre  centre  and 
centre  of  gravity  of  the  device  under  discussion,  and 
I  did  not  notice  the  error  until  my  attention  was  called  to 
it.  The  mistake  is  an  obvious  one,  otherwise  the  outfit 
would  not  have  been  stable  when  afloat.  I  will  be  obliged 
if  you  will  correct  this  error  in  my  letter. 

Yours  very  truly, 

John  Taylor,    A.M.E.I.C. 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


29 


Education  Through  Journal 

Dear  Editor: — 

I  am  in  receipt  of  a  copy  of  your  letter  of  November 
29th  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Civil  Service  Commission, 
which  should  cause  their  officers  to  reflect  upon  the 
salaries  being  paid  engineers  as  compared  with  those 
made   for  other  work. 

I  think  the  whole  trouble  is  with  the  engineers  them- 
selves. If  they  are  in  a  position  to  demand  better  pay 
for  one  another,  they  don't  do  it.  If  engineers  will 
accept  positions  at  $1,500  per  year,  the  Civil  Service 
Commission  will  feel  that  it  is  quite  justified  to  continue 
offering  that  salary.  I  think  a  campaign  of  education 
carried  out  through  the  columns  of  The  Journal  would  be 
the  best  method  of  crusading  at  the  present  time  for 
better  salaries  for  Government  engineers. 
Yours  faithfully, 

Government,  M.E.I.C. 


Grand  River  Conservation 

Editor  Journal: — 

The  water  shed  of  the  Grand  River  (Urse  River  on 
map  of  1763,  later  "  Ouse  or  Grand  "  River)  the  central 
part  of  the  peninsula  of  South  Western  Ontario,  comprises 
about  2,600  square  miles,  parts  of  the  Counties  of  Grey, 
Dufferin,  Perth,  Oxford,  Wentworth  and  Haldimand  and 
practically  the  whole  of  Wellington,  Waterloo  and  Brant. 
The  highest  part  of  the  peninsula  may  be  called  an 
irregular  plateau,  1,400  to  over  1,700  ft.  in  elevation 
above  sea  level,  and  having  an  area  of  about  1,100  square 
miles,  the  northerly  edge  closely  approaching  Georgian 
Bay.  Apparently  one  half  or  more  of  this  area  was  ori- 
ginally dense  swamp,  the  headwater  source  of  most  of 
the  considerable  rivers  of  the  peninsula. 

A  marked  topographical  feature  is  the  Niagara 
escarpment  extending  from  Queenston  on  the  Niagara 
River,  and  there  marking  the  difference  in  water  level 
between  Lakes  Erie  and  Ontario,  more  or  less  definitely 
across  the  peninsula  to  Georgian  Bay.  For  a  considerable 
part  of  its  length  this  abrupt  break  in  the  surface  forms 
practically  the  easterly  limit  of  the  Grand  River 
water  shed. 

The  Grand  River  -rises  on  the  highest  part  of  the 
plateau,  in  Melancthon  Township,  within  25  miles  of 
Georgian  Bay,  has  a  length  along  its  windings  of  about 
160  miles,  flows  in  a  general  southerly  direction,  has  a 
total  fall  of  over  1,100  ft.  and  empties  into  Lake  Erie  at 
Port  Maitland.  Principal  tributaries  in  their  order  from 
up  stream  are  the  Conestogo  River  from  the  west,  rising 
near  the  source  of  the  main  river,  the  Speed  from  the  east 
and  the  Nith  from  the  west. 

The  water  shed  is  wide  in  the  headwater  area,  becomes 
narrower  further  down,  and  more  so  in  the  fiat  country 
toward  Lake  Erie,  where  smaller  streams  flow  directly  to 
the  lake.  Declivity  of  the  stream  bed  is  greatest  after  it 
leaves  the  plateau,  is  considerable  further  along  and  small 
toward  the  outlet.  What  may  appropriately  be  called 
the  upper  river  extends  to  about  the  1,150  ft.  contour, 
and  the  lower  river  from  there  on. 


The  importance  of  the  Grand  River  water  shed, 
particularly  of  the  lower  river,  is  well  known.  In  fertility 
of  soil,  in  density  of  population,  in  agriculture  and  in 
manufactures,  it  is  one  of  the  best  sections  in  the  Dominion 
of  Canada.  Numerous  cities  and  towns,  manufacturing 
cent  es  noted  throughout  the  Dominion  and  beyond, 
Brantford,  Gait,  Kitchener,  Paris,  Guelph,  Preston, 
Hespeler,  New  Hamburg,  etc.,  are  directly  on  the  river 
banks. 

The  spring  floods  are  a  constantly  increasing  menace, 
both  in  the  cities  and  towns  and  generally  along  the  valley, 
and  summer  flow  of  the  river  has  become  very  small. 

Original  conditions,  forestation,  and  particularly 
the  large  swamp  areas  on  the  head  watershed,  which 
effected  natural  regulation,  restraining  floods  and  main- 
taining dry  weather  flow,  by  retarding  snow  melting, 
by  better  holding  back  of  water  on  the  surface  and  by 
greater  volume  of  ground  water,  are  impossible 
of  restoration. 

There  are  various  methods  of  flood  alleviation,  such 
as:  confining  the  channel  by  means  of  walls  or  dykes, 
as  has  been  done  in  Brantford  on  the  Grand  River,  and 
to  some  extent  in  Gait;  deepening  and  correction  of 
the  river  channel;  elevation  or  filling  in  of  ground  subject 
to  overflow;  detention  or  retardation  reservoirs,  as  now 
under  construction  in  the  Miami  Conservancy  District, 
Ohio.  Preferable  to  any  of  these  methods,  and  con- 
stituting true  conservation,  are  storage  reservoirs,  where 
practicable.  A  storage  reservoir  of  ideal  capacity  and 
performance  retains  the  surplus  flood  flow  and  releases 
the  stored  water  for  equalization  of  flow  during  periods  of 
small  yield  from  the  watershed. 

Conservation  by  storage  has  been  found  to  be  to 
large  extent  practicable  on  the  Grand  River.  The  Hydro 
Electric  Power  Commission  of  Ontario  by  surveys  made 
mainly  in  1912  and  1913  established  the  fact  that  suffi- 
cient storage  can  be  obtained  to  give  good  control.  In  the 
township  of  Pilkington  on  the  main  river,  about  at  the 
foot  of  the  upper  river,  storage  capacity  of  about  2% 
billion  cubic  feet  in  one  basin  has  been  found  to  be  avail- 
able. Further  storage,  on  the  Conestogo  tributary, 
would  give  a  total  of  nearly  4  billion  cubic  feet  of  capcaity 
with  watershed  area  above  the  basins  of  about  600  square 
miles,  constituting  on  the  whole  fairly  unique  and  very 
favorable  conditions  for  true  conservation.  There  re- 
mains to  be  done,  as  to  investigation,  definite  exploration 
of  sites  for  dams  and  ascertaining  of  their  practicability 
and  estimates  of  cost.  No  estimates  or  investigation 
as  to  cost  of  reservoir  sites,  land  condemnation,  highway 
changes  etc.,  has  as  yet  been  made  either. 

The  benefit  of  such  conservation  would  in  the  first 
place  be  elimination  of  flood  danger.  The  sustained 
summer  flow,  which  on  the  above  storage  could  be  over 
four  hundred  cubic  feet  per  second  in  addition  to  the 
present  flow,  eight  to  ten  times  the  present  flow  for  a  good 
part  of  the  river  affected,  would  be  a  great  benefit  in  sani- 
tation and  water  supply.  Evaporation  from  the  surface 
of  the  storage  reservoirs  an  area  of  six  square  miles  or 
over,  is  a  feature  to  be  considered.  During  the  hot 
summer  months,  June,  July,  and  August  this  may  be 
assumed  to  total  from  15  to  20  inches,  or  possibly  a  little 
more.     Rainfall  during  this  season  is  extremely  variable. 


30 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Local  observation  (Waterloo  County)  shows  a  total  for 
the  three  months  ranging,  in  a  short  period  of  four  years, 
from  22.11  to  4.99  inches.  Evaporation  is  greatest  during 
drouth,  but  considering  even  a  net  evaporation,  after 
deducting  direct  rainfall,  of  15  inches  or  more,  it  is  negli- 
gible against  the  yield  from  the  contributary  watershed, 
of  which  every  accretion  would  be  held  in  the  storage 
reservoirs.  Existing  developed  water  powers  on  the 
river  would  also  gain  greatly.  The  heights  of  fall  of 
such  water  powers  are:  at  Gait,  8J/2  ft.;  at  Paris,  14  ft.; 
at  Brantford,  Upper  Dam,  16  ft.,  Lower  Dam,  33  ft.; 
at  Caledonia,  7  ft.;  at  Dunnville,  63^  ft. 

A  promising  use  of  the  conserved  water  has  been 
recently  proposed,  (by  N.  Cauchon,  A.M.E.I.C.)  This 
is  to  make  a  diversion  canal,  probably  from  below  Gait  — 
where,  along  the  old  Great  Western  Railway  branch, 
there  is  a  lateral  depression  toward  the  east  —  to  the 
escarpment,  drop  the  water  over  this,  with  fall  of  500 
ft.  or  more,  enabling  development  of  large  power,  and 
make  further  use  of  the  water  for  irrigation  throughout 
the  lake  shore  district.  Irrigation,  once  the  flood  danger 
is  removed,  will  also  find  extended  and  valuable  applica- 
tion in  the  immediate  valley  floor  of  the  river. 

W.  H.  Breithaupt,  M.E.LC 


Government  Salaries 

Editor  Journal: — 

I  have  been  following  with  a  certain  amount  of 
interest  and  a  much  greater  amount  of  disappointment 
the  semi  dignified  movement  on  behalf  of  the  engineers 
of  The  Institute  regarding  a  fair  wage  for  the  profession. 

Some  even  go  so  far  as  to  give  the  remuneration 
received  for  our  work  the  high  sounding  name  of  a  salary 
—  which  it  is  not  —  in  fact  the  average  wage  of  the 
Canadian  engineer  is  hardly  more  than  the  wage  paid 
the  most  ordinary  and  uneducated  class  of  mechanic 
or  make-believe  tradesman  in  practically  all  parts  of 
the  country.  Why,  most  men  are  paying  their  chauffeurs 
from  $100.00  to  $125.00  per  month;  we  even  in  this 
small  town  have  several  instances  of  workmen  being  paid 
better  than  so  called  professional  men ;  one  in  particular  — 
a  man  who  files  saws  draws  $7.50  per  day,  and  a  foreman 
in  charge  of  a  small  construction  job  $10.00  per  day. 
When  employing  a  foreman  over  a  dozen  men  this  summer 
I  was  asked  to  pay  within  75c.  per  day  of  my  own  wage. 

It  is  all  very  well  to  be  dignified  when  one  has  some- 
thing to  be  so  over,  or  when  one  can  be  dignified  at  all 
times;  when,  however,  the  baker  and  butcher,  etc.  have 
to  be  treated  with  something  else  besides  dignity,  and  the 
life  of  an  intelligent  man  has  to  be  ordered  so  that  his 
main  thoughts,  after  the  execution  of  his  work,  are  taken 
up  with  the  problems  of  how  to  make  last  years  suit  do 
again  or  the  roast  from  yesterdays  dinner  do  the  rest  of 
the  week,  etc.,  it  is  quite  time  that  he  got  his  thinking 
cap  on  again  after  hours  for  his  own  benefit. 

If  our  profession  is  worth  anything  it  is  worth  at  least 
a  good  fight  to  make  it  appreciated,  and  if  it  is  necessary 
to  have  a  fight  to  gain  recognition  let  us  get  at  it  and  have 
a  real  one  and  have  it  over  with,  and  if  we  cannot  succeed 
let  us  get  out  like  men. 


We  have  the  weapons  and  they  are  not  of  German 
manufacture  either.  Hadn't  we  better  get  busy  and  use 
them? 

I  do  not  see  why  a  committee  of  hustlers  should 
not  be  appointed  by  The  Institute  to  get  after  this 
end  at  once,  and  arrange  a  campaign  that  will  bring 
results. 

Yours  sincerely, 

A  poor  Government  Engineer. 


Protest  Against  Engineers'  Salaries 

Editor  Journal: — 

I  wish  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Council,  through 
you,  to  the  great  difference  in  salaries  offered  clerical 
help,  such  as  stenographers,  clerks,  etc.,  and  that  of 
engineers. 

One  has  only  to  take  up  the  Civil  Service  Bill,  which 
passed  through  the  Federal  House  last  spring  and  glance 
at  the  salaries  which  are  paid  to  first,  second  and  third 
class  clerks  (we  are  not  even  allowed  the  title  of  engineers) 
to  see  my  point  of  view.  This  state  of  affairs  reflects 
very  unfavorably  on  the  future  welfare  of  The  Institute. 
This  matter  will  receive  very  serious  attention  at  our 
next  Branch  meeting,  and  I  trust  this  will  be  the  case  in 
every  Province  throughout  Canada. 

Yours  truly, 

A  Manitoba  Associate  Member. 


Editor    Journal: — 

Herewith  are  announcements  of  the  Civil  Service 
Commissioners'  Bulletin  applications  for  positions,  which 
should  be  noted  by  the  engineering  profession,  as  to  me 
they  appear  to  be  more  or  less  an  affront  to  the  pro- 
fession:— 

1.  A  Secretarial  Clerk  for  the  permanent  staff  of 
the  President  of  the  Council,  Grade  D.  of  the  First 
Division,  at  an  initial  salary  of  $1,800.00  per  annum. 
Candidates  must  have  secretarial  ability,  capacity  in 
office  management  and  special  shorthand  reporting 
ability. 

2.  A  Female  Clerk  in  the  Employment  Division  of 
the  Department  of  Labour  at  a  salary  of  SI, 6 00.00  per 
annum.  Candidates  must  be  university  graduates  with 
training  in  economics  and  some  practical  experience  in 
social  work.  Some  experience  in  office  management  is 
desirable  with  particular  reference  to  statistical  work. 
A  good  working  knowledge  of  French  is  required. 

3.  An  Assistant  Engineer  on  the  staff  of  the  British 
Columbia  Hydrometric  Survey  at  a  salary  of  $1,500.00 
per  annum.  Candidates  should  not  be  more  than  forty- 
five  years  of  age,  and  should  be  graduates  in  engineering 
of  a  recognized  university.  They  should  have  at  least 
two  years  field  and  office  experience  in  engineering. 

Yours  very  truly, 

An  Associate  Member. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


31 


Diving  Bell,  Halifax,  N.  S. 

Editor  Journal:  — 

The  writer  has  just  received  by  mail  a  copy  of  the 
"  Canadian  Engineer  "  of  31st  October,  1918,  in  which 
are  published  extracts  from  a  letter  to  you  from  John 
Taylor,  of  Hamilton,  Ont.,  regarding  a  paper  read  by 
J.  J.  Macdonald  on  the  Floating  Caisson  or  Diving  Bell 
used  in  preparing  foundations  for  quay  walls  at 
Halifax,  N.S. 

The  writer  has  not  yet  seen  Mr.  Macdonald 's  paper 
or  his  statements,  but  Mr.  Taylor's  letter  and  especially 
his  concluding  statement  that  "  he  feels  it  is  only  just 
that  the  facts  should  be  made  known  to  the  engineers  of 
Canada  as  a  whole  and  he  fully  expects  this  to  be  done  " 
causes  him  (the  writer)  to  write  to  you  in  this  matter,  as 
he  is  probably  the  one  best  personally  acquainted  with 
all  the  facts. 

The  Halifax  Ocean  Terminals  quay  walls  were 
designed  for  the  Canadian  Government  Railways  by 
F.W.  Cowie,  M.E.I.C.,  of  Montreal,  as  consulting  engineer, 
and  the  writer,  as  superintending  engineer,  in  1912-1913. 
Many  designs  and  schemes  were  studied  before  the  type  (of 
original  design)  finally  adopted  was  decided  upon  early 
in  1913,  and  needless  to  say,  much  detailed  consideration 
was  given  to  the  foundation  work  and  to  the  new  types 
of  plant  and  appliances  that  would  be  required  for  the 
proposed  works,  including  rock  drilling,  dredging  and 
concreting  plants,  helmet  and  bell  diving  outfits,  block 
setting  cranes  and  lifting  tongs,  etc. 

The  writer  had  in  1911-1912,  with  Foley,  Welch 
&  Stewart  as  contractors,  successfully  used  as  diving 
bells,  the  large  pneumatic  foundation  caissons  designed 
by  him  for  the  river  piers  of  the  Skeena  River  bridge  on 
the  G.T.P.  Railway  in  B.C.,  for  removing  large  boulders 
and  obstructions  in  fast  flowing  deep  water  on  the  sites 
of  the  piers,  by  working  in  the  working  chambers  with 
the  caissons  grounded  or  afloat  and  made  moveable  as 
desired  by  displacing  or  pumping  out  water.  Other 
people,  he  believes,  have  done  the  same  with  other 
caissons.  The  writer  discussed  this  with  Mr.  Cowie,  and 
together  they  developed  and  sketched  out  the  Floating 
Caisson  or  large  mobile  Diving  Bell  idea  for  their  founda- 
tion work.  The  doubtful  elements  of  the  scheme  were 
cost  and  rate  of  progress.  It  was  therefore  decided 
that  in  letting  the  docks  contract  the  choice  of  methods 
should  be  left  to  the  contractors,  subject  to  stipulated 
rates  of  progress  and  qualities  of  finished  work. 

In  November,  1913,  the  contract  for  the  first  unit 
of  the  Halifax  docks  was  let  to  Foley,  Welch,  Stewart 
&  Fauquier,  who  brought  to  Halifax  as  their  superin- 
tendent James  Taber,  a  well  known  Canadian  expert 
with  wide  experience  in  deep  foundation  and  compressed 
air  work.  The  floating  caisson  or  diving  bell  method 
was  then  again  taken  up,  and  was  thoroughly  examined 
by  Messrs.  R.  B.  Porter  and  Fauquier  of  the  contracting 
company,  Mr.  Taber,  Mr.  Cowie,  and  the  writer,  further 
detailed  sketches  of  the  bell  and  estimates  of  cost  of 
construction  being  made.  It  was  felt  by  all  these  parties 
that  better  work  could  be  done,  with  better  inspection 
and  more  certainty,  with  the  large  diving  bell  than  by 
other  methods,  though  not  at  less  cost. 


The  contractors,  with  a  spirit  and  enterprise  for 
which  they  deserve  great  credit,  decided  to  adopt  the 
Diving  Bell  method,  and  in  view  of  the  advantages  to 
the  work,  the  writer,  with  the  approval  of  Mr.  Gutelius, 
general  manager,  Canadian  Government  Railways, 
prepared  the  working  drawings  for  the  bell  in  his  office 
at  Halifax.  Mr.  Macdonald  was  then  the  writer's 
assistant  and  office  engineer  there,  and  he,  along  with  the 
late  Lieut.  C.  S.  DeGruchy,  M.C.,  and  other  assistants, 
did  excellent  work  on  the  completion  of  the  design  and 
of  the  working  drawings. 

The  tender  scow  with  its  air  compressors,  etc.,  and 
the  air  locks,  etc.,  of  the  Bell  were  designed  and  con- 
structed, or  supplied  and  fitted  by  the  contractors, 
mostly  under  Mr.  Taber's  direction  and  supervision. 

The  general  plan  and  details  of  the  Halifax  Bell 
were  certainly  original  in  that  they  were  designed  for 
a  definite  purpose  on  scientific  first  principles  and  from 
practical  personal  experiences,  and  were  not  copied  from 
any  other  plans  or  plant.  The  designers,  were,  however, 
aware  of,  and  were  naturally  supported  in  their  decisions 
by  the  knowledge  and  precedents  of  the  large  Bells  or 
floating  Caissons  that  had  been  successfully  used  in 
dock  works  in  years  past  at  Marseilles,  Antwerp, 
Rotterdam,  Bilbao,  etc. 

In  the  winter  of  1913-1914,  when  the  Halifax  Bell 
was  designed  in  its  present  form,  none  of  those  responsible 
had,  so  far  as  the  writer  knows,  any  knowledge  of  Mr. 
Taylor's  scheme,  plans,  or  plant.  Unlike  Mr.  Taylor's 
apparatus,  the  new  Halifax  Bell  of  new  design  and  working 
under  new  conditions  in  fairly  open  tidal  waters,  for  the 
first  few  days,  as  was  to  be  expected,  was  the  cause  of 
some  little  anxiety  and  revealed  some  minor  defects. 
The  skill  and  energy,  however,  of  J.  P.  Porter,  who  had 
then  taken  charge  for  the  contractors,  rapidly  overcame 
these  troubles,  and  the  writer  may  safely  say  that  the  Bell 
for  two  years  without  mishap  did  excellent  work  under 
his  personal  supervision  and  made  steady  progress  and 
good  time. 

Writing  from  the  Field  in  France,  the  writer  is  at 
the  disadvantage  of  having  no  notes  or  means  of 
reference  at  hand,  but  the  principles  and  applications  of 
compressed  air  in  working  chambers  of  Caissons,  Diving 
Bells,  etc.,  for  subaqueous  work  must  be  familiar  to  many 
members  of  The  Institute,  and  he  thinks  that  they  will 
agree  that  Mr.  Taylor  unduly  flatters  himself  if  he  claims 
to  be  the  sole  anticipator,  originator  or  inventor  of  large 
Diving  Bells  of  the  Halifax  type. 

The  writer  regrets  he  has  never  had  the  privilege 
of  seeing  Mr.  Taylor's  plant,  but  he  has  a  hazy  recollection 
of  having  heard,  probably  in  1914,  about  an  outfit,  which 
he  thinks  may  have  been  Mr.  Taylor's,  for  cutting  off 
and  capping  piles  on  the  lakes  a  foot  or  two  below  water 
level  in  still  water,  subject  to  no  rise  or  fall  or  range  of 
tide;  that  is,  for  application  to  work  and  conditions  quite 
different  to  those  at  Halifax. 

James  McGregor,  Major. 

C.E.  3rd  Bn.  Can.  Rly.  Troops. 
In  the  Field,  B.E.F.,  France, 
3rd  December,  1918. 


32 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Thoughtful  Suggestions 

Editor  Journal : — 

I  think  an  occasional  letter  from  individual  members, 
in'  appreciation  of  what  you  are  doing  in  our  behalf,  may 
serve  to  encourage  you  in  your  future  efforts.  The 
work  of  getting  out  a  monthly  "Journal  "  is  in  itself  no 
mean  task,  and  the  numbers  I  have  received  are  a  credit 
to  The  Institute.  The  influenza  epidemic  has  retarded 
progress  in  our  local  branch  as  public  meetings  were  out 
of  the  question.  There  are  important  matters  to  be 
discussed,  particularly  that  of  legislation  affecting  the 
engineering  profession.  I  think  the  draft  act  submitted 
by  the  Saskatchewan  Branch  illustrates  one  of  the  great 
dangers  to  be  avoided  by  The  Institute  in  Canada. 

The  idea  that  competition  among  members  of  the 
profession  is  the  cause  of  the  unsatisfactory  conditions 
of  employment  and  remuneration  is  entirely  erroneous. 
Engineering  work  is  not  a  fixed  quantity  in  any  com- 
munity, nor  can  it  be  reckoned  as  a  percentage  based 
on  population.  There  is  room  for  unlimited  growth  and 
expansion,  one  successful  enterprise  making  way  for 
another.  It  is  a  case  of  "  work  makes  work  "  and  the 
benefit  is  not  limited  to  any  one  line.  The  lack  of 
definite  knowledge  that  a  certain  undertaking  can  be 
carried  through  successfully  often  exerts  a  retarding 
influence  on  other  lines  of  development.  Likewise 
research  work,  exploration  and  the  collecting  and  tabulat- 
ing of  data  have  a  marked  influence  in  increasing  demand 
for  engineering  services.  To-day  an  engineer  must 
specialize,  consequently  he  must  be  able  to  move  in  the 
widest  possible  field  to  keep  steady  employment.  This 
prohibits  local  protection.  There  is  no  surer  way  of 
producing  stagnation  in  the  profession  than  by  forming 
closed  corporations.  It  is  true  that  congestion  is  bound 
to  occur  in  certain  centres  from  time  to  time  which 
re-acts  most  unfavorably  on  those  who  are  permanently 
located  there.  Better  organization  and  more  mutual 
consideration  among  members  would  do  much  to  obviate 
this  difficulty. 

One  good  feature  embodied  in  the  Saskatchewan 
draft  was  that  of  registration,  but  such  a  measure  should 
require  merely  a  nominal  fee.  This  would  enable  the 
local  branches  to  keep  tab  on  irresponsible  individuals 
who  were  practising  engineering  to  the  detriment  of  the 
profession.  I  am  not  here  referring  to  competition,  but 
to  the  injurious  effect  of  incompetent  work.  The  failure 
of  an  undertaking,  excessive  cost,  reports  which  are 
unreliable,  all  make  for  a  decreased  demand  for  engineering 
services. 

With  the  seasons's  best  wishes. 
Sincerely  yours, 
G.  B.  McColl,  A.M.E.I.C. 

Some  Salary  Offers 

Editor  Journal : — 

Owing  to  my  position  here  as  district  engineer,  t 
am  in  receipt  each  week  of  a  Government  publication 
called  the  "  Canadian  Official  Record."  In  reading  over 
this  paper  I  have  come  across  some  items  which  I  believe 
should  be  brought  to  the  notice  of  Council  for  action. 


On  page  4  of  the  issue  of  November  5th,  1918,  there 
is  a  notice  of  positions  vacant  in  the  Civil  Service,  I  quote 
therefrom  as  follows: — 

"2.  A  Clerk  in  the  Statistical  and  Research 
Branch  of  the  Department  of  Labor  at  a  salary  of 
$1,800.00  per  annum.  Candidates  should  be 
graduates  of  a  recognized  university  with  training 
in  economics  and  research  work  and  some  knowledge 
of  office  routine. 

3.  A  Photographer  for  the  Exhibits  and 
Publicity  Bureau  of  the  Department  of  Trade  and 
Commerce  at  an  initial  salary  of  $1,600.00  per 
annum.  Candidates  must  have  a  complete  know- 
ledge of  photography,  etc. 

5.  An  Assistant  Engineer  in  the  office  of  the 
Water  Power  Branch  at  Winnipeg,  Department  of 
the  Interior,  at  a.  salary  of  81,500.00  per  annum. 
Applicants  should  be  British  subjects,  not  more  than 
35  years  of  age.  They  should  be  graduates  in 
engineering  of  some  recognized  university  and  should 
have  at  least  two  years  field  and  office  experience  in 
engineering." 

Here  is  another,  in  the  issue  of  December  3rd,  as 
follows : — 

"  1.  A  secretarial  clerk  for  the  permanent 
staff  of  the  President  of  the  Council,  Grade  D.  of 
the  First  Division,  at  an  initial  salary  of  $1,800.00 
per  annum.  Candidates  should  know  shorthand 
and  have  office  ability. 

2.  A  female  clerk  in  the  Employment  Division 
of  the  Department  of  Labour  at  a  salary  of  $1,600.00 
per  annum.  Qualifications  as  in  paragraph  2  above.'' 

3.  An  assistant  engineer  on  the  staff  of  the 
British  Columbia  Hydrometric  Survey  at  a  salary 
of  81,500  per  annum."  Qualifications  as  for  the 
other  engineering  position  vacant." 

Is  The  Institute  interested  in  its  members?  Is  it 
taking  any  notice  of  the  fact  that  the  Civil  Service 
Commission  is  at  present  working  on  the  reorganization 
of  the  outside  service  and  the  question  of  the  remuneration 
for  a  great  many  members  of  The  Institute. 

It  would  look  as  though  it  were  better  to  be  a 
"  female  clerk  "  than  an  engineer. 

Yours  sincerely, 

One  Affected,  A.M.E.I.C. 


UNCLASSIFIED 

Eye,  Sensibility.  The  Sensibility  of  the  Eye  to  Light  of  Different  Colors.  Sci. 
Am.  Supp.,  vol.  86,  no.  2236,  Nov.  9,  191.3,  p.  301,  1  fig.  Results  of  measure- 
ments carried  out  at  Bureau  of  Standards. 

Rolling  Mills.  Diagonals  for  Designing  Rolls  for  Billet  Mills,  A.  R.  Mitchell 
Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  facing  page  1198.  Tables  for 
determining  dimensions  of  passes  when  width  and  corner  radii  of  billets  are 
given. 

Spark  Plugs.  Note  on  the  Effect  of  Temperature  on  the  Resistances  of  Spark  Plug 
Insulations,  J.  D.  Morgan.  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2758,  Nov.  8,  1918, 
pp.  513-51  l,  3  figs.     Description  of  an  investigation. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


33 


PERSONALS 


Gunner  W.  G.  Mawhinney,  B.C.E.  (Man.)  S.E.I.C, 
returned  to  Canada,  December  20th,  on  the  SS. 
"  Regina,"  and  is  spending  a  furlough  at  his  home  in 
Tuelon,  Manitoba. 

Among  the  many  members  of  The  Institute  who  have 
been  rewarded  for  their  bravery  during  the  War,  will  be 
noted  with  great  satisfaction  the  name  of  Lieut. 
Frederick  Alport,  A.M.E.I.C.,  who  was  recently  decorated 
with  the  Military  Cross. 

E.  L.  Cousins,  A.M.E.I.C.,  chief  engineer  and 
general  manager,  Toronto  Harbour  Commissioners,  who 
has  been  for  the  past  six  months  acting  as  assistant  fuel 
controller  for  Ontario,  has  recently  accepted  the  position 
of  industrial  commissioner  for  the  city  of  Toronto,  in 
which  capacity  his  services  will  be  gratuitously  given. 

Lieut.  W.  D.  Stavely,  is  still  another  member  of  The 
Institute  to  receive  recognition  for  conspicuous  bravery 
while  on  active  service,  having  recently  been  awarded 
the  Military  Cross.  Lieut.  Stavely  is  a  graduate  of 
McGill  University  and  became  an  associate  member  of 
The  Institute  in  1913.  Before  going  overseas  he  was 
with  Thomas  Kirk,  A.M.E.I.C,  Q.L.S. 

Major  A.  Douglas  Fisken,  M.C.,  J.E. I.C.,  of  Toronto, 
was  welcomed  home  recently  after  many  months  of 
active  service  at  the  front.  Major  Fisken  who  is  an 
R.M.C.  man,  was  in  the  thick  of  the  fighting  with  the 
Canadians,  was  gassed  and  severely  wounded.  He  plans 
to  go  to  Victoria  at  an  early  date,  pending  his  discharge 
from  the  army,  and  anticipates  residing  at  the  Coast. 

Boris  A.  Bakhmeteff,  M.E.I.C.,  Russian  Ambassador 
to  the  United  States,  is  now  in  Paris  with  other  Russian 
diplomats  seeking  to  preserve  a  United  Russia.  In  an 
announcement  to  the  Associated  Press  Mr.  Bakhmeteff 
stated  that  Russia  has  been  granted  a  respectful  hearing 
by  the  Allies  in  her  request  for  representation  at  the 
Peace  Conference. 

V.  I.  Smart,  M.E.I.C.  formerly  Professor  of  Railway 
Engineering  and  Transportation,  McGill  University,  and 
J.  A.  Burnett,  A.M.E.I.C,  formerly  Electrical  Engineer, 
Grand  Trunk  Railway  System,  are  now  associated  as 
Consulting  Engineers,  located  at,  821  New  Briks 
Building,  Montreal.  The  lines  handled  will  be  civil, 
electrical  and  mechanical  engineering. 

H.  T.  Eaton,  who  is  a  student  member  of  The  Institute, 
has  received  his  commission  as  a  lieutenant  in  the 
Canadian  Engineers.  Lieut.  Eaton  has  been  with  the 
Canadian  Expeditionary  Force  since  1914  when  he 
went  overseas  with  the  1st  Field  Troop.  He  is  a  graduate 
of  Queen's  University  and  was  practicing  as  a  civil 
engineer  in  Controller  Tyrrell's  office,  Toronto,  before 
enlistment. 


Howard  G.  Kelley,  M.E.I.C,  President  of  the  Grand 
Trunk  Railway  System,  in  his  New  Year's  Greetings  to 
the  officers  and  employees  said  in  part : — 

"  At  the  close  of  this  eventful  year,  in  which  peace 
has  been  restored  to  the  world,  I  desire  personally  to 
thank  all  officers  and  employees  for  the  part  they  enabled 
the  Grand  Trunk  to  play  in  winning  the  war  by  their 
loval  and  efficient  service." 


The  Dominion  Government  has  appointed  A.  W. 
Campbell,  M.E.I.C,  to  report  on  the  action  which  should 
be  taken  by  the  Government  in  connection  with  the 
construction  and  improvement  of  roads,  for  which  it  is 
being  asked  to  give  its  aid.  Mr.  Campbell  was  greatly 
interested  in  the  subject  while  Deputy  Minister  of  Public 
Works  for  Ontario  about  eight  years  ago  before  becoming 
Deputy  Minister  of  Railways  and  Canals,  which  position 
he  has  lately  resigned. 


G.  J.  Lamb,  Jr.,  J.E.I.C,  has  resigned  his  position 
as  acting  engineer  of  the  city  of  Port  Arthur  and  accepted 
an  engineering  appointment  with  the  Kipawa  Fibre  Co., 
Temiskaming  who  are  constructing  a  new  town  site  in 
connection  with  their  plant,  with  housing  accommodation 
for  about  7,000  people.  R.S.  &  W.S.  Lea  and  H.  S. 
Ferguson,  members  of  The  Institute,  are  the  consulting 
engineers  for  this  work,  the  contract  for  which  is  held  by 
The  Fuller  Construction  Co. 


Brigardier-General  Charles  J.  Armstrong,  C.M.G., 
M.E.I.C,  is  receiving  the  congratulations  of  his  many 
friends  on  the  honor  bestowed  on  him  by  the  King  at  the 
New  Year  in  being  created  a  Companion  of  the  Bath. 
At  the  outbreak  of  the  war  he  was  one  of  the  first  to 
volunteer  and  went  over  with  the  First  Contingent  as 
Colonel  in  Command  of  the  Engineers.  He  became 
Brigadier-General  and  after  receiving  severe  injuries 
in  a  railway  accident  which  kept  him  in  hospital  nineteen 
months,  he  was  attached  to  the  Imperial  forces.  He 
is  now  Chief  Engineer  of  the  Seventh  Army  Corps,  and 
in  charge  of  the  repair  and  reconstruction  of  canals  in 
Belgium  and  France.  He  also  saw  service  in  South 
Africa. 


Captain  Geo.  H.  Ferguson,  M.C,  B.A.Sc, 
A.M.E.I.C,  of  Toronto,  has  recently  retired  from  the 
army  and  expects  to  resume  his  former  occupation  at 
an  early  date.  Enlisting  in  the  early  days  of  the  war 
Captain  Ferguson  was  in  the  thick  of  the  fighting  in  the 
forward  area  during  the  Somme,  Vimy  and  Paschaendael 
engagements  and  was  continuously  under  fire  during  the 
German  advance  in  the  spring  of  1918  and  remained 
unhurt  until  the  end  of  June,  when  his  leg  was  broken. 
Due  to  continuous  exposure  he  suffered  from  complications, 
which  necessitated  his  returning  home  for  a  rest,  where 
he  was  convalescing  when  the  armistice  was  signed. 
Captain  Ferguson's  many  friends  in  the  profession  wish 
him  a  speedy  recovery  to  enable  him  to  continue  his 
successful  engineering  career. 


34 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Major  F.  L.  C.  BOND,  A.M.E.I.C. 


Major  F.  L.  C.  BOND,  A.M.E.I.C. 
Chief  Engineer,  Grand  Trxink  Railway 

Major  F.  L.  C.  Bond,  A.M.E.I.C,  has  been  appointed 
by  the  Executive  of  the  Grand  Trunk  Railway  as  chief 
engineer  of  the  System  to  succeed  H.  R.  Safford, 
M.E.I.C.,  who  resigned  recently  to  become  regional 
director  of  the  Central  Western  District,  United  States 
Railroad  Administration.  Major  Bond  has  just  returned 
from  overseas  after  two  years'  service  with  the  10th 
Battalion  Canadian  Railway  Troops.  He  was  born  in 
Montreal  in  1877,  was  educated  at  Montreal  High 
School,  the  Collegiate  Institute  and  McGill  University. 
Upon  graduating  from  McGill  in  1898  he  entered  the 
service  of  the  Grand  Trunk  as  Assistant  Resident  Engineer 
of  the  Eastern  Division,  and  in  1901  was  appointed 
engineer  in  charge  of  double  track  construction.  In  1902 
he  was  night  superintendent  on  the  construction  of  the 
Park  Avenue  tunnel,  of  the  New  York  subway,  but 
returned  to  the  Grand  Trunk  as  Resident  Engineer, 
Eastern  Division,  a  position  which  he  held  until  1913. 
From  1913  to  1916,  when  he  went  overseas,  Major  Bond 
was  Division  Engineer, .  Eastern  Lines,  Grand  Trunk 
Railway  System.  He  holds  a  high  reputation  in  railway 
and  engineering  circles,  and  his  work  with  the  Canadian 
Expeditionary  Force  won  the  highest  commendation. 


OBITUARIES 


Henry  Martyn  Peck,  S.E.I.C. 

News  of  the  death  but  no  particulars  have  been 
received  concerning  Henry  Martyn  Peck,  Student  member 
of  The  Institude,  who  died  of  wounds  in  France, 
September  28th,  1918.  The  late  Mr.  Peck  was  twenty-six 
years  of  age  and  was  educated  at  Moncton  College, 
England  and  Toronto  University.  His  home  was  at 
324  Glen  Road,  Toronto. 


Leonard  Oswald  Clarke,  A.M.E.I.C. 

On  November  22nd,  Leonard  Oswald  Clarke, 
A.M.E.I.C,  O.L.S.,  succumbed  to  an  attack  of  influenza- 
pneumonia  at  the  age  of  thirty-seven  years.  He  entered 
The  Institute  as  a  Student  member  in  1903,  and  became 
an  Associate  Member  in  1906,  at  which  time  he  was 
town  engineer  of  North  Bay,  Ont.  During  this  time 
the  present  water  and  sewer  systems,  including  large 
storage  reservoirs,  were  designed  and  constructed. 
Previous  to  this  he  was  connected  with  F.  W.  Farncomb, 
of  London,  Ont.,  and  afterwards  with  the  late  Jos.  Cozens, 
at  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  Ont.  For  a  number  of  years  the  late 
Mr.  Clarke  engaged  in  private  practice  in  North  Bay, 
following  which  he  was  engaged  in  contracting,  mainly  on 
the  Lake  Superior  Division  of  the  Canadian  Pacific 
Railway. 

Mr.  Clarke  was  well  know  in  the  north  country, 
having  laid  out  many  of  the  town  sites  along  the  T.  &  N.  O. 


Railway,  including  Cobalt,  Ont.  He  was  a  prominent 
Mason,  being  Past  District  Grand  Prior  for  Algoma 
District.  For  the  past  three  years  Mr.  Clarke  has  made 
his  home  in  Toronto,  where  he  was  buried  on  November 
23rd,  at  Mount  Pleasant  Cemetery.  His  family  will 
make  their  home  in  Aurora,  Ont. 


Walter  Kendall  Greenwood,  B.A.Sc.,  A.M.E.I.C. 

After  a  brief  illness  from  pneumonia,  Walter  Kendall 
Greenwood,  A.M.E.I.C,  engineer  of  the  Orillia  Water, 
Light  and  Power  Commission,  died  at  his  home  in  Orillia 
at  the  age  of  thirty-seven  years.  Born  in  Toronto  on 
June  1st,  1881,  he  entered  the  Upper  Canada  College  in 
1894  and  later  attended  the  University  of  Toronto, 
graduating  with  honours  in  1905.  During  his  summer 
holidays  he  occupied  positions  as  draftsman  with  Canadian 
General  Electric  Company,  draftsman  and  engineer  with 
Hamilton  Gas  Light  Company,  assistant  to  superintendent 
Toronto  Niagara  Power  Transmission  Line.  For  a  year 
he  was  manager  and  superinendent  of  the  Bowman ville 
Electric  Light  Company  and  later  occupied  a  position 
with  the  Producer  Gas  Company  of  Toronto.  In  1907 
he  was  resident  engineer  of  the  Simcoe  Water  Works 
construction  and  in  1908  occupied  a  similar  position  at 
Thorold,  Ont.,  later  securing  the  position  which  he 
occupied  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

The  late  Mr.  Greenwood  was  elected  an  Associate 
Member  of  The  Institute  in   1908  and  took  an  active 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


35 


interest  in  its  affairs.  At  the  time  of  the  Professional 
Meeting  held  in  Toronto  last  spring,  he  took  an  active 
part  in  the  discussion  of  several  of  the  papers.  He  was 
a  son  of  Russell  Greenwood,  of  Toronto,  and  was  held  in 
the  highest  esteem  by  all  who  knew  him. 

♦         ♦         ♦ 

]Yilliam  John  Galbraith,  B.Sc,  A.M.E.I.C. 

An  illness  of  only  two  weeks  from  influenza  which 
developed  into  pneumonia,  caused  the  death  of  William 
John  Galbraith,  B.Sc,  A.M.E.I.C.,  at  his  home,  4145 
Dorchester  Street,  Westmount,  on  Saturday,  December 
the  21st,  at  the  age  of  32  years.  The  late  Mr.  Galbraith 
was  a  Montreal  boy,  having  attended  high  school  in  this 
city,  graduating  from  McGill  University  in  1909.  In 
the  statement  of  his  engineering  career,  he  mentioned 
that  he  was  engaged  as  a  draftsman  with  the  Dominion 
Bridge  Company,  in  1902,  previous  to  his  entering  McGill. 
On  his  graduation  he  was  with  the  Geological  Survey  in 
British  Columbia;  about  two  years  later,  he  was  assistant 
engineer  on  caisson  work  on  the  sub-structure  of  the 
Quebec  Bridge.  As  a  contractor  on  his  own  account  he 
undertook  a  number  of  important  works,  including  the 
Government  dock  at  Berthier,  Que. ;  dam  and  power  house 
at  Ingles  Falls,  Ont.;  two  railway  bridges  at  St.  Hyacin- 
the;  reinforced  concrete  rib  arch  bridge  over  the  Speed 
River  at  Guelph,  the  wireless  station  at  Newcastle,  N.B., 
and  the  dam  and  power  house  over  the  Severn  River, 
for  the  Hydro-Electric  Power  Commission,  Ontario. 

In  1916  the  late  Mr.  Galbraith  joined  the  Foundation 
Company  as  superintendent  of  construction,  and  devoted 
his  attention  to  the  erection  of  shipbuilding  plants  at 
Victoria,  Seattle,  Tacoma  and  Savannah,  and  at  the 
time  of  his  death  was  engaged  in  construction  of  a  ship 
canal  and  shipyards  at  New  Orleans.  He  had  been 
called  to  Montreal  in  connection  with  the  valuation  of 
a  shipyard  for  the  Dominion  Government. 

An  energetic,  capable,  construction  engineer  and 
typically  Canadian,  at  an  early  age  engaged  on  some  of 
the  largest  construction  works  on  the  Continent,  he  had 
already  achieved  success  and  his  career  promised  to  be 
one  far  beyond  the  average. 

He  is  survived  by  Mrs.  Galbraith  and  one  daughter. 


Laurence  Anablc  Darcy,  M.E.I.C. 

Laurence  A.  Darey  died  suddenly  at  his  home  in 
Sherbrooke,  on  November  29th,  and  was  buried  at  the 
Mount  Royal  Cemetery,  Montreal,  on  December  2nd. 
He  was  widely  known  in  Canada  in  connection  with 
railway  engineering. 

In  later  years  he  had  been  mainly  connected  with  the 
building  of  the  Transcontinental  Railway,  though  in 
the  western  construction  camps  of  the  Canadian 
Northern  and  on  various  lines  in  the  western  United 
States,  "  Larry "  Darey  was  equally  well  known  and 
widely  popular. 

He  was  born  in  Montreal  on  May  8th,  1865,  the 
second  son  of  the  late  P.  J.  Darey,  Professor  of  French  at 
McGill  University.  He  was  educated  at  McGill  University 
and  Union  College  Schenectady.  He  early  entered  the 
profession  of  railway  engineering  some  years  in  Georgia, 


a  year  in  Chili  four  years  in  the  Panama  and  a  period  in 
the  western  States  were  among  his  early  railroad 
experiences.  In  1902  he  married  Ardella  E.  Murphy  of 
Decorah ,  Iowa .  He  was  later  with  the  Canadian  Northern 
in  Saskatchewan  and  afterward  with  the  G.T.P.  at 
Winnipeg.  For  a  few  years  he  was  chief  engineer  for  the 
St.  Maurice  Construction  Company  at  Three  Rivers 
and  for  nine  years  prior  to  the  outbreak  of  war  he  was 
divisional  engineer  on  the  Transcontinental  Railway 
above  La  Tuque,  Que. 

For  the  past  four  years  the  late  Mr.  Darey  had 
resided  in  Sherbrooke  where  he  held  the  post  of  chief 
engineer  for  the  Good  Roads  movement.  Ill  health  had 
prevented  him  from  engaging  in  active  work  for  the  last 
two  years  but  his  death  came  unexpectedly.  Disappointed 
at  the  fact  that  his  health  prevented  him  from  joining  a 
construction  unit  for  overseas  service,  he  went  last 
spring  to  the  Rockies  and  spent  two  months  at  the 
Yellowhead  Pass  in  connection  with  the  taking  up  of 
steel  for  shipment  to  France. 

He  is  survived  by  Mrs.  Darey,  who  is  at  present 
residing  in  Sherbrooke. 

Albert  James  Hill,  M.E.I.C. 

One  of  the  original  members  of  The  Institute  passed 
away  on  November  26th,  at  his  home  in  New  Westminster, 
B.C.,  in  the  person  of  Albert  James  Hill,  at  the  ripe  age 
of  eighty-two  years.  He  is  survived  by  Mrs.  Hill,  one 
daughter  and  two  sons,  F.  T.  Hill,  of  New  Westminster 
and  E.  B.  Hill,  M.E.I.C,  of  Vancouver. 

The  late  Mr.  Hill  was  born  at  Sydney,  Cape  Breton, 
on  April  7th,  1836,  his  parents  being  John  Lewis  and 
Margaret  Hill,  the  latter  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Joseph  Whyte, 
R.N.,  of  Banff,  Scotland.  His  early  education  was  acquired 
at  home  and  he  spent  several  years  associated  with  his 
brothers  in  the  building  and  launching  of  two  schooners. 
In  1860  he  entered  Horton  Collegiate  Academy,  where  he 
completed  his  education,  and  in  1866  married  Agnes 
Lawrence,  the  youngest  daughter  of  Alexander  Lawrence 
of  St.  John,  New  Brunswick.  After  spending  two  years 
as  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  Horton  Academy,  Mr.  Hill 
accepted  an  appointment  on  the  European  &  North 
American  Railroad,  assisting  in  locating  the  line  to  Winn 
on  the  Penobscot  River.  During  the  next  six  years  he 
was  connected  with  different  railroad  companies  in  their 
exploration,  survey  and  construction  departments.  After 
that  he  turned  from  railway  building  to  the  development 
of  the  coal  resources  of  the  country.  He  carried  on  a 
geological  survey  of  the  eastern  Cape  Breton  coalfields, 
afterward  embodied  with  the  plans  of  the  Dominion 
geological  survey  and  published  by  order  of  the  govern- 
ment. On  January  1st,  1880,  Mr.  Hill  was  ordered  to 
British  Columbia  on  the  construction  on  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Railroad,  on  the  contract  from  Yale  to  Savona. 

He  continued  in  that  work  until  October,  1882,  when 
he  was  removed  to  Port  Moody,  closing  his  connection 
with  the  government  service  in  December,  1884.  He 
then  engaged  in  the  private  practice  of  his  profession  in 
New  Westminster.  He  was  at  one  time  engineer  for  the 
Municipality  of  Surrey.  He  has  rendered  efficient 
service  both  in  public  and  private  capacities  to  geological 


36 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


research  in  his  native  province  and  in  British  Columbia. 
His  life  work  has  been  a  valuable  contribution  to  those 
labors  which  figure  as  factors  in  civilization  and  general 
improvement  and  he  had  a  wide  acquaintance  among 
those  who  are  prominent  in  scientific  and  professional 
circles  throughout  the  country. 

*     *     * 

Professor  William  Muir  Edwards,  M.Sc,  M.E.I.C. 

The  Edmonton  Branch,  and,  in  fact,  the  entire 
Institute,  suffered  a  severe  loss  in  the  death,  on  Thursday, 
November  14th,  of  Professor  William  Muir  Edwards,  of 
pneumonia  following  influenza.  His  death  will  cause  the 
deepest  regret  among  a  very  wide  circle  of  friends  and 
admirers,  not  only  in  the  city  of  Edmonton,  where  he 
was  professor  in  civil  and  municipal  engineering  in  the 
University   of  Alberta,   but   throughout   Canada.     Few 


Late  Professor  W.  M.  Edwards 

men  have  the  combined  ability  and  devotion  to  public 
service  that  were  his.  Following  a  brillant  career  at 
McGill  University,  where  he  graduated  with  the  degrees 
of  B.Sc.  in  mining  engineering,  and  M.Sc,  he  was  for 
two  years  in  charge  of  municipal  engineering  and  mathe- 
matics, also  hydraulic  engineering,  at  McGill  University. 
When  the  University  of  Alberta  was  organized  in  1907 
he  was  appointed  to  the  professorial  chair  which  he 
occupied  at  the  time  of  his  death. 

In  university  circles  he  was  a  leading  member  of 
the  Faculty,  having  held  the  Presidency  of  the  Faculty 
Club  for  five  years.  His  interests  in  student  welfare 
were  of  the  most  varied  character  and  always  sustained 
with  unflagging  energy.  He  took  an  active  part  in 
athletics  and  trained  the  Varsity  team  in  1914  which 
carried  off  the  senior  Provincial  championship.  He  was 
President  of  the  Soldiers'  Comfort  Club  and  editor  of  the 
"News  Letter"  which  was  sent  every  week  to  every  student 


of  the  University  on  active  service.  His  public  spirit 
and  citizenship  was  shown  in  his  being  the  prime  mover 
in  establishing  the  south  side  branch  of  the  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association  and  for  two  years  he  served  as 
officer  commanding  the  101st  regiment. 

He  was  also  actively  connected  with  Knox  Presby- 
terian Church  of  which  he  was  an  elder  as  well  as  a 
member  of  the  board  of  managers. 

The  following  tribute  to  the  late  Professor  Edwards 
appeared  in  an  editorial  of  the  Edmonton  Journal  on 
November  15th. 

"  Many  devoted  Edmonton  men  and  women  have 
literally  sacrified  their  lives  in  fighting  the  scourge  which 
has  played  such  havoc  here  in  the  past  few  weeks  and  in 
seeking  to  alleviate  the  suffering  of  those  already  stricken 
down.  Professor  W.  Muir  Edward,  of  the  University 
of  Alberta,  belonged  to  that  heroic  band.  The  volunteer 
work  which  has  been  done  in  this  city  during  this  period 
of  great  affliction  has  been  of  the  kind  that  gives  one  a 
new  faith  in  humanity.  Whether,  like  him,  they  have 
given  the  last  full  measure  of  devotion  or  whether  they 
have  come  safely  through  the  dangers  of  their  self- 
imposed  tasks,  we  cannot  begin  to  render  to  them  the 
tribute  that  is  their  due. 

Apart  from  this,  the  loss  of  Professor  Edwards  to  the 
city  and  the  province  is  a  most  serious  one.  One  of  the 
original  members  of  the  University  staff,  he  did  most 
excellent  work  in  his  department  both  in  the  days  of 
small  things  for  the  institution  and  after  it  had  attained 
a  large  development.  His  engineering  advice  was  often 
sought  and  highly  valued  in  connection  with  civic  and 
other  undertakings. 

Few  men  have  a  wider  range  of  interests.  He  was 
as  active  in  church  and  Y.M.C.A.  work  as  in  the  promotion 
of  athletics.  Nothing  which  went  to  the  building  up  of 
clean,  virile  young  manhood  failed  to  attract  his  interest 
and  his  energies.  He  had  nothing  whatever  in  common 
with  the  ordinary  notion  of  a  university  professor,  living 
in  a  world  of  abstractions  apart  from  the  world  of  men. 
It  is  because  the  provincial  seat  of  higher  learning  has, 
in  all  that  it  has  done,  kept  so  close  to  the  everyday  life 
about  it  that  it  has  made  such  a  place  of  usefulness  for 
itself  and  has  made  such  a  growth  in  its  comparatively 
short  time  of  existence. 

In  the  great  years  ahead  of  us,  men  like  Professor 
Edwards  will  be  needed  as  never  before  and  his  death, 
with  all  its  attendant  circumstances,  is  a  most  poignant 
tragedy." 

In  the  engineering  profession  in  which  he  occupied 
a  high  place  his  interest  was  constant.  When  the 
Edmonton  Engineering  Society  was  in  existence  he 
took  an  active  interest  in  the  organization  and  when 
elected  President  arranged  a  re-organization  as  the 
Edmonton  Branch  of  the  Canadian  Society  of  Civil 
Engineers,  which  gave  Edmonton  engineers  better  status. 
Shorty  before  his  death  he  helped  the  Edmonton  Branch 
to  take  a  prominent  part  in  provincial  legislation  and 
the  draft  Act  which  the  Branch  has  submitted  is  largely 
his  work. 

The  late  Professor  Edwards  was  born  in  Montreal, 
November  14th,  1879  and  is  survived  by  Mrs.  Edwards 
and  a  small  family. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


37 


Preliminary  Notice  of  Application  for  Admission 
and  for  Transfer 

The  By-Laws  now  provide  that  the  Council  of  the  Society  shall 
approve,  classify  and  elect  candidates  to  membership  and  transfer 
from  one  grade  of  membership  to  a  higher. 

It  is  also  provided  that  there  shall  be  issued  to  all  corporate  members 
a  list  of  the  new  applicants  for  admission  and  for  transfer,  containing 
a  concise  statement  of  the  record  of  each  applicant  and  the  names  of  his 
references. 

In  order  that  the  Council  may  determine  justly  the  eligibility  of 
each  candidate,  every  member  is  asked  to  read  carefully  the  list 
submitted  herewith  and  to  report  promptly  to  Secretary  any  facts 
which  may  affect  the  classification  and  election  of  any  of  the  candidates. 
In  cases  where  the  professional  career  of  an  applicant  is  known  to  any 
member,  such  member  is  specially  invited  to  make  a  definite  recom- 
mendation as  to  the  proper  classification  of  the  candidate.* 

If  to  your  knowledge  facts  exist  which  are  derogatory  to  the  personal 
reputation  of  any  applicant,  should  be  promptly  communicated. 

Communications  relating  to  applicants  are  considered  by 
the  Council  as  strictly  confidential. 


The  Council   will   consider  the  applications  herein  described   in 
January,   1910. 

Fraser  S.  Keith,  Secretary. 


•The  professional  requirements  are  as  follows: — 

Every  candidate  for  election  as  MEMBER  must  be  at  least  thirty  years  of  age, 
and  must  have  been  engaged  in  some  branch  of  engineering  for  at  least  twelve  years, 
which  period  may  include  apprenticeship  or  pupilage  in  a  qualified  engineer's  office 
or  a  term  of  instruction  in  some  school  of  engineering  recognized  by  the  Council.  The 
term  of  twelve  years  may,  at  the  discretion  of  the  Council,  be  reduced  to  ten  years 
in  the  case  of  a  candidate  who  has  graduated  in  an  engineering  course.  In  every  case 
the  candidate  must  have  had  responsible  charge  of  work  for  at  least  five  years,  and  this 
not  merely  as  a  skilled  workman,  but  as  an  engineer  qualified  to  design  and  direct 
engineering  works. 

Every  candidate  for  election  as  an  ASSOCIATE  MEMBER  must  be  at  least 
twenty-five  years  of  age,  and  must  have  been  engaged  in  some  branch  of  engineering 
for  at  least  six  years,  which  period  may  include  apprenticeship  or  pupilage  in  a  qualified 
engineers'  office,  or  a  term  of  instruction  in  some  school  of  engineering  recognized  by 
the  Council.  In  every  case  the  candidate  must  have  held  a  position  of  professional 
responsibility,  in  charge  of  work  as  principal  or  assistant,  for  at  least  two  years. 

Every  candidate  who  is  not  a  graduate  of  some  school  of  engineering  recognized 
by  the  Council,  shall  be  required  to  pass  an  examination  before  a  Board  of  Examiners 
appointed  by  the  Council,  on  the  theory  and  practice  of  engineering,  and  especially 
inoneofthefollowingbranches at hisoption Railway,  Municipal,  Hydraulic,  Mechanical, 
Mining,  or  Electrical  Engineering. 

This  examination  may  be  waived  at  the  discretion  of  the  Council  if  the  candidate 
has  held  a  position  of  professional  responsibility  for  five  years  or  more  years. 

Every  candidate  for  election  as  JUNIOR  shall  be  at  least  twenty-one  years  of 
age,  and  must  have  been  engaged  in  some  branch  of  engineering  for  at  least  four  years. 
This  period  may  be  reduced  to  one  year,  at  the  discretion  of  the  Council,  if  the  candidate 
is  a  graduate  of  some  school  of  engineering  recognized  by  the  Council.  He  shall  not 
remain  in  the  class  of  Junior  after  he  has  attained  the  age  of  thirty-five  years. 

Every  candidate  who  is  not  a  graduate  of  some  school  of  engineering  recognized 
by  the  Council,  or  has  not  passed  the  examinations  of  the  first  year  in  such  a  course, 
shall  be  required  to  pass  an  examination  in  the  following  subjects  Geography,  History 
(that  of  Canada  in  particular).  Arithmetic,  Geometry  Euclid  (Books  I. -IV.  and  VI.), 
Trigonometry,  Algebra  up  to  and  including  quadratic  equations. 

Every  candidate  for  election  as  ASSOCIATE  shall  be  one  who  by  his  pursuits, 
scientific  acquirements,  or  practical  experience  is  qualified  to  co-operate  with  engineers 
in  the  advancement  of  professional  knowledge. 


The  fact  that  candidates  give  the  names 
of  certain  members  as  references  does  not 
necessarily  mean  that  their  applications 
are  endorsed  by  such  members. 


FOR    ADMISSION 

BALFOUR— HARRY  E.,  of  Quebec,  Que.  Born  at  Emerson,  Man.,  Jan.  22nd, 
18S4.  Educ.  Vancouver  high  school,  I.  C.  S.,  graphic  statics  and  proportioning 
materials,  reinforced  concrete  construction.  International  Library  of  Tech.  With 
National  Transcontinental  Ry.,  as  follows:  1906-07,  draughtsman,  Ottawa:  Jan.  1907 
to  June  1907,  draughtsman  and  topographer  on  location;  1907-09,  asst.  engr.  on  constr. 
Resy.  21B  (2  mos.  acting  res.  engr.);  1909-10,  draughtsman  dist.  office,  North  Bay; 
Mar.  to  Nov.  1910,  res.  engr.  Resy.  23,  D;  1911-12,  draughtsman  in  Winnipeg  Car 
Shops  (3  mos.  asst.  engr.  constr);  1912-13,  draughtsman  on  design,  Quebec  Loco. 
Shops;  1913-10,  asst.  engr.  of  constr.,  Quebec  shop  plant;  1916  to  date,  asst.  engr. 
Jos.  Goeselin  Ltd. 

References:  C.  V.  Johnson,  A.  C.  Fellows,  J.  H.  Holliday,  W.  N.  Cann,  D.  A.  Evans 
D.  MacPherson. 


BALLS— MATTHEW,  of  Vancouver,  B.C.  Born  at  Ryton-on-Tyne,  Eng. 
Oct.  8th,  1887.  Education,  2  yr.  science  course,  Westoe  higher  grade  school,  South 
Shields,  Eng.  1906  (7  mos),  with  the  S.P.  &  S.  Ry.,  as  rodman,  leveller,  etc.; 
1907,  draftsman,  Northern  Pacific  Ry.;  1907-08,  rodman  and  instrumentman, 
S.P.  &  S.Ry.;  6  mos.  on  railway  work  in  Alaska;  with  the  N.P.Ry.,  from  1909  to  1915, 
as  rodman,  topographer,  etc.,  and  res.  engr.;  1915  to  date,  asst.  engr.,  Dom.  Govt 
Hydrometric  Survey. 

References:  T.  H.  White,  S.  H.  Sykes,  F,.  R.  Millidge,  R.  G.  Swan,  J.  B.  Challies, 
F.  W.  Knewstubb. 

BELLOWS— WARREN  SYLVANUS.  of  Fort  William,  Ont.  Born  at  Kansas 
City,  Mo.  Aug.  15th,  1889.  Education,  B.Sc  (C.E.),  Univ.  of  Kansas,  1911.  1908,  on 
ry.  constrn..  Union  Pacific  Ry.;  1909,  ry.  survey,  Los  Angeles  aqueduct;  1910,  bldg. 
foreman,  Wilson  &  Co.;  1911-13,  dftsman,  designer,  etc.,  bridge  dept.,  Kansas  City 
Terminal  Ry.;  1913-15,  supt.  bldg.  constrn.,  for  Marsh,  Hutton,  Powers  Co.,  Fort 
William  and  Port  Arthur;  1915-18,  member  of  Fegles-Bcllows  Engr.  Co.  Ltd.,  Fort 
William,  Ont.,  designing  and  constrn.  of  bldgs. 

References:  W.  A.  Duff,  B.  S.  McKenzie,  H.  B.  R.  Craig,  L.  M.  Jones,  W.  E. 
Joyce,  J.  F.  Greene. 

BOESE— GEORGE  PHILIP  FREDERICK,  of  Calgary,  Alta.  Born  at 
Torton,  England,  March  3rd,  1880.  Educ,  science  courses  at  Worcester  and  Notting- 
ham, England.  With  C.P.R.  as  follows:  1907-1910,  transitman  and  asst.  to  engr.  in 
chg.,  Montreal  and  Ottawa;  1910-11,  engr.  in  ehg.  of  constr.  of  steel  diversion  and 
tunnel  and  locating  and  estimating  for  water  gravity  systems,  Lake  Superior  dist.; 
1911-12,  asst.  engr.  in  chg.  of  constr.  new  line;  1912-14,  res.  engr.  in  chg.  of  constr 
between  Montreal  and  Toronto  and  at  Trenton;  1915-17,  work  on  mech.  designs  and 
drawings  for  private  concerns;  1917  to  date,  asst.  engr.  C.P.R.,  dept  of  natural  resources 
engr.  branch  at  Lethbridge  and  Calgary. 

References:  A.  S.  Dawson,  A.  McCulloch,  J.  E.  Beatty,  C.  W.  P.  Ramsey,  If.  1,. 
Sherwood. 

BROWN— LOREN  LEWIS,  of  Vancouver,  B.C.  Born  at  Portland,  Ore.,  Jan. 
22nd,  1887.  Educ,  B.Sc  Civil  Engineering,  Univ.  of  Idaho,  1911.  Instrumentman, 
with  the  Spokane  &  Inland  Ry;  1911-12,  in  chg.  of  concrete  constr.,  Canadian  Mineral 
Rubber  Co.,  Victoria,  B.C.  (paving);  1912-13,  in  chg.  of  frame  and  reinforced  concrete 
building  constr.  for  the  Westholme  Lumber  Constr.  Co.,  Victoria;  1913-14,  in  chg.  of 
reinforced  concrete  building  constr.  for  the  B.  C.  Constr.  Co.,  Victoria;  1914-15,  testing 
machine  operator  and  computing  engr.,  Forest  Products  Laboratories  of  Canada, 
McGill  Univ.;  1915  to  July  1918,  Lieut.  1st  Canadian  Tunnelling  Co.  At  present  time 
superintendent,  Forest  Products  Laboratories  of  Canada,  Univ.  of  B.C.,  Vancouver, 
B.C. 

References:  A.  Lighthall,  C.  E.  Webb,  R.  G.  Swan,  W.  J.  Johnston,  E.  G. 
Matheson. 

BUCHANAN— COLIN  ARCHIBALD,  of  Levis,  Que.  Born  at  Levis,  Que., 
Sept.  14th,  1889.  Educ,  3  yrs.  applied  science,  McGill  Univ.  With  T.  C.  Ry.,  as 
follows:  1907-10,  draftsman;  1910-13,  instrumentman,  dist.  B.;  1914  (3  mos.),  instru- 
mentman, (3  mos.)  res.  engr.;  May  1916  to  Sept.  1916,  with  Messrs.  W.  P.  &  J.  T. 
Davis,  contractors,  as  asst.  engr.;  Lauzon  Dry  Dock,  Sept.  1910-Oct.  1917,  and  summer 
of  1918,  instrumentman  with  Quebec  &  Saguenay  Ry.  At  present  4th  yr.  student 
Civil  Engineering,   McGill  University. 

References:  H.  M.  MacKay,  E.  Brown,  A.  Ferguson,  A.  Dick,  W.  N.  Cann, 
A.  Babin. 

CAMPBELL— NEIL,  of  Ottawa,  Ont.  Born  at  Perth,  Scotland,  Nov.  25th, 
1887.  Educ  Crieff,  Acad.  Perthshire,  Sharps  Inst.,  Perth,  and  school  of  engineering, 
Dundee,  Scotland.  1905-09,  pupilage  in  dist.  engr's  office,  Caledonian  Ry.  Co. 
Perth;  1909-10,  res.  engr.  on  constr.  work  for  C.  Ry.  Co.;  1911-14,  draughtsman, 
instrumentman  and  acting  res.  engr.  on  location  and  constr.,  C.P.R.;  1915,  engr.  with 
Imperial  Munitions  Board  on  shell  production  work;  1916-17,  field  engr.,  Dom.  Bridge 
Co.,  on  munitions  plant,  constr.  and  maintenance;  1918,  to  date,  production  engr.  in 
shipbuilding  dept.,  Imperial  Munitions  Board,  Ottawa. 

References:  C.  W.  P.  Ramsey,  F.  MacArthur,  L.  W.  Klinger,  W.  H.  McGaan, 
L.  J.  M.  Howard. 

CHILDERHOSE— ER  WIN  ALFRED,  of  Winn  peg,  Man.  Born  at  St.  Thomas, 
N.  Dak.,  U.S.A.,  April  14th,  1894.  B.  E.  E.,  i  Manitoba,  1917.  Instrument- 
man  on  roads  and  drainage;  draughtsman  in  elec  engr's  office;  elec  eng.  on  power 
house  and  substation  constr.  and  installing  of  machinery;  at  present  asst.  to  ch. 
engr.,  city  of  Winnipeg,  Light  and  Power  dept.;  in  chg.  of  installing  apparatus  in 
generating  station  ana  constr.  of  substations  ana  equipment,  elec.  wiring  and  installation 
of  plants  in  public  buildings. 

References:  E.  V.  Caton,  W.  M.  Scott,  E.  E.  Brydone-Jack,  G.  C.  Dunn,  F.  H. 
Farmer,  J.  M.  Leamy,  T.  Roberts. 

COLHO UN— GEORGE  ANDREW,  of  Hamilton,  Ont.  Born  at  Sparta,  Ont., 
Dec.  23rd,  1881.  Educ.  S.P.S.,  Toronto,  1908.  1903  (9  mos.),  in  machine  shops  and 
foundry  of  Thorn's  Imp.  Works,  Watford,  Ont.;  1901  (3  mos.),  in  office  of  Stanley 
Code,  C.E.,  Alvinston;  with  the  Hamilton  Bridge  Works  Co.,  as  follows:  1906-09 
detailer  of  structural  steel  drawings;  1909-14,  checker  of  structural  steel  drawings  for 
buildings,  bridges,  etc.;  1914,  and  at  present  time,  with  Hamilton  Bridge  Works  in 
designing  and  estimating  dept.,  making  and  checking  designs  and  estimates  of  all 
kinds  of  structural  steel. 

References:  J.  A.  McFarlane,  E.  H.  Darling,  E.  H.  Pacy,  J.  G.  Jack,  A.  S.  Code. 

CROLY— JOHN  BULL,  of  Vancouver,  B.C.  Born  at  Cork,  Ireland,  Jan.  8th, 
1867.  Educ.  Queen's  Coll.,  Galway,  Ireland,  certificate  for  military  engr.  1900-06, 
temporary  surveyor  on  civil  staff  of  R.  E.;  1903-11,  on  engr.  staff,  C.P.R.,  as  inspector 
of  steel  bridges,  elevators,  freight  sheds,  etc.;  1911-12,  municipal  engr.  Chilliwack 
B.C.,  in  chg.  of  constr.  work;  1913,  with  prov.  Govt  as  inspector  of  steel  on  the  new 
Parliament  Bldgs.,  Victoria,  B.C.;  1  yr.  with  Messrs.  Waddell  &  Harrington,  bridge 
designers,  Kansas,  U.S.A.;  in  chg.  of  erection  of  bridges  at  Vancouver,  B.C.;  at  preseni 
with  Robert  Hunt  &  Co.,  consulting  engrs.,  Vancouver,  B.C.,  as  inspecting  engr 

References:  F.  F.  Busteed,  H.  Rindal,  C.  E.  Cartwright,  A.  D.  Creer,  C.  B. 
Freeman. 


38 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


DANKS— FRANK  A.,  of  Toronto,  Ont  Born  at  Petrolea,  Ont.,  March  20th,  18S8. 
Educ.  C.  E.  Univ.  of  Tor.,  1908.  1908  with  Allen  Hazen,  N.Y.,  as  dftsman  on  design 
of  Tor.  filtration  &  asst.  on  eonstr.  Yonkers  filtration,  1009-10  asst.  works  dept.  Toronto 
on  constr.  Tor.  filtration,  1910-13.  F.  H.  Latimer,  Penticton,  B.C.,  cm  Hydro-elec. 
survey  &  installation,  irrigation  &  subdivisions,  1913  bridge  designer,  Kettle  Valley  Ry., 
Penticton,  6  mos.  transitman  on  roadways,  Toronto,  1913-18  asat  \v;it,er  supply  section, 
Toronto,  installation  of  steel  conduits  &  Toronto  Drifting  Sand  Filtration  plant,  1918 
constr.  supt.  J.  B.  Nicholson  Ltd.,  Hamilton  and  at  present  constr.  cngr.  Biitish 
Forgings.'Ashbridges  Bay,  Toronto,  under  P.  R.  Miller. 

References:  F.  H.  Fatimer,  J.  B.  Nicholson,  J.  Milne,  G.  G.  Powell,  R.  B.  Evans. 

FULLER— HAROLD  PAUL,  of  St.  James,  Man.  Born  at  Bury,  Que.,  Nov.  4th, 
1887.  Educ.  high  school  &  I.  C.  S.  course  in  C.  E.  Summer  1907  rodman  with  G.T.R  . 
Aug. -Dec.  1908  leveller  on  location  Q.  O.  R  ,  Apr. -Aug.  1909  asst.  to  field  engr, 
J.  G.  White  &  Co.,  survey  pouvr  development  at  St.  Timothy,  Que.  Aug. -Dec.  1909 
inspector  of  constr.  under  engr  of  eonstr.  Montreal  &  Southern  Counties  Ry.,  1910-14 
instrumentman  on  constr.,  location*  maintenance  G.  T  R.,  1915-16  instrumentman 
C.  N.  R.,  1910  to  date  asst.  cngr.  C.  N.  R. 

References:  A.  T.  Fraser,  T.  Turnbull,  W.  Walkden,  T.  W.  White,  W.  Burns, 
J.  N.  dcStein,  J.  T.  Morkill,  J.  A.  Burnett. 

GAINES— EDWARD  C,  of  Montreal,  Que.  Born  at  Slater,  Missouri,  Feb. 
1st,  1878.  Educ.  B.S.  in  E.E  ., Univ.  of  Missouri,  1900.  1900-01,  Supt.  Elec.  Light 
&  Motor  Plant,  Holden,  Mo.,  1901-02,  crane  inspector  and  foreman  of  maintenance 
and  operation  elec.  dept,,  Hamstead  Steel  Works  of  Carnegie  Steel  Co.,  Pittsburgh, 
IV;  with  Heyl  <&  Patterson,  of  Pittsburgh,  Pa,  as  follows:  1902-0(i.  draftsman; 
1906-11,  asst.  div.  engr.;  1911-16,  div.  and  elee.  engr.  in  ehg.  of  design  of  coal  and  ore 
handling  machinery,  etc  ;  1916-18,  designing  meeh.  engr..  Dominion  Bridge  Co.,  Mon- 
I  real ;  at  present  engr.,  rranc  and  conveyor  dept.,  Dominion  Bridge  Co.,  in  ehg.  of  dept. 


References:  II.  II.  Vaughan,  G.  II.  Duggan, 
Shear  wood,  A.  E.  Johnson. 


W.  F.  Angus.  E.  S.    Mattice,  F.  P. 


HOBSON— ROBERT,  of  Hamilton,  Ont.  Born  at  Kitchener,  Ont,,  Aug.  13th, 
18G1.  Educ.  public  schools,  Guclph  and  Hamilton.  17  yrs.  with  chief  engr.  of 
G.  W.  &  G.T.Ry.  (his  father);  in  the  iron  and  steel  business  since  1890;  at  the  present 
time  president  Steel  Co.  of  Canada. 


MACDONALD— WILLIAM  COLE,  of  Woodmans Point,  N.B.  Born  at  Shelburne, 
N.B.,  May  9th.  1884.  Education,  E.  E.  course,  Dalhouse  Coll.  1907-13,  dftsman, 
instrumentman  and  res.  engr.,  N.T.Ry.;  1913-14,  res.  engr.,  C.P.R.,  Sudbury;  1911-11',' 
engr.,  Cook  Constrn.  Co.,  on  Montreal  aqueduct;  1916,  to  present  time,  engr  and 
accountant,  Kennedy  &  MaeDonald,  St.  John  &  Que.  Ry.,  Woodmans  Point. 

References:  C.  O.  Foss,  H.  Longley,   W.  J.  DeWolfe,  R.  II.  Gushing. 

McCALL— JA  MES  FERGUSON,  of  Calgary,  Alta.  Born  at  Dumfries,  Scotland, 
Oct.  12th,  1868.  Educ.  public  school.  Mach.  shop  practice  on  constr.  and  repairing 
and  erection  of  steam  machy.  For  2.">  yrs.  in  responsible  chg.  of  steam  boilers,  engines, 
turbines,  elec.  generators,  etc.  At  present  chief  engr.  of  the  city  of  Calgary,  Power 
dept. 

References:  G.  \V   Craig,  A.  S.  Chapman,  W.  J.  Gale,  C.  M.  Arnold. 

MILLS— GEORGE  ARTHUR,  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  Born  near  Independence, 
Iowa.  July  5th,  1885.  Education,  B.S.  (E.E.),  Iowa  State  Coll.,  1909;  one  yr.  post 
grad.  in  E.E.,  Univ.  of  Penn.  1909-10,  apprentice  with  Allis-CI, aimers  Mfg.  Co.; 
1911-17,  elee.  cngr,  Waterloo,  Cedar  Falls  &  Northern  Ry.;  Dec.  1917,  to  date. 
Winnipeg  Elec.  Ry.  Co.,  and  since  April,  elec.  engr.  in  charge  of  power  anil  transmission, 
etc. 

References:  E.  V.  Caton,  G.  L.  Guy,  E.  C.  Hanson,  T.  L.  Roberts,  \.  \v.  I.amont, 
S  .  Wilkins. 


MILNF.— WINFORD   GLADSTONE,    of   Hamilton,    Out.     Born   at    Malvern, 

Ont.,  June  liilh,  1S77.  Educ.  2'A  yrs.  S.  P.  S.  Tor.,  meeh.  arid  elec.  engr.;  1  yr. 
Lindsay  Light.  Heat.  *  Power  Co.;  1  yr.  W.  A.  Johnston  Elec.  Co.,  Toronto,  in  ohg.'of 
installation  contracts,  including  generating  equipment;  6  yrs.  superintending  and 
developing  process  for  manufacture  of  peat  fuel  and  machinery  for  harvesting  the 
dry  peat;  9  yrs.,  and  at  present  time,  plant  engr.,  Hamilton  Bridge  Co.,  Ltd.,  responsible 
for  eo's  equipment  arid  design  and  constr.  of  new  equipment  for  shop  and  field,  and 
recently  the  design  and  eonstr.  of  what  is  believed  to  bo  the  largest  standard  gauge 
bridge  erection  derrick  can  in  existence.  At  present  occupied  with  special  features 
of  ship  constr.  of  much  new  equipment. 


References:  J.  M.  R.  Fairbairn, 
W.  J.  Francis,  W.  F.  Tye. 


H.  II.  Vaughan,  G.  II.  Duggan,  H.  It.  Safford, 


Jack. 


References:  R.  L.  Latham,    E.  II.  Pacy,  E.  H.  Darling,    J.  A.   McFarlane,  J.  G. 


HO WARTH— CHARLES,  of  Calgary,  Alta.  Born  at  Newport,  England, 
July  21st,  1885.  Educ.  tech.  courses,  Board  of  Educ.,  London;  in  maths,  and  mcehs., 
and  general  engr.,  City  &  Guilds  School  of  Tech.,  London;  apprenticed  as  meeh. 
engr.  with  Emlyn  Engr.  Wks.,  Newport,  England;  1906-08,  student  dftsman,  Uskside 
Engr.  Co.;  and  1908-11,  foreman  dftsman  at  same  place.  1911-13,  supt.  of  eonstr., 
Albert  Engr.  Co.,  Calgary;  1913,  dftsman  Northwest  Steel  Co.,  Vane;  1911,  dftsman 
under  C.  M.  Arnold,  bridge  engr.,  Calgary;  1915,  to  date,  ch.  engr.,  United  Grain 
Growers  Ltd.,  in  chg.  of  all  engr.  work  required  by  the  company. 


References:  C.  M.  Arnold,  F.  W.  Alexander,  G.   W.  0'raii 
Gale,  A.  S.  Chapman,  H.  S.  Johnston. 


C.  H.  deKam,   W.  J. 


HUETHER— ALVIN  DAVID,  of  Niagara  Falls,  Ont.  Born  at  Newstead,  Ont., 
July  24th,  1887.  Education,  B.A.Sc,  Univ.  of  Toronto,  1909.  1909-1911,  in  city 
hall  as  rodman,  instrumentman  and  dftsman,  Toronto;  1910,  trstman,  D.L.S.,  Alta.; 
1911,  asst.  to  city  engr.,  Owen  Sound;  1912-16,  in  city  hall,  Toronto,  as  dftsman  and 
res.  engr.  in  sewer  dept.;  1916-1918,  not  in  eng.  work;  at  present  time  instrumentman 
for  Hydro  Elec.  Power  Comm'n. 

References:  T.  H.  Hogg,  W.  Jackson,  G.  F.  Hanning,  R.  McDowall,  W.  R. 
Worthington,  E.  G.  Hewson. 

JONES— THOMAS  MARSDEN,  of  Toronto,  Ont.  Born  at  Cardigan,  South 
Wales,  Feb.  25th,  1886.  Educ.  Tech.  Inst.,  Newport,  Mon.  Courses  in  steam 
applied  mechs.,  machine  constr.,  practical  math.,  South  Kensington,  London.  1901-07, 
apprenticed  with  the  Newport,  South  Wales  Docks  &  Ry.  Co.,  England,  4  yrs.  machine 
Bhop,  1  yr.  pattern  shop  and  foundry,  and  1  yr.  drawing  office;  1907-08,  marine  engr., 
trading  to  the  Mediterranean  and  Black  Sea,  in  chg.  of  watch  on  main  engines; 
1908-10,  engr.  with  Jordans  Ltd.,  Newport,  Mon.,  Pipe  Foundries  &  Engrs.,  in  chg.  of 
constr.  of  installation  of  Herberts'  Patent  Hydraulic  Pipe  Moulding  Machines,  and  of 
modern  gas  drying  systems  for  pipe  moulds,  etc.;  1910-11,  Caledonian  Iron  Works, 
draughtsman  on  Worthington  Turbine  Pumps;  1911-13,  ch.  engr.,  Canada  Iron  Cor- 
poration, in  ch.  of  all  new  equipment  and  constr.  in  Canadian  plants;  1913-16,  Can. 
Allis-Chalmers  Ltd.,  Toronto,  ch.  designer  of  Mather  &  Piatt  Turbine  and  Centrifugal 
Pumps;  1916,  to  date,  ch.  engr.  and  manager  of  the  Bawden  Pump  Co.  Ltd.,  Toronto. 

References:  J.  Milne,  C.  L.  Fellows,  P.  Gillespie,  R.  O.  Wynne-Roberts,  E.  A. 
James. 

LARSON— CARL  HERMAN,  of  Cabri,  Sask.  Born  at  Skofde,  Sweden,  July 
26th,  1872.  Educ.  B.S.,  Nebraska,  1902.  1902-03,  with  Chicago  Great  Western 
Ry.,  concrete  inspector  and  instrumentman;  1904-06,  with  C.R.Ry.  as  concrete 
inspector  and  instrumentman;  1906-09,  with  C.R.Ry.,  res.  engr.  in  chg.  of  grading, 
and  Saskatoon  bridge  and  terminal  constr.;  1910-14,  with  C.P.Ry.,  in  chg.  of  railway 
and  constr.  work;  at  present  time  municipal  engr.,  R.  M.  Riverside,  in  Sask. 

References:  W.  A.  James,  J.  G.  Sullivan,  J.  Callaghan,  J.  R.  C.  Macredic,  A. 
McCullough. 

MACDONALD— AUSTIN  PERCY,  of  Minto,  N.B.  Born  at  Moncton,  N.B., 
March  30th,  1892.  B.Sc,  Univ.  of  N.B.,  1917.  Summers  of  1916  and  1917,  with 
N.  B.  Crown  Land  Survey;  1918,  and  at  present,  engr.  Rothwell  Coal  Co.,  Ltd.,  Minto, 
N.B.,  in  chg,  of  stripping  operations. 

References:  J.  A.  Stiles,  A.  K.  Grimmer,  S.  B.  Wass. 


MUNRO— ST.  JOHN,  of  Vancouver,  B.C.  Born  at  Walkden,  England,  June 
21th,  1888.  Educ.  private  school  in  England;  2nd  yr.  engr.  School  of  Tech.,  Man- 
chester, and  recent  tuition  by  E.  G.  Matheson  in  structural  cngr.  1906,  with  I). 
P.  \Y.,  Manitoba,  and  C.  C.  Chataway,  surveyor,  Winnipeg,  as  rodman,  etc.:  with 
C.  N.  R  ,  as  follows:  1907-12,  transitman  on  location;  1913,  res.  engr., 
Prairies,  1911-1.5,  res.  engr.,  Ycllowhead;  1916,  res.  engr.,  maintenance  of  way; 
1917-18,  on  leave  of  absence  from  C.N.  R.,  supervising  engr.  for  Pratt  &  Ross,  Winnipeg, 
with  full  chg.  of  constr.  of  C.N.R.'s  station  and  freight  and  train  shed,  Vancouver, 
B.C.     At  present  time  res.  engr.  maintenance  of  way  dept.,  C.N.R.,  Vancouver,  B.C. 

References:  II.  A.  Dixon,  T.  H.  White,  E.  G.  Matheson,  R.  P.  Wilson,  D.  A.  Ross, 
G.  R.  Pratt. 

NESHAM— LIONEL  CHARLES,  of  Ottawa,  Ont.  Born  at  Torquay,  Eng. 
Nov.  5th,  1892.  Education,  B.Sc,  McGill,  1916.  Nov.  1911-Oct.  1912,  computer 
and  recorder,  Geodet.  Survey  of  Canada;  May  1913-Nov.  1916,  on  the  Internat. 
Boundary  Survey,  as  topographer,  etc.;  1916-1917,  inspec.  for  Montreal  Tramways 
Co.  underground  conduit  system  (2  mos.);  1917-18,  instrumentman  on  gen.  constrn. 
and  hydrographic  surveys,  Port  Nelson  Terminals;  at  present  time  draftsman,  dept.  of 
Rys.  and  Canals,  Ottawa. 

References:  D.  W.  McLachlan,  J.  J.  McArthur,  E.  Brown,  H.  M.  MacKay, 
C.  B.  Daubney. 


NEVILLE— EVERETT  ARTHUR,  of  Windsor,  Ont.  Born  at  Gosficld  South, 
Ont.,  Jan.  8th,  1887.  Education,  B.Sc,  Univ.  of  Toronto,  1911.  Summers  1909  and 
1911,  transitman,  D.L.S.  party;  summer  1910,  transitman  on  location,  G.T.P.;  1912-13, 
chief  of  survey  party  for  Dom.  Govt.;  1914-15,  right  of  way  surveyor  for  G.T.P.,  in 
B.C.;  1916-17,  dftsman  Can.  Steel  Corp.,  Ojibway;  July  1917,  to  date,  asst.  to  city 
engr.,   Windsor. 

References:  M.  E.  Brian,  0.  McKay,  J.  A.  Heaman,  W.  H.  Powell,  J.  S.  Nelles, 
N.  C.  Stewart, 


OWENS— JAMES  EDWARD,  of  St.  John,  N.B.  Born  at  Fredericton,  N.B., 
June  12th,  1894.  Education,  B.Sc,  Univ.  of  N.B.,  1915.  3  summers  timekeeper  with 
Powers  &  Brewer,  Dom.  Atlantic  Ry. ;  1  summer  with  city  engr.  of  St.  John;  1915-16, 
dftsman  and  estimator.  Union  Fdy  &  Machine  Wks.  Ltd.;  3  mos.  dfstman  on  survey 
St.  J.  &  Que.  Ry.;  1916  to  date,  office  engr.  St. J.  &  Que.  Ry. 

References:  C.  O.  Foss,  R.  Thompson,  H.  A.  Ryan,  J.  A.  Stiles,  S.  B.  Wass. 

PALMER— ROBERT  KENDRICK,  of  Hamilton,  Ont.  Born  at  Geneva,  N.Y., 
Jan.  16th,  1872.  Education,  B.Sc.  (C.E.),  Univ.  of  Michigan,  1894.  1894,  dftsman, 
American  Bridge  Works;  1895,  dftsman,  New  Columbus  Bridge  Co.:  1896,  dftsman, 
Elmira  Bridge  Co.;  1896,  to  date,  with  Hamilton  Bridge  Co.,  as  chief  dftsman,  designer; 
and  at  present  time,  chief  engr. 

References:  P.  B.  Motley,  R.  L.  Latham,  J.  M.  R.  Fairbairn,  W.  P.  Chapman, 
J.  L.  Weller,  J.  A.  MacFarlane,  E.  H.  Darling. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


39 


REID— JOHN  ALEXANDER,  of  Cobalt,  Ont.  Born  at  Halifax,  N.S.,  Oct. 
23rd,  1877.  Educ.  B.Sc,  Queen's  Univ.,  1902,  licensed  assayer  of  B.C.  May-Sept. 
1900,  in  chg.  of  stamp  mill,  Torquoy  Mining  Co.,  Moose  River,  N.S.;  Mav-Sept. 
1902  and  1903,  exploration  work,  Ham.  Steel  &  Iron  Co.,  Hamilton;  Sept.-Dec.  1902, 
assaver  and  surveyor,  Brookfield  Mining  Co.,  N.S.;  Nov.  1903- April  190t,  asst.  assayer, 
Le  Roi  No.  2  Miuing  Co.,  Rossland,  B.C.;  with  Daly  Reduction  Co.,  Hedley,  B.C.; 
June-Oct.  190.3,  asst.  assayer;  Oct.-Nov.  190.3,  ch.  assayer;  1901-05,  asst.  to  R.  W. 
Brock  (late  dir.  geol.  survey),  on  examination  of  mines  at  Rossland  and  Phoenix,  B.C.; 
1907-08,  cyanide  foreman  on  various  reduction  works  for  mining  companies  in  Mexico, 
May-Nov.  1909,  exploration  work,  Temiskaming  dist.  for  B.  C.  syndicate,  in  chg.  of 
exploration  work  for  private  syndicate  under  F.  W.  Connell  on  exam,  work  and  develop- 
ment of  silver  mining  property  in  Portland  canal  and  Skeena  dists.,  B.C.;  April- Nov. 
1910,  and  in  Mexico  1910-12,  fall  of  1913  mine  exam,  in  E.,  Que.,  for  Can.  Mining 
&  Explor.  Co.;  Jan.-Oct.  1914,  field  and  exam.  engr.  in  northern  Man.  and  Sask.  for 
Can.  Min.  &  Explor.  Co.;  session  1915-16,  asst.  in  dept.  of  mining  and  metallurgy, 
Queen's  Univ.;  1910,  to  date,  field  engr.  and  mining  geologist  for  M.  J.  O'Brien  Ltd.,  on 
exam,  and  valuation  of  outside  properties. 

References:  J.  G.  Dickenson,  R.  W.  Leonard,  J.  C.  Gwillim,  A.  V.  Redmond, 
W.  P.  Wilgar,  W.  R.  Rogers,  J.  B.  Harvey,  H.  W.  Sutcliffe. 

SANDOVER  SLY— R.  J.,  of  Campbellton,  N.B.  Born  at  Warminster,  Wiltshire, 
England,  Jan.  9th,  1886.  Educ.  grammar  school  (English),  3  yrs.  articled  pupil 
under  A.  F.  Long,  municipal  engr.,  Wilts  ,  classes  at  South  Kensington  School  of 
Art.,  in  chg.  of  constr.,  Huutsville,  Ont.,  under  late  Gait  Smith,  Toronto,  and  under 
T.  Aird  Murray,  Dec.  1909- Mar.  1910,  acting  town  engr.,  Oshawa,  Ont.;  1910-11,  in 
chg.  of  constr.,  Kitchener,  Ont.,  under  Herbert  Johnston,  city  engr.;  1911.  to  date, 
town  engr.,  Campbellton,  N.B.,  in  chg.  of  all  engr.  work  since  town  was  destroyed 
by  fire  in  1911. 

References:  H.  Johnston,  G.  Stead,  F.  G.  Goodspeed,  E.  A.  James,  F.  Chappell, 
G.  G.  Murdock. 

SEDGWICK— ARTHUR,  of  Toronto,  Ont.  Born  at  Windsor,  Ont..  April  22nd, 
1884.  Educ.  S.P.S.  Tor.,  1909.  Rodman  and  instrumentman  on  Detroit  River 
tunnel  during  college  vacations;  1909-10,  engr.  in  dig.  Dog  Lake  Dams  constr.  of  storage 
dams  at  head  waters  of  Kaministiquia  River,  1911,  to  date,  asst.  engr.,  Ont.  dept. 
of  Public  Highways,  on  the  administration  of  provincial  aid  to  county  highways, 
building  object  lesson  roads  and  examination  of  plans  for  highway  bridges  for  Ontario. 

References:  R.  P.  Fairbairn,  A.  J.  Halford,  W.  A.  McLean,  G.  Hogarth,  E.  A. 
James,  W.  R.  Rogers. 

STEWART— ROBERT  ADDIE,  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  Born  at  Chapelhall, 
Scotland,  Sept.  21st,  1881.  Educ  i  yrs.  course,  evening  class,  mcch.  engr.;  2  yrs.  course 
(evenings),  Glasgow  and  West  of  Scotland  Tech.  Coll.,  I.C.S.  course:  7  yrs.  apprentice- 
ship. 3  yrs.  with  D.  Rowan  &  Co.,  Glasgow;  1  yr.  Barclay  Curb  Co.;  8  yrs.  with 
C.P.R.  (3  yrs.  foreman);  3  yrs.  boiler  inspector  foreman,  C  P  R;  2  yrs.  engr..  Tribune 
Publishing  Co.;  1916,  eh.  boiler  inspector  province  of  Man.,  and  at  present  acting  ch. 
inspector.  Bureau  of  Labor,  province  of  Man.,  in  chg  of  boiler,  factory  and  elevator 
inspection. 

References:  E.  Hanson,  G.  L.  Guy,  J.  M.  Leamy,  II   Edwards. 

SVENNINGSON— SVEN,  of  Montreal.  Born  at  Christiania,  Norway,  Mar. 
19th,  1884.  Education,  Mech.  Engr..,  Christiania,  1907,  and  apprenticeship.  1907-08, 
designing  and  drafting  of  water  turbines,  Christiania;  1908-09,  in  charge  of  dsgn.  and 
constrn.  of  rubber  mfg.  plant  in  Norway;  1909-11,  gen.  dftg.  and  inspec  work,  Pa. 
Water  &  Power  Co.;  1911-12,  dsgr.  of  water  and  steam  power  station.  Win.  Fargo, 
Jackson,  Mich.;  1912-13,  dsgn.  and  constrg.  high  tension  transnvssion  lines  for  Stone 
&  Webster;  1913,  to  present  time,  with  Shawinigan  Water  &  Power  Co.,  in  charge  of 
mech.  and  structural  dsgns.  for  Cedar  Rapids  Mfg.  Co.,  and  special  engr.  in  chrgc  of 
desgn.  and  engrg.  supervision  of  constrn. 

References:  J.  C.  Smith,  C.  E.  Fraser,  J.  H.  Brace,  F.  T    Kaolin,  J.  Morse 

TI  M  M— CHARLES  HENRY,  of  Westmount,  Que.  Born  at  Sheffield,  England, 
Aug.  16th,  1877.  Educ.  public  school,  4  yrs.,  Montreal  Tech.  Night  School.  4  yrs. 
apprenticeship  with  James  Cooper  Mfg.  Co.,  1893-97.  In  1901,  in  James  Cooper  Mfg. 
Co's  drawing  office  as  junior  draftsman,  1003-Ot,  with  Rand  Drill  Co.,  as  draftsman; 
1904-05,  with  Can.  Foundry  Co.,  Toronto;  May  1909-08,  with  A.  W.  Robinson,  steam 
shovel  and  dredge  engr.,  as  elevation  draftsman  on  dredges  for  River  Nile  and  River 
Niger;  1908-09,  work  on  Dredge  No.  10  for  Sir  John  Kennedy,  eh.  engr.,  Montreal 
Harbour;  1909-13,  elevation  draftsman,  C.  P.  R.  Angus  Shops;  1913-15,  draftsman 
with  St.  Lawrence  Bridge  Co.,  on  erection  of  Quebec  bridge;  1915,  to  date,  with 
Dominion  Bridge  Co.,  as  ch.  draftsman  in  chg.  of  mech.  superintendent's  drawing 
office. 

References:  G.  II.  Duggan,  Sir  John  Kennedy,  H.  H.  Vaughan,  G.  F.  Porter, 
A.  L.  Harkness. 


WARD  WELL— WILLIAM  HENRY.of  Westmount,  Que.  Bornat  Buffalo.N.Y., 
on  June  8th,  1875.  Educ.  Buffalo  grammar  and  high  school  courses,  mech.  engr., 
Cornell  Univ.,  1897.  1891-93,  machinist  with  Jno.  T.  Noye  Mfg.  Co.,  1897,  with 
Buffalo  Engr.  Co.,  in  chg.  of  design  and  constr.  of  sub-contract  on  Great  Northern 
Elevator;  1898-99,  head  of  testing  dept  ,  with  J.  I.  Case  Co.,  Racine,  Wis.;  1899-1900, 
supt.,  Wisconsin  Wheel  Works,  Racine,  designed  and  rebuilt  this  plant  when  same 
burned  down  in  1900;  1901-04,  ch.  engr.  and  supt.  of  constr.  with  Shawinigan  Carbide 
Co.,  in  complete  chg.  of  constr.  and  equipment  of  plant;  1901-07,  gen.  manager, 
Continental  Heat  &  Light  Co.;  1907-11,  gen.  manager  Shawinigan  Carbide  Co.;  1912-13, 
Reynolds  Wardwell  Co.,  engrs  ,  Montreal;  1913-17,  consulting  engr.,  Montreal 
specializing  in  fireproof  design  and  construction.  At  present  time  Major,  Engrs., 
U.S.  Reserve,  on  duty  in  France  special  duty  with  the  constr.  dept.  of  the  Aviation 
Section  of  the  Signal  Corps. 

References:  J  C.  Smith,  R.  M.  Wilson,  A.  Adams,  B.  Leman,  J.  A.  DeCew,  II  M. 
Lamb. 

WEEKES— MELVILLE  BELL,  of  Regina,  Sask.  Born  at  Brantford,  Ont.,  Nov. 
28th,  1875.  Educ.  B.A.Sc.,  Tor.,  189S,  Ont.,  Sask.  and  Dominion  Land  Surveyor. 
Asst.  to  city  engr.,  Brantford,  on  general  work  and  flood  prevention  work.  1901, 
drainage  work  at  Winchester,  Ont.;  1902-05,  Dominion  surveys  in  Alberta  and 
Manitoba;  1908-09,  in  chg.  of  road  surveys  and  drainage  in  Sask.;  1910,  to  date, 
director  of  surveys  for  the  province  of  Sask. 

References:  T.  H.  Jones,  H.  S.  Carpenter,  W.  T.  Thompson,  C.  P.  Richards, 
H.  G.  Phillips. 

WINCKLER— GEORGE  WALTER,  of  Toronto,  Ont.  Born  at  Cochin,  India, 
2nd  Dec,  1844.  Education,  C.E.,  Calcutta  University,  1865,  and  Sanitary  Institute, 
Great  Britain,  1S70  (A.M.I.C.E.,  1871).  Govt,  of  India  public  works  dept.;  asst. 
engr.  on  state  rys.  8  yrs.;  executive  engr.  in  charge  of  a  div.;  then  transferred  to  roads 
and  bldgs.  branch  in  exec,  charge;  during  the  Afghan  War,  on  the  Boland  Pass  on  rys. 
surveys  to  Quetta;  afterwards  transferred  to  Assan  in  exec,  charge  of  roads  and  bldgs.; 
later  in  exec,  charge  of  state  rys.  surveys,  Cumbum  dist.;  at  the  present  time  consl. 
engr.  at  Toronto,  Ont. 

References:  L.   M.  Arkley,  R.  O.    Wynne-Roberts. 

YOUNG— WILLIAM  IRVING,  of  St.  John,  N.B.  Born  at  Brockwav,  N.B., 
Oct.  10th,  1882.  Education,  B.Sc,  Univ.  of  N.B.,  1910.  Topographer  for  Roberval  & 
Saguenay  Ry.  Co.;  1912,  to  present  time,  instrmtman  and  then  res.  engr.,  St. J.  &  Que. 

Ry. 

References:  C.  O.  Foss,  D.  F.   Maxwell,  S.  B.   Wass,  R.  Thompson. 

FOR  TRANSFER  FROM  THE  CLASS  OF  ASSOCIATE   MEMBER  TO  THAT 

OF   MEMBER 

ARMSTRONG— JOHN,  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  Born  at  York  Co.,  Ont.,  May 
17th,  1873.  Educ  high  school,  B.A.Sc,  Tor.,  1897.  Instrument  work  with  O.L.S, 
during  summer  vacations;  1898-190},  asst.  engr.  C.N.Ry.,  in  chg.  of  location  parties 
and  constr.;  1903-06,  locating  engr.,  G.T.P.Ry.;  190  i-Os,  dist,  engr.,  G.T.P.Ry.,  in 
chg.  of  location  from  Saskatoon  to  Prince  Rupert,  B.C.,  and  inspector  of  constr.  for 
the  National  Transcontinental  Ry.  through  N.B.  and  Que;  1908-13,  dept.  Rys.  & 
Canals,  Hudson  Bay  Ry.,  as  ch.  engr.;  191 4-15,  ch.  engr.  Hudson  Bay,  Peace  River  & 
Pacific  Ry.;  1916-18,  div.  engr.  Greater  Winnipeg  Water  Dist  ,  on  eonstr.  of  aqueduct 
Irom  Shoal  Lake  to  Winnipeg;  at  present  div.  cmjr.,  Greater  Winnipeg  Water  Dist. 

References:  M.  H.  Macleod,  W.  G.  Chace,  W.  A.  Bowden,  T.  Turnbull,  G.  C, 
Dunn,  J.  A.  Heaman,  A.  E.  Doucet,  G.  Grant. 

BOND— FRANK  LORN  CAMPBELL,  of  Montreal.  Born  at  Montreal, 
Feb.  21,  1877.  Educ,  B.Sc,  McGill,  1898.  1898-1901,  asst.  res.  engr.,  G.T.R.,  also 
instrumentman,  draftsman,  etc.;  1901-02,  asst.  supt.  on  constrn.  of  Park  Ave.  Tunnel, 
N.Y.C.;  1902,  to  date,  with  the  G.T.R.  as.  res.  engr.  and  div.  engr.,  eastern  lines,  and 
in  December,  1918,  chief  engr.  Serving  in  France,  1916-18,  as  company  commander, 
10th  Batt.,  CRT. 

References:  F.  P.  Gutelius,  J.  M.  R.  Fairbairn,  F.  W.  Cowie,  H.  R.  Safford, 
P.  Johnson. 

COLE— FRANCIS  THORNTON,  of  Quebec,  Que.  Born  at  St.  Catharines 
Ont.,  July  8th,  1884.  Educ,  B.Sc,  McGill  Univ.,  1910.  Summer  1907,  draughtsman, 
Phoenix  Bridge  Co.;  summer  1908,  on  erection  Montreal  harbour  sheds;  summer 
1909,  inspection  of  various  work  around  Montreal  for  Inspection  Co.;  with  Dom. 
Bridge  Co.,  as  follows:  1910-11,  draughting,  designing  and  estimating;  1912,  res.  engr. 
in  Toronto;  1913,  to  date,  ch.  engr.  of  Eastern  Canada  Steel  Co.,  Quebec,  in  ch.  of  all 
structural  steel  contracts. 

References:  E.  S.  Mattice.  P.  L.  Pratlev,  F.  P.  Shearwood,  D.  C.  Tennant,  W.  V. 
Taylor,  A.  C.  Fellows,  J.  Ruddick,  W.  D.  Baillarge. 


TOBEY— WILMOT  MAXWELL,  of  Ottawa,  Ont.  Born  at  Picton,  Ont., 
May  14th,  1877.  Educ  MA..  Tor.,  Gold  Medal.  Math  ,  1900,  D.L.S.,  D.T.S., 
1901-05,  with  International  Boundary  Survey  fln  rectification  of  49th  parallel  between 
B.C.  and  Idaho;  1906-09,  taking  special  course  under  the  late  Dr.  King  in  connection 
with  present  work;  1910-18,  examiner  on  Board  of  Examiners  for  Dom.  Land  &  Topo- 
graphic Surveys,  succeeding  late  Dr.  King,  Supt.  Geodetic  Survey,  on  examination  of 
accuracy  of  all  field  work  of  the  Geodetic  Survey  and  refinement  of  such  work,  at 
present  asst.  supt.  and  geodesist  of  the  Geodetic  Survey. 

References:  N.  J.  Ogilvie,  J.  J.  McArthur,  W.  J.  Stewart,  J.  B.  Challiea,  G.  G.  Gale. 

VAUGHAN— FRANK  P.,  of  St.  John,  N.B.  Born  at  Liverpool,  England,  1874. 
Educ  Regent  Coll  ,  Southport,  England.  1891-92,  New  Westminster  &  Barrard 
Inlet  Telephone  Co.,  Vancouver,  B.C.;  1892-95,  B.  C.  dist.  Telegraph  &  Tel.  Co., 
Vancouver,  B.C.,  Nanaimo  Telephone  Co.,  Vane.  Island,  B.C.;  1895-96,  Yarmouth 
St.  Ry.  Co.,  Yarmouth,  N.S.;  1896-97,  Northern  Elec.  Wks.,  St.  John;  1897-99,  G.  M. 
Ongier  &  Co.,  elec.  engrs.,  Boston,  Mass  :  1S99-19O0,  Wilkinson  &  Co..  elec.  engrs.  & 
contractors,  and  Lord  Elec.  Co.,  Boston;  1900-02,  The  General  Elec.  Co.,  Schenectady, 
N.Y  ,  testing  dept.;  1902-06,  business  for  self,  elec.  engr.  and  contractor;  1906-18, 
engr.  and  manager  The  Vaughan  Electric  Co.,  Ltd. 

References:  J.  A.  Shaw,  M.  A.  Sammett,  C.  C.  Kirby,  A.  Gray,  A.  R.  Orookshank, 
C.  P.  Edwards,  J.  K.  Scammell. 


DERROM— DONALD  LAIRD,  of  Chicago,  111.  Born  at  Caracas,  Venezuela, 
South  America,  July  1885.  Educ,  B.Sc,  McGill  Univ.,  1910.  1902-00,  apprentice 
mach.,  G.T.R.,  and  rodman  on  western  div.,  C.P.R. ;  1908,  and  9  summer  vacations 
designing  draftsman  in  mach.  experts  office,  G.T.R. ,  Montreal;  1910,  in  chg.  of  loco 
terminals,  G.T.R.,  Depot  Harbour,  Ont.;  1911,  in  chg.  of  loco,  terminals,  Belleville, 
with  Can.  Venezuelan  Ore  Co.,  as  follows:  1912,  mech.  and  elec.  engr.;  1913,  supt.  of 
constr.;  1911,  manager  with  Can.  Cement  Co.;  1915,  mech.  supt.,  Winnipeg  Mill; 
1916-17,  supt.  of  shops,  munition  dept,;  1918,  and  at  present,  works  manager  for 
Winslow  Bros.  Co.,  Chicago,  on  manufacture  of  shells. 

References:  H.  O.  Keay,  F.  B.  Brown,  C.  J.  Chaplin,  II.  M.  MacKay,  V.  I.  Smart, 
W.   McNab,  R.  J.  Durley,  H.   M.  Jaquays. 

McARTHUR— FRANKLIN,  of  Guclph,  Ont.  Born  at  Vanderbilt,  Mich.,  March 
12th,  1885.  Educ.  B.Sc,  Queen's  Univ.,  1907.  1907-08,  asst.  engr.,  Guelph;  1908-09, 
city  engr.,  Guelph;  1909-11,  municipal  engr.  for  Yorkton  and  other  Sask.  towns; 
Jan.-Aug.  1912,  res.  sanitary  engr.  to  the  bureau  of  Public  Health,  Prov.  Sask.; 
1912-15,  city  engr.,  Regina,  Sask.;  1915,  to  date,  city  engr.,  Guelph,  Ont. 

References:  O.  W.  Smith,  L.  A.  Thornton,  J.  N.  deStein,  R.  O.  Wynne-Roberts,  E. 
A.  James,    W.    M.    McPhail. 


40 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


McFARLANE— JOHN  ALEXANDER,  of  Hamilton,  Ont.  Born  at  Atwood, 
Ont.,  Feb.  24th,  1874.  Education,  B.A.Sc,  Univ.  of  Toronto,  1904.  Summer  1903, 
dftsman,  Riter  &  Conley  Steel  Co.;  summer  1904,  with  the  Western  Portland  Cement 
Co.,  in  charge  of  design  and  installation;  1904-05,  Fellow  in  Mechanical  Drawing, 
S.P.S.,  Toronto;  1905,  to  present  time,  with  the  Hamilton  Bridge  Works,  as  dftsman, 
and  chief  dftsman,  in  charge  of  all  detail  drawings,  etc. 

References:  R.  L.  Latham,  E.  H.  Darling,  E,  K.  Gray,  E.  W.  Oliver,  P.  Gillespie, 
J.  G.  Jack,  H.  B.  Dwight,  P.  B.   Motley. 

MONTGOMEIiV— EDLIX  GEORGE  WILLIAM,  of  Regina,  Saak.  Horn  at 
Ilowrah,  India,  May  10th,  1877.  EduC,  trained  for  Indian  Public  Works  dept.,  in 
Thomas  Coll.  of  civil  engr.  Admitted  to  that  service  in  April  1898,  by  competitive 
exam.  1898-1902,  with  P.W.D.,  central  provinces,  India,  on  maintenance  and  constr. 
of  roads  and  bldgs.,  rural  water  supply,  city  drainage,  irrigation  surveys,  etc.;  1902-11, 
engr.  to  dist.  board,  Gurdarpur,  Punjab,  India,  responsible  for  all  engr.  work  under- 
taken by  board;  1912-15, with  hoard  of  highway  commissioners,  province  of  Sask.  on 
location,  design  and  constr.  of  bridges  and  dams;  1915,  to  date,  acting  asst.  ch.  engr  , 
bridge  branch,  highways  dept.,  Sask. 


References:   II.    S.    Carpenter,    L.   A.    Thornton. 
C.  P.  Richards,  J.  McD.  Patton,  E.  B.  Webster. 


G.  D.    Mackie,  J.   X.  deStein, 


FOR  TRAXSFER  FROM  CLASS     OF  Jl'NIOR  TO  HIGHER   GRADE 


RUTLEDGE— MICHAEL  JOSEPH,  of  Montreal,  Que.  Born  at  Brighton, 
Mass.  Feb.  Kith,  1887.  Educ.  B.Sc.  Univ.  of  X.B.,  1908,  bridge  design,  reinforced 
concrete  and  electricity  courses,  Franklin  Union,  Boston,  1915.  Summers  1905  and 
1905,  with  Boston  Elevated  By.;  Summer  1907,  Mass.  Highway  Comm'n.;  1908-09. 
Hudson  Ray  Ry.  Survey,  leveller  and  transitman;  1910-11,  C.P.R  instrumentman  and 
Vice-President  Thompson  Lumber  Co.;  1912-13,  res.  engr.,  C.X.R.,  Roberval  (3  mos. 
acting  div.  engr);  1914-15  (0  mos.),  and  1915-16  (8  mos),  Pub.  Service  Comm'n,  New 
York,  dept.  of  subway  design;  1910-17,  designer,  Mt.  Royal  Tunnel  &  Terminal  Co. 
At  present  time  designer  with  Henry  Holgate,  consulting  engineer. 

References:  H.  Holgate,  J.  L.  Allison,  S.  P.  Brown,  W.  E.  Joyce,  S.  J.  Waller,  J.  O. 
Montreuil. 

STAIRS— GORDON  S.,  of  Halifax-,  N.S.  Born  at  Maitland,  N.S.,  Aug.  31st, 
1889.  Educ.  B.Sc.,  Dalhousie,  1911.  Summer  1909,  structural  steel  drafting  on 
factory  erection;  summer  1911,  at  New  Glasgow,  with  Mrown  Machine  Co.;  1911-13, 
with  Christie  &  Dawson,  land  surveyors,  Kamloops,  in  ehg.  of  survey  office  ami  field 
parties;  1913-14,  with  Western  Canada  Power  Co.,  asst.  to  constr!  engr.  on  topo- 
graphical surveys  and  constr.  work;  1914-16,  asst,.  to  Mr.  A.  V.  White,  consulting  engr. 
International  Joint  Comm'n,  hydrographical  and  topographical  surveys  and  hydraulic 
engr.  studies;  1916  to  date,  Lieut.  C.E.,  asst.  to  Third  Division  officer,  R.C.E..  M.D  6, 
Halifax,  N.S. 

References:  .1.  F.  Pringle,  R.  W.  McColough,  T.  S.  Scott,  F.  J.  Dawson,  K.  If. 
Smith. 


ASK  WITH— FRANK  CHATHAM,  of  Ottawa,  Ont.  Born  at  Chatham.  Ont., 
Jan.  1st,  1884.  Coll.  Inst.,  coached  in  theory  and  practice  of  engr.,  by  E.  P.  Fcther- 
stonhaugh,  B.Sc,  1901-03.  With  city  of  Ottawa  as  follows:  ch.  draughtsman,  city 
engr's  dept.,  1909-10;  1910-11,  asst    engr.  in  ehg.  of  special  works  and  concrete  walks; 

1911-12,  asst.  engr.  in  ehg.  of  roadways;  1912-13,  acting  city  engr.  in  full  ehg.  of  dept.; 
1913-14,  asst.  city  engr.,  in  ehg.  of  works,  br.:  1914-10,  acting  city  engr.  in  ch.  of  road- 
ways, bridges  and  special  works,  1!)1G  to  date,  deputy  city  engr.,  in  ehg.  of  works  dept., 
on  constr.  of  bridges,  (Billings  bridge,  a  5-span  through  plate  girder  structure  over 
Rideau  river,  and  a  Strauss  direct  lift  bridge  with   approaches    over   Ridcau  canal). 

Water  works,  sewers,  etc. 


References:  A.  F.  Maeallum 
A.  A.  Dion,  A.  T.  Phillips. 


N.  J.  Ker,  G.  A.  Mountain,  R    S    Lea,  .1    I',.   McRae 


DEVEREUX— LAWRENCE  JAMES,  of  Edson,  Alta.  Bon,  at  St  Peters, 
N.S.,  Aug.  1888.  Education,  high  school.  1907-09,  rodman,  dftsman.  Que  ,  Montreal 
&  Southern  Ry.;  1909,  to  date,  with  the  G.T.P.Ry.,  as  rodman,  instrumentman, 
asst.  engr.,  and  at  the  present  time  res.  engr.,  in  charge  of  constrn.  ami  maintenance, 
at  different  western  points. 

References:  G.  C.  Dunn,  J.  A.  Heaman,  W.  H.  Tobey,  J.  C.  Legrand,  H.  W.   Ros<. 

DIXON— ARTHUR,  of  South  Fort  George,  B.C.  Born  at  Whitehaven,  Eng., 
Aug.  1st,  1883.  Education,  Ghyll  Bank  Coll.,  Whitehaven,  and  articled  pupil  3  yrs. 
1904-05,  asst.  engr.  and  clerk  of  works  on  drainage  and  sewage  disposal  works,  Trow- 
bridge, Eng.;  1905-06,  dftsman  and  instrumentman,  C.P.R.,  in  Que.  and  Ont.;  1900-10, 
chief  dftsman  and  instrumentman,  Atlantic,  Quebec  &  Western  Ry.,  responsible  for 
design  of  sub-structure  of  bridges;  1910-14,  field  dftsman  and  res.  engr.,  of  constrn., 
C.N.Ry.;  1917,  to  date,  dist.  pub.  wks.  engr.,  for  B.C.,  in  charge  of  roads,  bridges, 
and  bldgs. 

References:  E.  S.  M.  Lovelace,  T.  II.  White,  D  0,  Lewis.  W.  K  Gwyer.  A  E. 
Foreman. 

HILL— GEORGE  RIXON,  of  Virden,  Man.  Born  at  Ashburnham,  Ont.,  Dec. 
4th,  1888.  Education,  Collegiate  Institute.  1900-07,  on  Brandon,  Saskatchewan  & 
Hudson  Bay  Ry.,  as  rodman,  etc.;  1908-09,  D.L.S.,  Man.  &  Sask.;  with  the  C.P.R. 
from  1909  to  1912,  as  instrumentman,  topographer,  leveller,  transitman,  etc.;  1912-11, 
govt,  engr.,  western  Manitoba;  1914,  municipal  engr.,  Wallace,  Man.;  1915,  to  date, 
municipal  engr.  for  Wallace  and  Pipestone,  Man.  (34-miles). 

References:  W.  A.  James,  A.  McGillivray,  M.  A.  Lyons,  S.  A.  Button,  D.  A. 
Livingstone. 

HUNT— WILLIAM  HAROLD,  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  Born  at  Lennoxville,  Que., 
Nov.  24th,  1884.  Educ.  B.  C.  E.,  Univ.  of  Manitoba,  1902-05  apprentice  mach.. 
Northern  Ironworks,  Winnipeg,  1905-07  journeyman  mach.  C.P.R.,  1907-11  (summers) 
on  surveys*  constr.  with  H.  B.  Ry.,  C.  P.  R.  &C.  N.  R.,  1912  (6  mos.)  asst.  engr. 
Can.  Northern  Bridge  dept.  (concrete  substructure)  1913-15  asst.  engr.  in  city  engr's 
dept.,  Moose  Jaw,  Sask  on  design  &  constr.  of  sidewalks,  sewer  &  water  extension,  etc., 
1915-16  civil  engr.,  1916  to  date  road  engr.  Good  Roads  Board,  D.P.W.,  province  of 
Manitoba. 

References:  E.  E.  Brydone-Jack,  A.  McGillivray,  N.  B.  McTaggart,  N.  A.  Lyons, 
T.  W.  White. 

INNESS— ROBERT  D.,  of  Woodman's  Point,  N.B.  Born  at  Liverpool,  N.S., 
Aug.  20th,  1888.  Educ.  High  School,  Liverpool  Acad.  With  N.  T.  Ry.  1906-08 
rodman  on  surveys  &  constr.,  1908-13  transitman  on  constr.,  1913-16  instrumentman, 
maintenance  of  way,  Can.  Govt.  Rys.,  Campbell  ton,  1916-17  partner  in  firm  of 
Longley  &  Inness,  superintending  contract  in  rock  cutting  on  St.  John  &  Que.  Ry., 
1918  to  date  superintendent  N.  S.  Constr.  Co.,  Ltd.,  Halifax,  on  constr.  work  on 
St.  John  &  Que.  Ry. 

References:  C.  O.  Foss,  H.  Longley,  R.  A.  Rlack,  C.  B.  Brown,  R.  H.  dishing, 
E.  M.  Archibald. 


STRACHAN— JOHN,  JR.,  of  Hudson  Bav  Junction,  Sask.  Born  at  Halifax, 
X.S.,  March  31st,  1883.  Educ.  Acacia  Villa  School,  N.S.,  St.  Andrews  Coll.,  Toronto. 
With  T.C.Ry.,  as  follows:  1900-08,  rodman;  1908-09,  topographer  and  lcvelman  on 
location;  1909-11,  instrumentman  on  constr.;  1912-14,  res.  engr.;  1915-18,  res.  engr., 
Hudson  Bay  Ry.,  Dec.  1918,  supervisor  "  Pasquia  Forest  Reserve." 

References  A.  E.  Doucct,  J.  W.  Porter,  A.  D.  Porter.  F.  P.  Moffat,  W.  T.  Jamison, 
D.  S.  Scott,  A.  Dick,  E.  J.  Bolgcr. 

TURNER  -STANLKY  ROY,  of  Peterboro,  Ont.  Born  at  Pelerboro,  Mar.  22nd. 
1888.  Educ,  B.Sc,  Queen's  Dniv.,  1910.  1904-08,  mech.  shop  work,  pattern  ami 
mach.  shops  and  foundry,  with  Win.  Hamilton  Co.,  Peterboro;  1908-09,  asst.  supt.  of 
steel  constr.,  bldgs.  and  penstock,  Structural  Steel  Co.,  Montreal;  1909-12  (3$  yrs.), 
draughting,  chcc.ing  and  designing  of  steel  bldgs.  and  bridges,  Can.  Foundry  Co., 
Toronto;  1913  (ti  mos),  draughtsman  on  Quebec  bridge,  St.  Lawrence  Bridge  Co., 
Montreal;  1914  (4  mos .),  C.E.F.;  1915  (5  mos.),  water  power  design,  Wm.  Hamilton 
Co.,  Peterboro;  1916  (71  mos),  in  ehg.  of  installation  and  erection  of  machinery 
of  power  development  at  Bala,  Ont  ,  Wm.  Hamilton  Co.;  1916-18,  mill  engr  ,  Riordon 
Pulp  &  Paper  Co.,  Hawkesbury,  Out.;  1918,  engr.  Spanish  River  Pulp  &  Paper  Co., 
Espanola,  Ont.  (5  mos.);  1918  (3  mos.),  C.E.F.  At  present  engr.,  Wm.  Hamilton  Co., 
Peterboro,  Ont. 


References 
Harkncss. 


W.  J.    Francis,   G.    R.    Munro,    E.    A.   Stone,    F.   C.    Kerrigan,    A     L. 


FOR  TRANSFER   FROM  CLASS  OF  STUDENT  TO  HIGHER  GRADE 

Hi  ICLTON'— CHARLES  ALBERT,  of  Saskatoon,  Sask.  Born  at  Ayr.,  Ont., 
Jan.  3rd,  1893.  Educ.  commercial  course,  Gait  Business  Coll.,  1913,  B.Sc,  Queen's 
Univ.,  1917.  1914-18,  staff-sergeant  on  the  engineering  staff  of  Military  dist.  No.  3, 
Kingston,  Ont.,  at  present  with  Murphy  ami  Underwood,  consulting  engrs.,  Saskatoon, 
on  municipal  engineering  work. 

References:  J.  E.  Underwood,  A.  A.  Murphy,  E.  A.  Stone,  J.  C.  Gwillim,  J.  B. 
Harvey,  G.  Hemmcrick,  G.  L.  Guillet. 

DALTON— GEORGE  FRANCIS  (Lieut.)  of  Ottawa,  Ont.  (now  on  Active 
Service).  Born  at  Ottawa,  Ont.,  July  0th,  1891.  Educ,  B.A.Sc.  (structural  engr. 
option),  Toronto,  1914,  Summers  1908-10-11-12,  with  Geodetic  Survey  of  Canada, 
field  work,  triangulation  and  precise  levelling,  1913-15,  with  Geodetic  Survey  precise 
levelling  and  triangulation  in  ehg.  of  work.  At  present  Lieut.  3rd.  Can.  Engr.  Battn., 
B.E.F.,  France. 

References:  X.  J.  Ogilvie,  J.  J.  McArthur,  J.  D.  Craig,  J.  L.  Rannie,  L.  0.  Brown. 

GIGUERE— EUDORE,  of  Montreal,  Que.  Born  at  Lachine,  Que.,  Jan.  13th, 
1895.  Educ,  commercial  course,  Civil  Engr.,  Laval,  1917,  and  Chemist  Engr.,  Laval, 
1918.  Summers  of  1912-13-14,  with  E.  Desaulniers,  C.E.,  on  survey  work;  1915,  with 
Geological  Survey;  1916,  with  Roads  Material  Survey.  At  present  time  chemist 
analyst  with  The  Canadian  Explosives  Ltd.,  Bel-Oeil. 

References:  E.  Marceau,  P.  Lecointe,  C.  Leluau,  S.  A.  Baulne,  A.  Frigon. 

WELSFORD— HUBERT  GRAY,  of  Winnipeg,  Man.  (now  in  France).  Born  at 
Los  Gates,  Cal.,  U.S.A.,  July  10th,  1894.  Educ,  2  yrs.  private  tuition  in  math,  and 
engr.  With  Dominion  Bridge  Co.,  Winnipeg,  Man.,  as  follows:  1911-13,  draughtsman 
on  structural  steel  work;  Jan.-Oct.  1913,  asst.  to  shop  supt.;  1913-1910,  in  engr.  office, 
designing,  estimating  and  contracting;  1916,  to  date,  engr.  officer  in  R.A.F.;  Feb.-Nov, 
1917,  asst.  officer  in  ehg.  of  engines  No.  1  Aircraft  Depot;  1917,  to  date,  officer  in  ehg. 
of  engines,  Reception  Park,  B.E.F.,  in  command  of  120  mechs.  (man  supply  depot  for 
France).  Experience  includes  care  and  tuning  of  engines  and  100  hrs.  flying  as  engr. 
observer  on  air  tests. 

References:  G.  E.  Bell,  J.  G.  LeGrand. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


41 


ENGINEERING  INDEX 

In  this  department  will  be  published  from  month  to  month  the  titles  of  current  engineering  papers  with  the  authors 

a nd  source  and  a  brief  extract  of  the  more  important.     It  is  designed  to  give  the  members 

of  The  Institute  a  survey  of  all  important  articles  relating  to  the  engineering 

profession  and  to  every  branch  of  the  profession. 


PHOTOSTATIC  PRINTS 
Photostatic  copies  may  be  obtained  of  any  of  the  articles  listed  in  this  section. 
Price  0/  each  print  (up  to  11  x  14  in.  in  size),  £5  cents,  plus  postage.     A  separate 
print  is  required  for  each  page  0]  the  larger-she    periodicals,  but  where  possible  two  pages 
Kill  be  photographed  together  on  the  same  print.     Bit'  will  be  mailed  with  the  prints. 
Orders  should  be  sent  to 

Harrisson  IV.  Crater,  Director, 

Engineering  Societies  Library, 
SO  West  Thirty-ninth  Street,  New  York,  N.Y. 

AERONAUTICS 

AEROPLANE  PARTS 

Stick  Co.nthol.  Tho  Warner  Duplex  Stick  Control.  Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  no.  13, 
Dec.  9,  1918,  p.  661,  3  figs.  Brief  description  of  [hand  and  knee  grips  for  use 
of  pilots. 

Tail.  A  Gotha  Biplane  Tail.  Flight,  vol.  10,  no.  40,  Oct.  3,  1918,  pp.  1167-1108, 
1  fig.  Design  consisting  of  two  horizontal  approximately  triangular  planes, 
top  plane  being  supported  on  cabineof  steel  tubes,  while  sides  of  bottom  plane 
are  Doited  to  sides  of  body. 

AEROSTATICS 

Military.  Military  Aerostatics,  H.  K.  Black.  Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  nos.  6,  7  and  9. 
Oct.  21  and  28,  and  Nov.  11,  1918,  p.  325,  1  fig.,  371,  1  fig.  and  475,  2  fig.-. 
Oct.  21  :  Balloon  baskets.  Oct.  28  and  Nov.  11  :  Equipment  of  basket. 
(Continuation  of  serial.) 

AIRCRAFT  PRODUCTION 

U.  S.  Navy.  Naval  Aircraft  Factory  at  Philadelphia,  Indus.  Management,  vol.  56, 
no.  6,  Dec,  1918,  pp.  465-470,  13  figs.  Story  of  great  industrial 
achievement  of  United  States  Navy. 

APPLICATIONS 

Exploration.  The  Possibility  of  Aerial  Reconnaissance  in  the  Himalaya.  A.  M. 
Kellas.  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  no.  257,  Sept.  18,  1918,  pp.  275-277.  Funda- 
mental facts  and  requirements  of  undertaking.  Paper  before  Roy.  Geog. 
Soc. 

AUXILIARY  SERVICE 

Tricks.  Building  for  the  Aviation  Service,  M.  E.  Hoag.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49, 
no.  23,  Dec.  5.  1918,  pp.  1043-1044,  7  figs.  Building  a  3  «-t.on  special  truck 
for  U.  S.  Aviation  Signal  Service.     First  article. 

DYNAMICS 

Ceiling.  Elementary  Considerations  on  the  Ceiling  of  an  Airplane  (Donn6es  616men- 
taircs sur  le  plafond  d'un  avion),  Andre  Laine.  l'Aerophilc,  year  26,  nos.  17-18, 
Sept.  1-15,  1918,  pp.  264-265.  Points  out  convenience  of  high  ceiling  and 
means  of  attaining  it. 

On  an  Experience  of  the  Flyer  Gilbert  (Sur  unc  experience  du  pilote 
Gilbert).  F.  Roux.  l'Aerophile,  year  26,  nos.  17-18,  Sept.  1-15,  1918,  p.  236, 
1  fig.  How  it  happened  that  Eugene  Gilbert  maintained  his  plane  stationary 
in  air  while  machine  was  running  at  full  speed. 

Stability.  Lateral  Stability  in  Aeroplanes,  C.  Levick.  Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  no.  13, 
Dec.  9,  1918,  p.  660,  3  figs.  Computation  of  effect  of  a  roll  on  a  machine  in 
terms  of  dihedral  angle  of  aerofoils.  Also  in  Flight,  vol.  10,  no.  42,  Oct.  17, 
1918,  p.  1165,  3  figs. 

ENGINES 

Design.  The  Design  of  Airplane  Engines  (II),  John  Wallace.  Automotive  Eng., 
vol.  3,  no.  9,  Oct.,  1918,  pp.  415-417  and  401,  3  figs.  Comparison  of  rotary 
and  fixed  radial;  trend  of  modern  design;  cooling  of  cylinders;  indicator 
diagram;  compression  ratio.     From  Aeronautics.     (Continuation  of  serial.) 

History.  Outline  of  History  of  Aviation  Engine  Production,  H.  H.  Emmons.  Aeriai 
Age,  vol.  8,  no.  13,  Dec.  9,  1918,  pp.  662-665,  2  figs.  Elementary  training 
engines;  development  of  Liberty,  12;  methods  of  production.  Also  in  Motor 
Age,  vol.  34,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  18-19  and  30,  3  figs. 

Liberty.  American  Liberty  Motor  (Le  moteur  Americain  Liberty).  l'Aerophile, 
year  26,  nos.  17-18,  Sept.  1-15,  1918,  p.  271.     Abstract  of  description  author- 

Iized  by  War  Department.  Also  in  Sci.  Am.,  vol.  99,  no.  23,  Dec.  7,  1918, 
pp.  455  and  466,  4  figs. 
Maybach.  The  300-Hp.  Maybach  Aircraft  Engine,  Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39,  nos.  18, 
20  and  21,  Oct.  31,  Nov.  14  and  21,  1918,  pp.  75.5-759,  8  figs.,  840-842,  9  figs., 
882-887,  5  figs.  Technical  description  of  largest  German  Aircraft  engine 
model.  Issued  by  Tech.  Department,  Aircraft  Production,  Ministry  of 
Munitions;  Nov.  14  :  Lubricating  system;  details  of  oil  pumps;  cooling  and 
ignition  systems;  carburetor  and  fuel  feed  system;  details  results  of  horse- 
power and  fuel  consumption  tests;  table  of  engine  dimensions;  general  analysis 


in  Automobile  Engr.,  vol.  8,  no.  119,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  285-295,  27  li"s  •  Fl 
vol.  10,  no.  39,  Sept.  26,  1918,  pp.  1084-1087,  2  figs. 

The  200-Hp.  Austro-Daimlcr  Aero  Engine.  Engineer,  vol.  126, 
3279  and  3280,  Nov.  1  and  S,  1918,  pp.  376-379,  10  figs,  393-394,  7 
Description  of  details,  with  principal  data  and  illustrations.  Also  in  Fl 
vol.  10,  nos.  44  and  ■}.">,  Oct.  31  and  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  1217-1222,  10 
and  1255-1259,  12  figs.;  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2757,  Nov.  1,  1918 
488-492,  17  figs.;  Aeronautics,  vol.15,  no.  263,  Oct.  30,  1918,  pp.  403 
27  figs. 


ight, 

nos 

tigs. 

ight, 

tigs.. 

pp. 

417, 


PaNHABD.  The  Panhard— 300  Hp.  (Direct  Type  Aviation  Motor),  E.  H.  Sherbondy. 
Aerial  Ago,  vol.  8,  no.  0,  Oct.  21,  1918,  pp.  308-309,  5  figs.  Motor  with  two 
rows,  each  of  six  cylinders,  sot  at  an  angle  of  60  deg.  from  each  other. 

GLIDERS 

An  Interesting  Biplane  Glider,  F.  J.  Camm.  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  no. 
262,  Oct.  25,  1918,  p.  393.     Chief  dimensions  and  process  of  construction. 

HISTORY 

I.ANor.r.Y  What  Langley  Did  for  the  Science  of  Aviation  (II).  Automotive  Ind., 
vol.  39,  no.  17  and  18,  Oct.  24  and  31,  1918,  pp.  714-718  and  728,  10  figs., 
and  761-765,  7  figs.  Experiments  with  rubber-driven  models  and  others 
using  compressed  air,  carbonic  acid,  gas  and  electric  batteries;  adoption  of 
steam  as  source  of  power.  Oct.  31:  Experiments  with  quarter-size  and  man- 
carrying  aerodromes.     (To  be  continued.) 

INSTRUMENTS 

Barograph.  German  Barograph  No.  1623,  Range  o  to  8000  in.  Flight,  vol.  10,  no.  42, 
Oct.  17,  1918,  pp.  1167-1168,  6  figs.  General  remarks  on  details  of  con- 
struction. Also  in  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  no.  262,  Oct.  23,  1918,  pp.  382-384, 
6  figs. 

Instruments  for  Air  Use,  \V.  A.  Robson.  Sci.  Am.  Supp.,  vol.  86,  no. 
2235,  Nov.  2,  1918,  p.  285.     From  Flight. 

MATERIALS  OF  CONSTRUCTION 

Steel  Tubes.  Steel  Tubes,  Tube  Manipulation,  and  Tubular  Structures  for 
Aircraft,  W.  W.  Hackett  and  A.  G.  Hackett.  Flight,  vol.  10,  no.  44,  Oct.  31, 
1918,  pp.  1233-1235.  Tapered  tubes;  tubular  liners  or  reinforcements;  tests 
on  soldered  joints;  brazing;  welding;  rust  prevention.  (Concluded.)  Also 
in  Automotive  Eng.,  vol.  3,  no.  9,  ,Oct.  1918,  p.  396  and  (discussion)  pp. 
397-.!!.  8 

METEOROLOGY 

Meteorology  in  Relation  to  Aeronautics  (1),  W.  II.  Dines.  Sci.  Am. 
Supp.,  vol.  86,  no.  2239,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  351-352.  Review  of  data 
required  by  an  aviator  when  in  the  air.  Paper  before  Aeronautical  Soc.  of 
(it    Britain.     From  Aeronautical  ,11. 

MILITARY  AIRCRAFT 

British.  Some  Recent  Types  of  Allied  Military  Planes.  Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39, 
no.  17,  Oct.  24,  1918,  pp.  706-707,  4  figs.  General  features  of  Spad  single- 
seater  tractor  scout,  Vickers  F  B-14,  long-distance  reconnaissance  tractor 
biplane,  Sopwith  "  Hippo  "  two-seater  fighter,  and  Avro  training  machine. 

German.  German  Aircraft.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.,  1918,  p.  198. 
Abstract  of  five  reports  of  Technical  Department,  Aircraft  Production, 
Ministry  of  Munitions,  describing  Maybach  engine,  Rumpler  two-seater 
biplane.     Hannoverancr    biplane,    an    armored    machine,    and    Pfalz    scout. 

MODELS 

Model  Construction.  Model  Aeroplane  Building  as  a  Step  to  Aeronautical 
Engineering.  Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  nos.  6,  7,  8  and  9,  Oct.  21,  28  and  Nov.  4, 
11,  1918,  p.  377,  7  figs.,  389,  1  fig.,  433  and  483,  1  fig.  Oct.  21:  Construction 
vertical  stabilizer.  Oct.  28  :  Design  and  building  of  a  man-carrying 
aeroplane.  Nov.  4  and  11:  Calculation  of  sustaining  power  and  resistance 
of  wings  and  explanation  of  table  giving  aerodynamic  laboratory  tests. 
(Continuation  of  serial.) 

Model  Aeroplanes  (XVI).  F.  J.  Camm.  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  nos. 
258  and  261,  Sept.  25,  Oct.  16,  1918,  p.  300,  1  fig.,  369,  2  figs.  Details  of  a 
tractor  monoplane.  Oct.  16:  Notes  on  attaching  elastic  and  on  manner 
of  flying  model. 

Model  Testing.  The  Theoretical  Basis  of  Model  Strength  Tests  for  Aeroplane 
Structures,  W.  L.  Cowley  and  H.  Levy.  Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  no.  6,  Oct.  21, 
1918,  pp.  322-323.  Application  of  principle  of  homogeneity  of  dimensions  to 
determination  of  strength  of  structure. 

PLANES 

A.  E.  G.  A.  E.  G.  Armoured  Aeroplane.  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2754,  Oct.  11, 
1918,  pp.  416-417,  15  figs.  Principal  data  and  description,  with  details 
of  construction  illustrated. 

The  Fokker  Biplane,  Type  D  VII.  Flight,  vol.  10,  nos.  40,  41  and 
42,  Oct.  3,  10,  and  17,  1918,  pp.  1109-1116,  1142-1144  and  1101-1164,  23  figs. 


42 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Data  relating  to  performance  and  detailed  particulars  of  weights.  Issued  by 
Technical  Department,  Aircraft  Production,  Ministry  of  Munitions.  Also 
in  Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  no.  8,  Nov.  4,  1918,  pp.  424-427,  20  figs.;  l'Aerophile,  year 
26,  nos.  17-18,  Sept.  1,  1918,  pp.  257-202,  10  figs.:  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  no. 
259,  Oct.  2,  1918,  pp.  310-316,  23  figs. 

A.  It.  The  French  A.  R.  Biplane.  Aerial  Age,  iol.  8,  no.  7,  Oct.  28,  1918,  pp.  374-37". 
6  figs.  Particulars  of  two-strutter  biplane  of  13.3  m.  span  wihich  has  its 
fuselage  supported  between  planes  on  ash  struts. 

Berg.     The  Austrian  Berg  Single-Seater.     Flight,  vol.   10,    no.  44,  Oct.  31,  1918, 

pp.   1225-1227,   7  figs.      Mounting  of  200-Hp.   Austro-Daimler  engine  with 

which    plane    is    equipped;    tanks;    instruments;    control;      undercarriage. 

(Continuation  of  serial.) 
Continental.     The    Continental    Kb-3T    Training    Tractor,    John    F.     McMahon. 

Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  no.  6,  Oct.  21,  1918,  pp.  310-317  and  345,  4  figs.     General 

specifications  of  machine  designed  for  cheap  construction  by  the  Continental 

Aircraft  Corporation. 
HalreRstadt.     Keport  on  the  Halbcrstadt  Fighter.     Flight,  vol.  10,  no.  41,  Oct.  10, 

1918,    pp.    1133-1141,    38    figs.      Details    of   performance    and    construction. 

Issued  by  Technical  Department  Aircraft  Production,  Ministry  of  Munitions. 

Supplementing  brief  description  given  in  issue  of  Aug.  1.     Also  in  Engineer, 

vol.  126,  no.  3270,  Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  302-304,  25  figs. 

Pfaiz.  Report  on  the  Pfalz  Single-Seater  (G141).  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  no.  257, 
Sept.  18,  1918,  pp.  270-274,  22  figs.  Particulars  and  performance  of  German 
scout  with  streamline-shaped  fuselage.  By  Technical  Department. 
Aircraft  Production,  Ministry  of  Munitions. 

Roland.  The  Roland  Chaser  D  II,  G,  Douglas  Wardrop.  Aerial  Age,  vol.  8,  no. 
6,  Oct.  21,  1918,  pp.  310-312,  9  figs.  Construction  of  fuselage,  planes,  tail, 
engine  and  undercarriage. 

SlEMENS-ScHUOKERT.  A  New  German  Chaser.  Flight,  vol.  10,  no.  39,  Sept.  26, 
1918,  p.  1083,  2  figs.     Characteristics  of  Siemens-Schuckcrt  biplane. 

S  or  with.  The  Sopwith  "Camel."  Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918, 
pp.  790-791,  (i  figs.  Description  of  late  model  of  British  scout  plane.  Trans- 
lated from  German  aircraft  publication. 

Zeppelin.  The  Zeppelin  Biplane,  Jean  Lagorgette.  Sci.  Am.  Supp.,  vol.  86,  nos. 
2237  and  2238,  Nov.  16  and  23,  1918,  pp.  316-319  and  334-335,  8  figs. 
Description  of  German  bombing  machine  134  ft.  long.     From  Aeroplane. 

PRODUCTION 

Standardization.  Effect  of  Changes  on  Airplane  Output,  Ind.  Man.,  vol.  56,  no.  5, 
Nov.,  1918,  pp.  375-377.  Manufacturers  must  abandon  idea  of  standardized 
production. 

PROPELLERS 

Analysis.  Notes  on  Airscrew  Analysis  (III),  M.  A.  S.  Riach.  Aeronautics,  vol.  15, 
no.  257,  Sept.  18,  1918,  pp.  265-266.  Outlines  process  by  which  experimental 
results  on  airscrews  are  analyzed  and  compared  with  their  respective  calculated 
performances.     (Concluded.) 

Calculations.  Calculating  Airplane  Propeller  Strength  and  Efficiency  (II),  F.  W. 
Caldwell.  Automotive  Eng.,  vol.  3,  no.  9,  Oct.,  1918,  pp.  402-405.  Limit  of 
ceiling,  comparison  of  conventional  designs;  calculations  of  efficiency  during 
climbing;  calculations  for  propeller  chart.     (Concluded.) 

SPECIFICATIONS,  AEROPLANE 

U.  S.  Navy.  Navy  Department  Airplane  Specifications.  Jl.  Soe.  Automotive  Engrs., 
vol.  3,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  325-329.  Issued  for  use  in  connection  with  con- 
tracts and  submission  to  Navy  of  new  and  undemonstrated  designs. 

TRANSATLANTIC  FLIGHT 

Transatlantic  Flight,  Frithiof  G.  Ericson.  Jl.  Soe.  Automotive  Engrs., 
vol.  3,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  319-321.  Favorable  routes;  requirements  of 
airplane;  flight  endurance.     From  Aviation. 

CIVIL    ENGINEERING 

BRIDGES 

Concrete  Bridc.es.  Bridging  the  James  River  at  Richmond, Va.  Cement  &  Eng. 
News,  vol.  30,  no.  1 1,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  15-16.  General  dimensions  of  structure 
consisting  of  18  reinforeed-concrete  arch  spans. 

Reinforced  Concrete  Bridges  and  Their  Architectural  Treatment,  F.  G. 
Engholm.  Contract  Rec,  vol.  32,  no.  45,  Nov.  6,  1918,  pp.  880-883,  0  figs. 
Recommends  considerations  of  fitness,  proportion  and  adaptability  in  design, 
and  moderate  use  of  decorations. 

Reinforeed-Concrete  Trestles.  Sci.  Am.  Supp.,  vol.  86,  no.  2238,  Nov. 
23,  1918,  p.  324,  3  figs.     Viaducts  recently  constructed  by  Can.  Pac.  Ry. 

Design.  New  Impact  Formulas  Needed  in  Designing  Bridges  of  Various  Types, 
J.  A.  L.  Waddell.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  924-928, 
2  f  gs.  Scarcity  of  experimental  knowledge  of  impact  shown  by  review  of  tests 
and  studies;  group  of  formulas  proposed;  lower  impact  allowances  for  solid- 
floor  bridges  and  concrete  arches. 

The  Principal  Bridges  of  the  World.       Sci.  Am.  Supp.,  vol.  86,  nos.  2235 

p!  and  2236,  Nov.  2  and  9,  1918,  pp.  286-288  and  294.     Comparison  of  their 

size,  importance  and  principles  of  design. 

Highway  Bridges.  Standardization  of  Detail  in  Highway  Bridge  Design,  M  VV. 
Torkelson.  Cement  &  Eng.  News,  vol.  30,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  33-34. 
Practice  of  Wisconsin  Highway  Commission. 

Lift  Bridges.     Scherzcr  Lift-Bridge  at   Keadby   (Ponte  levatoio  tipo  Scherzer  a 
•    Keadby).     Ingegneria  Italiana,  vol.  2,  no.  37,  Sept.  5,  1918,  pp.  131-134,  7 
figs.     Plans,    dimensions   and   details   of   mechanism.     From   Gfnie   Civil, 
Jan.  19,  1918. 


Railroad  Bridges.  Special  Foundation  Work  for  a  Railroad  Bridge,  J.  II.  Merriam. 
Ry.  Age,  vol.  65,  no.  22,  Nov.  29,  1918,  pp.  951-953,  6  figs.  New  Burlington 
structure  over  Platte  River -is  supported  entirely  on  concrete  piles. 

Wilson  Bridge.  The  Wilson  Bridge  at  Lyons.  Engineer,  vol.  126,  no.  3280,  Nov.  8, 
1918,  pp.  387-388,  9  figs.  Drawings,  illustrations  and  description  of  le  pont 
Wilson,  formally  opened  at  Lyons,  July  14,  191S,  and  named  in  honor  of  Presi- 
dent Wilson. 

BUILDING  AND  CONSTRUCTION 

Churches.  Steel  Construction  Characterizes  Chicago  Church.  Eng.  News-Rec, 
vol.  81,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  860-863,  5  figs.  Cantilever  trusses  carry 
front  wall  and  gallery;  dome  trusses  are  supported  by  girders  on  tall  four- 
post  tower  having  no  interior  bracing. 

Concrete  Pedestal  Pile.  The  McArthur  Concrete  Pedestal  Pile.  Contract 
Rec,  vol.  32,  no.  42,  Oct.  16,  1918,  pp.  830-831,  2  figs.  Prcesses  followed  in 
construction  of  pile  consisting  of  a  16-in.  cylindrical  shaft,  with  an  enlarged 
base. 

Fire-Resistive  Construction.  Fire  Resistive  Construction  Committee  Report. 
Eng.  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  13-14,  1  fig.  Speci- 
fications drawn  by  joint  conference  of  representatives  from  ten  American 
technical  societies  and  the  Can.  Soe.  of  Civil  Engrs. 

Railroad  Station.  Toronto's  Union  Station  Nears  Completion.  Contract  Rec., 
vol.  32,  no.  41,  Oct.  9,  1918,  pp.  805-808,  9  figs.  Water-proofing;  roof; 
elevators, 

EtESEBVOtRS,  Oil.  Circular  Earth  Embankment  Lined  with  Concrete  Forms  Oil 
Reservoir,  E.  D.  Cole.  Eng.  News-Rec.,  vol.  18,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918, 
pp.  932-936,  3  figs.  Type  originated  in  California;  introduced  into  Texas 
fields  on  account  of  lack  of  steel;  concrete  roof  carried  on  wood  frame  also 
because  of  lack  of  steel. 

Reinforced  Concrete  Fuel-Oil  Tanks.  Can.  Engr.,  vol.  35,  no.  17,  Oct. 
24,  1918,  p.  370,  2  figs.     Dimensions  and  process  of  executing  work. 

Reservoirs,  Water.  Newton,  Mass.,  Water  Reservoir,  Edwin  H.  Rogers,  Eng. 
Cement  World,  vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  9-12,  3  figs.  Details  of  its 
four  rectangular  sections  and  circular  gate  chamber  at  centre,  in  which  are 
installed  a  steel  distributing  tank  and  pipes  from  force  main  to  different 
sections  and  overflow  pipes  and  drains.  From  Proc.  Boston  Soe.  Civil  Engrs. 
Reinforced  Concrete  Reservoirs,  Montevideo.  Engineering,  vol.  106, 
no.  2756,  Oct.  25,  1918,  pp.  453-455,  43  figs.  Description  of  two  6,500,000-gal. 
reservoirs  constructed  for  City  of  Montevideo,  Uruguay,  R.  C.  Parsons, 
Engineer.     Drawings  of  principal  features. 

Scaffolds  and  Falsework.  Safe  Construction  of  Scaffolds  and  Falsework,  T.  F. 
Foltz.  Contract  Rec,  vol.  32,  no.  42,  Oct.  16,  1918,  pp.  826-829.  Outlines 
general  construction  of  pole,  suspended,  outrigger,  carpenters'  bracket  and 
painters'  scaffolds,  and  indicates  their  general  construction  requirements. 
Paper  before  Nat.  Safety  Council. 

Submerged  Structures.  Essentials  of  Proper  Construction,  J.  W.Rollins.  Contract 
Rec,  vol.  32,  no.  44,  Oct.  30,  1918,  pp.  870-873.  Requirements  of  Concrete  for 
submerged  structures. 

EARTHWORK,  ROCK,  EXCAVATION,  ETC. 

Rusting.  Drilling  and  Blasting  in  Construction  of  Halifax  Ocean  Terminals  Railway 
Eng.  &  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  21,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  480-481.  Description 
of  some  features  of  work.  From  paper  by  B.  H.  Smith  before  Eng.  Inst,  of 
Canada. 

Quarry  Blasting  with  Electricity.  A.  S.  Anderson.  Du  Pont  Magazine, 
vol.  9,  no.  6,  Dec,  1918,  pp.  20-27,  3  figs.  Ways  of  producing  current  and 
precaution  to  be  observed. 

Park  Construction.  Construction  Plans  Developed  for  the  Bronx  River  Parkway 
Reservation,-L.  G.  Holleran.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918, 
pp.  899-903,  4  figs.  Designs  of  Park  Commission  contemplate  development 
of  1400  acres  by  grading  and  planting;  numerous  structures  proposed;  work 
to  be  done  by  day  labor. 

HARBORS 

Concrete  Construction.  The  Use  of  Reinforced  Concrete  Construction  in  Harbor 
Work,  A.  F.  Dyer.  Jl.,  Eng.  Inst.  Can.,  vol.  1,  no.  6,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  242- 
251,  11  figs.  Descriptions  derived  from  articles  and  papers  published  in 
technical  journals  and  proceedings  of  technical  societies.  Also  in  Eng.  & 
Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  21,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  483-485. 

Piers.  Compression  Strengths  of  Large  Brick  Piers.  Eng.  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13, 
no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  p.  25.  Summary  of  conclusions  based  on  past  records 
and  recent  investigation  by  Bureau  of  Standards,  composed  of  tests  on  piers 
2  ft.  6  in.  sq.  by  10  ft.  high  in  which  three  grades  of  brick  were  used. 

Ports.  Railway  Construction  in  Connection  with  the  Halifax  Ocean  Terminals, 
R.  H.  Smith.  Jl.  Eng.  Inst.,  Can.,  vol.  1,  no.  6,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  281-288. 
Methods  employed  and  difficulties  overcome  in  construction  operations  which 
necessitated  considerable  excavation  work  and  presented  other  difficulties. 

St.  John  Harbor,  Alex.  Gray.  Jl.  Eng.  Inst.  Can.,  vol.  1,  no.  6,  Oct., 
1918,  pp.  273-278,  15  figs.  Outstanding  features  in  habor  and  type  of  con- 
struction used  in  wharves. 

The  Port  of  Honduras.     Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.  1918,  p.  193. 
Projected  improvements. 

Sea  Walls.  Drive  Inclined  Precast  Concrete  Slabs  for  Sea  Wall.  Eng.  News-Rec, 
vol.  81,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  897-898,  3  figs.  Acjount  of  new  type  of 
beach  protection  replacing  vertical  concrete  wall  at  Lo-i"  Beach,  Cal. 

Pneumatic  Caisson  Method  of  Quay  Wall  Construction  at  Halifax 
Eng.  &  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  21,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  489-490,  2  figs.  From 
paper  by  J.  J.  MaoDonald  before  Eng.  Inst,  of  Canada. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


43 


MATERIALS  OF  CONSTRUCTION 

Timber.  Decay  in  Mill-Roof  Timber,  R.  J.  Blair.  Textile  World  Jl.,  vol.  54,  no.  23, 
Dec.  7,  1918,  pp.  95-101,  4  figs.  How  it  occurs  and  how  it  can  be  pre- 
vented.    (To  be  continued.) 

ROADS  AND  PAVEMENTS 

Canada.  Canadian  Highway  Construction,  Harry  Stewardson.  Contract  Rec, 
vol.  32,  no.  46,  Nov.  13,  1918,  pp.  899-901.  Considers  how  to  distribute  cost 
of  construction  and  maintenance  so  that  necessary  money  can  be  secured  and 
necessary  expense  fairly  placed  upon  people  who  use  roads  and  communities 
which  receive  benefits. 

Highway  Work  in  Ontario.  Good  Roads,  vol.  1G,  no.  20,  Nov.  16,  1918, 
pp.  185-186  and  191.     Progress  made  in  Canadian  Province. 

Roadway  Improvements  in  Ontario,  W.  A.  MacLean.  Contract  Rec, 
vol.  32,  no.  41,  Oct.  9,  1918,  pp.  813-819,  10  figs.  Extracts  from  annual  report 
of  Department  of  Public  Highways  for  1917. 

Concrete.  Concrete  Road  Construction,  William  W.  Cox.  Good  Roads,  vol.  16, 
no.  18,  Nov.  2,  1918,  pp.  165-166  and  169,  1  fig.  Precautions  and  care  to  be 
observed.     Paper  before  Mich.  State  Good  Roads  Assn. 

Vertical  Movements  in  Concrete  Pavements  and  a  Suggestion  Towards 
Their  Elimination,  J.  W.  Lowell.  Eng.  &  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  19 
Nov.  6,  1918,  pp.  441-443,  4  figs.     From  paper  before  Am.  Concrete    Inst' 

Cost  Keeping.  Better  System  of  Highway  Cost  Keeping,  J.  J.  Tobin  and  A.  R.  Losh. 
Contract  Rec,  vol.  32,  nos.  44,  45  and  46,  Oct.  30  and  Nov.  6  and  13,  1918, 
pp.  866-869,  886-888  and  903-906,  4  figs.  Study  of  principles  governing  cost 
keeping  and  application  of  these  principles  to  highway  work.  Detail  of  cost 
accounts  and  necessary  codes. 

France.  Principles  Upon  Which  the  French  Highways  Are  Built,  Frank  W.  Harris 
Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  between  strategic  points 
followed;  great  attention  is  given  to  drainage. 

Location.  Putting  the  Right  Road  in  the  Right  Place,  Rodman  Wiley.  Am.  City, 
vol.  19,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  356-358,  4  figs.  European  practice  in  locating 
road;  importance  of  exercising  good  judgment  in  grading  and  surfacing.  Paper 
before  Ky.  Highway  Engrs.  Assn. 

Macadam.  Capacity  of  Macadam  Roads  for  War  Business  Increased.  Eng.  News- 
Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  990-992,  5  figs.  Three-foot  concrete 
shoulders  added  at  each  side  without  closing  highways  to  traffic;  war  labor 
conserved  by  using  convicts  for  construction. 

Oiled  Macadam  Roads  Resurfaced  with  Concrete,  E.  A.  Burt.  Eng. 
News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  942-944,  3  figs.  Los  Angeles 
County,  Calfornia,  builds  roads  in  two  sections  to  keep  traffic  moving; 
centre  joint  keeps  autos  on  own  side;  cost  figures. 

Tar- Macadam  v.  Granite  Macadam.  Ellis  W.  Jones.  Surveyor,  vol. 
54,  no.  1399,  Nov.  8,  1918,  p.  220.  Author's  experience  and  recommendation 
that  roads  which  have  to  carry  from  600  to  1,000  tons  a  day  should  be  main 
tained  wich  tar-macadam. 

Maintenance.  Motor  Vehicles  and  Their  Influence  Upon  Road  Construction 
W.  A.  Maclean.  Surveyor,  vol.  54,  no.  1309,  Nov.  8,  1918,  pp.  221-222., 
Record  of  Deputy  Minister  of  Public  Highwys  for  Ontario. 

Road  Maintenance  Methods  and  Devices  Effect  Saving  of  Material 
Labor  and  Fuel.  Eng.  News-Rec, vol.  81,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  981-984 
5  figs.  Bureau  of  Maintenance  and  Repair,  New  York  State  Highways 
Department,  working  through  nine  division  engineers'  endeavors  to  keep, 
war-time  traffic  roads  open  still  conserve  material. 

Mixers.  Direct  Charging  of  Concrete  Mixers.  Mun  Jl.,  vol.  45,  no.  20,  Nov.  10, 
1918,  p.  392.  Feature  of  construction  of  concrete  pavement  in  ten-mile 
section  of  Delaware  road. 

Two  Mixers  on  Variable  Road  Work.  Eng.  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13, 
no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  31-32,  2  figs.  Methods  followed  in  construcion 
of  a  Western  road. 

Snow  Removal.     Snow  Removal  on  Trunk  Line  Highwavs,  Chas.  J.  Bennett.     Good 
Roads,  vol.  16,  no.  20,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  188-189.     Study  of  the  problem 
and  suggestion  for  its  solution.     Before  conference  On  Snow   Removal  from 
Trunk  High  ways  Automobile  Club  of  America. 

Surfacing.  How  to  Get  Best  Surface  on  a  Concrete  Road,  A.  H.  Hunter.  Cement  & 
Eng.  News,  vol.  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  25-28,  2  figs.  Suggestione  in  regard  to 
application  of  forms,  building  of  expansion  joints  and  use  of  roller  and  ball. 

Resurfacing  Part  of  Buffalo-Albany  Turnpike  with  Concrete,  A.  R. 
Hinman,  Cement  &  Eng.  News,  vol.  30,  no.  11,  Nov.,  1918,  pp.  35-36, 
3  figs.     Method  of  carrying  on  work  without  closing  traffic. 

Wood  Roads.  Gasoline  Consumption  Tests  Demonstrate  Value  of  Hard,  Smooth- 
Surfaced  Roads,  A.  N.  Johnson.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  19,  Nov.  7, 
1918,  pp.  843-850,  8  figs.  Gasoline  saving  which  would  pay  for  construction 
of  hard  surface  in  few  years  is  indicated  between  earth  and  smooth  concrete, 
where  daily  motor  traffic  of  500  can  be  expected.  Results  of  some  tests 
and  description  of  methods  employed. 

Paved  Roadways  Aid  Plant  Efficiency,  H.  Colin  Campbell.  Indus. 
Management,  vol.  56,  no.  6,  Dec,  1918,  pp.  471-472,  4  figs.  Plea  for  better 
roadways  around  factory  buildings. 

The  Measure  of  a  Good  Road,  Robert  C.  Barnctt.  Eng.  &  Contracting, 
vol.  50,  no.  19,  Nov.  6,  1918,  pp.  438-440,  3  figs.  Mathematical  treatment 
of  thesis.  Assumptions  of  good  road;  1.  A  straight  line  is  shortest  distance 
between  two  points;  2.  A  plane  of  uniform  slope  is  best  grade  between  two 
points;  3.  A  hard,  smooth  surface  offers  less  tractive  resistance  than  rough 
or  yielding  one. 

The  Vital  Importance  of  the  Highway,  S.  M.  Williams.  Am.  City, 
vol.  19,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  354-355,  1  fig.  Plea  for  establishment  of  Federal 
Highway  Commission. 


WATER  SUPPLY 

Consumption.  Water  Consumption  in  New  York  State  Cities  and  Its  Effect  on  Coal 
Consumption.  Am.  City,  vol.  19,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  376-378.  From  a 
report  compiled  by  the  State  Bureau  of  Municipal  Information  of  the  New 
York  State  Conference  of  Mayors. 

Mains  in  Winter.  Waterworks  Operation.  Mun.  Jl.,  vol.  45,  no.  21,  Nov.  23, 
1918,  pp.  408-410.     Methods  of  thawing  water  mains  and  services. 

Pollution.  Sanitary  Aspects  of  Water  Supplies  at  Army  Cantonments,  James  T.  B. 
Bowles.  Eng.  &  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  20,  Nov.  13,  1918,  p.  460.  From 
Sept.  Jl.  of  Am.   Waterworks  Assn. 

Railway  Water  Supply.  New  Water  Treating  Plants  for  the  Burlington.  Ry.  Rev., 
vol.  63,  no.  19,  Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  661-666,  10  figs.  Use  of  reinforced-concreto 
tanks  on  Casper  division;  various  conditions  of  water  supply:  different  types 
of  construction. 

Railwaj  Water  Supply  from  Wells.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  63,  no.  19,  Nov.  9, 
1918,  pp.  669-671.  From  report  of  committee  on  sources  of  railway  water 
supply,  to  Am.  Ry.  Bridge  and  Building  Assn.,  Chicago,  Oct.  15,  1918,  by 

C.  R.  Knowles,  chairman. 

Sand  Filters.  Coagulants  Versus  Sand  Filters  as  Aid  to  Water  Purification  in  the 
Field,  H.  S.  Briggs  and  E.  R.  Marie.  Contract  Rec,  vol.  32,  no.  46,  Nov.  13, 
1918,  pp.  906-908.  Description  of  installation  embodying  alum  process. 
From  Roy.  Engrs.  Jl. 

Drifting  Sand  Filter,  Toronto  Island,  Geo.  G.  Nasmith  and  N.  J. 
Howard.  Can.  Engr.,  vol.  35,  no.  17,  Oct.  24,  1918,  pp.  359-364,  6  figs. 
Report  of  bacteriological  and  physical  tests  performed  on  section  comprising 
five  filter  units. 

Toronto's  Drifting  Sand  Filter.  Mun.  Jl.,  vol.  45,  no.  20,  Nov.  16, 
1918,  pp.  390-392.  Construction  and  operation:  bacteriological  and  physical 
tests;  conclusions  as  to  efficiency  of  plant. 

WATERWAYS 

Dams.     High-Pressure  Gates  in  Dams  for   Water-Works  and  Irrigation  Reviewed. 

D.  W.  Cole.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  880-884, 
5  figs.  From  sluice  gates  in  Sudbury  Dam  of  Boston  Water-  Works  through 
various  stages  of  gate  development  in  high  dams  of  U.  S.  Reclamation  Service. 
From  paper  presented  at  Idaho  conference  of  engineers  in  1918. 

Modifications  in  the  Character  of  a  Water  Stream  Produced  by  Con- 
struction of  a  Dam  (Modifications  apportees  au  regime  d'un  cours  apres 
l'^tablissement  d'un  barrage),  K.  Zorayan.  Revue  G6nerale  de  l'Electricitfi , 
vol.  4,  no.7,  Aug.  17,  1918,  pp.  226-229,  5  figs.  Chart  for  tracing  output 
curve  knowing  the  declivity  of  a  water  course  and  the  height  of  water  in 
dam. 

Gates.  Some  Experiences  with  Large-Capacitv  Reservoir  Outlets,  James  M.  Gaylord. 
Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  945-950,  2  figs.  Specially 
designed  gates  control  discharge  of  immense  volumes  of  water  under  pressures 
above  200  ft. ;  difficulties  and  how  they  have  been  overcome.  Paper  before 
Colorado  Assn.  of  members  of  Am.  Soc.  of  Civil  Engrs. 

Run-Off.  Progress  Report  of  Committee  on  Run-Off.  Jl.  Boston  Soc.  Civil  Engrs., 
vol.  5,  no.  9,  Nov.,  1918,  pp.  387-422,  3  figs.  Use  of  the  current  meter  in  stream 
gaging;  0.2  and  0.8  method  in  power  canals;  precipitation,  evaporation  and  run- 
off; effects  of  ice  on  river  discharge;  methods  to  be  used  in  compilation  of 
data. 

Stream  Regulation.  Stream  Regulations  in  Quebec  Province,  Olivier  Lefebvre. 
Can.  Engr.,  vol.  35,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  399-402  and  411,  5  figs.  Account 
of  increase  in  water  power  by  using  Lakes  St.  Francis  and  Aylmer  as  storage 
basins  and  indications  of  possible  developments.  From  Annual  Report  of 
Quebec  Streams  Commission. 

ELECTRICAL   ENGINEERING 

ELECTROCHEMISTRY 

Reduction  of  Metals.  Electric-Furnace  Reduction  of  Certain  Metals  Suscep- 
tible of  Industrial  Utilization  (Sur  la  preparation  au  four  electrique  de  quelques 
m£taux  susceptibles  d'utilisation  industrielle),  Jean  Escard.  Revue  G6ne>ale 
dp  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  11,  Sept.  14,  1918,  pp.  375-386,  3  figs.  Notes  on 
reduction  of  barium,  calcium,  glucinum,  cobalt,  nickel,  titanium,  manganese, 
chromium,  molybdenum,  tungsten,  vanadium. 

EI.ECTROPHYSICS 

Distribution,  Electrostatic.  The  Electron  Theory  of  Metallic  Conductors 
Applied  to  Electrostatic  Distribution  Problems,  L.  Silberstein.  Lond., 
Edinburgh  &  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  36,  no.  215,  Nov.,  1918,  pp.  413-420. 
General  expression  for  equilibrium  distribution  in  terms  of  total  charge  and 
potential  of  external  field,  and  application  of  general  formula  to  cases  of  full 
spherical  conductors  and  hollow  sphere. 

Periodic  Currents.  Oscillating  Energy  (Encrgie  oscillante),  G.  Szarvady.  Revue 
G6nerale  de  l'Ectricite,  vol.  4,  no.  12,  Sept.  21,  1918,  pp.  411-422,  2  figa. 
Application  of  Ohm's  law  and  Kirchoff's  laws  to  watt  currents  and  wattless 
components  of  electromotive  forces  and  intensities  of  periodic  currents. 

Saturation.  On  the  Calculation  of  Magnetic  and  Electric  Saturation  Values,  J.  R. 
Ashworth.  Lond.,  Edinburgh  &  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  36,  no.  214,  Oct., 
1918,  pp.  351-360.  Deduces  Ia=\/(R  /R1  )  where  /g  is  limiting  intensity  of 
magnetization,  R  the  gas  constant  and  R>  the  reciprocal  of  the  product  of  sus- 
ceptibility into  absolute  temperature;  also  (!»  =  t/(R/S),  where  ie  is 
maximum  current  density  a  conductor  can  carry,  S  ratio  of  resistivity  to 
absolute  temperature  and  V  the  velocity  of  electron  as  it  passes  along  con- 
ductor. 

Vacuum  Phenomena.  Rectification  by  Vacuum  Discharge,  T.  Kujirai.  Donki 
Gakkwai  Znsshi,  no.  361,  Aug.  31,  1918. 


44 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Theory  of  Coolidge  Tube  (Sur  la  theorie  du  fonctionnement  du  tube 
Coolidge  h  radiatcur),  A.  Dauvillien.  Revue  G£n6rale  de  l'Electricite, 
vol.  4,  no.  13,  Sept.  28,  1918,  pp.  443-445.  Explains  increase  in  resistance 
by  presence  of  large  quantity  of  oxygen  liberated  at  focus  and  by  partial  oxida- 
dation  of  filament,  together  with  formation  of  double  layer  which  diminishes 
electronic  emission. 

Vibration,  Mechanical  Generating  Electrical  Energy.  Experiments  on  the 
Effect  of  the  Vibration  of  a  Stretched  Wire  Forming  Part  of  a  Closed  Electric 
Circuit,  Henry  Jackson.  I'roc.  Hoy.  Soc.,  vol.  95,  no.  A66.r),  Sept,.  2,  1918, 
pp.  51-57.  Experiments  with  sensitive  telephone  detector  which  in  author's 
judgment  confirm  Marran's  suggestion  that  a  mechanical  vibration  or  note 
produces  electricity, 

GENERATING  STATIONS 

ALTERNATORS  in  Parallel.  Synchronizing  Alternators  Coupled  in  Parallel  (La 
misc  en  phase  dans  le  couplagc  en  parallels  dcs  alternateurs).  Elivind  Styff. 
Revue  Generate  de  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  13,  Sept.  28,  1918,  pp.  460-465, 

11  figs.      Schemes  of  connections  and  diagrams  of  electromotive  forces.      From 
Elektrotcchnischc  Zeitschrift,  vol.  38,  Sept.  20,  1917,  p.  401. 

Turho-Alternators  Accidents  to  Steam  Turbo-Alternators  (Au  sujet  dcs  accidents 
aux  turbo-alternaleurs  a  vapeur),  P.  Boucherot.  Revue  G6ne>ale  de  l'Elec- 
tricite, vol.  4,  no.  13,  Sept.  28,  1918,  pp.  457-4(10.  Report,  of  Sub-Committee 
of  1'nion  of  Electrical  Syndicates  proposing  as  a  result  of  studies:  (])  modifi- 
cations in  present  designs  of  turbo-alternators,  (2)  modifications  in  usual  speci- 
fications, and  (3)  dispositions  to  reduce  loss  when  accident  occurs 

The  Production  of  Electricity  by  Steam  Power,  Alex.  Dow.  Elccn.,  vol. 
81,  no.  2111,      Nov.   1,   1918,  pp.  555-557.      Abstract  of  address  before  Am. 

Electrochemical  Soc. 

GENERATORS  AND    MOTORS 

Direct  Current  Motors.  Weight  of  Direct  Current  Motors,  A.  Brunt  Elec. 
Eng.,  vol.  52,  no.  2,  Aug.,  1918,  pp.  28-29,  2  figs.  Requirements  of  direct- 
current  motors  and  graphs  showing  relation  between  weight  and  torque  for 
commutating-pole  and  non-commutating-polc  motors,  and  also  between  weight 
and  torque  for  various-makes  of  apparatus. 

Induction  Motors.  Changing  Speed  of  Induction  Motors.  Power  Plant  Eng  , 
vol.  22,  no.  22,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  926-928,  2  figs.  Possible  speed  changes  of 
induction  motors  to  suit  conditions  in  power  plants, 

lioi.LiNG-MiLL  Motors.  Standardizing  Large  Rolling  Mill  Motors,  K.  Pauly.  Blast 
Furnace,  vol.  6,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  411-414,  1  fig.  Suggests  motors  be 
rated  on  continuous  capacity  at  some  particular  temperature  in  order  to  avoid 
present  difficulties  of  users  of  large  rolling-mill  motors.  Paper  before  Assn. 
Iron  &  Steel  Elec.  Engrs. 

Single-Phase  Generators.  Armature  Reaction  and  Wave  Form  of  a  Single-Phase 
Generator  (in  Japanese),  G.  Shimizu.  Denki  Gakkwai  Zasshi,  no.  362, 
Sept.  10,  1918. 

Starting  Resistances.  Method  for  Determining  Resistance  Used  for  Starting 
Various  Types  of  Motors,  B.  W.  Jones.  Power,  vol.  48,  no.  21,  Nov.  19, 
1918,  pp.  740-744,  6  figs.  A  simple  method  for  determining  the  ohmic  value  of 
resistance  used  for  starting  series,  shunt  and  compound-wound  direct- 
current  motors  and  wound-rotor  induction  motors  under  various  load 
conditions. 

Synchronous  Motors.  For  and  Against  Synchronous  Motors,  Will  Brown.  Elec. 
World,  vol.  72,  no.  21,  Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  982-984.4  figs.  Four  objections  that 
that  have  been  frequently  made  to  using  synchronous  motors;  discussion 
showing  how  conditions  have  changed;  synchronous  motors  and  unity  power 
factors. 

Temperature  Rise.  Guarantees  for  Temperature  Rise  in  Electrical  Machinery,  with 
Special  Reference  to  Large  Turbo-Generators,  A.  E.  Du  Pasquier.  Tran. 
South  African  Inst.  Elec.  Engrs.,  vol.  9,  part  7,  July  1918,  pp.  127-137  and 
(discussion)  pp.  137-140.  Urges  that  there  is  no  good  reason  for  restricting 
temperature  rises,  providing  suitable  materials  are  obtainable  for  with- 
standing the  heat  conditions  that  may  arise. 

LIGHTING  AND  LAMP   MANUFACTURE 

Arc-Lamp  Globes.  Renovation  of  Discolored  Arc-Lamp  Globes,  Alfred  Herz. 
Elec.  World,  vol.  72,  no.  20,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  935-936,  2  figs.  Description  of 
a  system  of  removing  stain  by  heat  treatment. 

Need  for  Improved  Lighting  in  the  Leather  Industry,  F.  H.  Bernhard. 
Elec.  Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  20,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  759-765,  7  figs.  Tenth  of 
series  of  articles  on  lighting  in  industries. 

Lighting  (General).  Daylight  vs.  Sunlight  in  Sawtooth-Roof  Construction,  W.  S. 
Brown,  Jl.  Am.  Soc.  Mech.  Engrs.,  vol.  40,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  1025-1029, 
5  figs.  Empirical  research  of  amount  of  direct  sunlight  and  intensity  of  day- 
light to  be  admitted  on  working  plane  in  sawtooth  construction;  equation  to 
determine  time  of  admission  of  direct  sunlight  and  number  of  hours  of  its 
duration  with  given  orientation  of  sawtooth  buildings  and  slope  of  lighting 
area;  influence  of  size  and  slope  of  sawtooth  lighting  area  on  relative  intensity 
of  daylight  from  northern  sky;  examples  illustrating  manner  of  computing 
amount  of  diffused  light  entering  building  under  several  conditions.  Pre- 
sented at  annual  meeting  of  the  Soc. 

Elements  of  Illuminating  Engineering  (III),  Ward  Harrison.  Elec. 
Eng.,  vol.  52,  no.  2,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  30-34,  4  figs.  Essentials  in  illumination 
design — coefficients  of  utilization,  location  of  light  sources,  and  recommended 
minimum  spacings  and  minimum  heights  above  plan  of  illumination  for  various 
units. 

Lighting  in  Its  Relation  to  the  Eye,  C.  E.  Fcrree  and  G.  Rand.  Proc. 
Am.  Phil.  Soc,  vol.  57,  no.  5,  1918,  pp.  440-478,  9  figs.  Report  of  work  of 
sub-committee  on  Hygiene  of  the  Eye  of  Am.  Medical  Assn.,  involving  an 
extensive  experimentation  on  effect  of  different  lighting  conditions  on  eye,  and 
investigation  of  factors  in  lighting  situation  causing  eye  to  lose  in  efficiency 
and  experience  discomfort. 


Some  Modern  Methods  of  Lighting,  Geo.  H.  Stickney.  Nat.  Engr., 
vol.  22,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  469-477,  7  figs.,  and  (discussion),  pp.  477-479. 
Analysis  of  elements  of  lighting  systems  required  by  factories,  offices  and 
stores.     Paper  before  Nat.  Assn.  of  Stationary  Engrs! 

War  Time  Lighting  Economics,  Elec.  World,  vol.  72,  no.  19,  Nov.  9, 
pp.  885-887.  Salient  features  of  report  prepared  by  War  Service  Committee 
of  Illuminating  Engineering  Society  for  U.  S.  Fuel  Administration;  falaciea 
to  be  avoided;  making  maximum  use  of  daylight. 

Reflecting  and  Diffusing  Light.  Reflecting  and  Diffusing  Light,  Ward  Harrison. 
Textile  World  Jl.,  vol.  54,  nos.  18,  20,  21  and  22,  Nov.  2,  16,  23  and  30,  1918, 
pp.  61  and  71,  4  figs.,  25-27,  1  fig.,  59-63,  5  figs.,  and  33,  5  figs.  Properties  of 
accessories  necessary  for  good  industrial  illumination. 

Steel  Mills.  Better  Lighting  of  Iron  and  Steel  Mills  and  Fabricating  Plants,  F.  H. 
Bernhard.  Elec.  Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  841-845,  7  figs. 
Eleventh  of  series  of  articles  on  improvement  of  lighting  in  industries. 

MEASUREMENTS  AND  TESTS 

Galvanometers.  The  Einthoven  Galvanometer,  Samuel  D.  Cohen.  Wireless 
World,  vo..  6,  no.  68,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  437-438.  Special  simple  construction  of 
Einthoven  type  used  by  writer  for  measuring  radio  receiving  currents.  From 
Elec.  Experimenter, 

INSULATION  Measurement.  Electrolytic  Method  of  Measuring  Electrostatic  Field 
of  Insulators  (La  mesure  du  champ  electrostatic  dans  les  isolateurs 
d'aprds  la  methode  eJectrolytique),  W.  Estorff.  Revue  GeneValc  de 
I  Klectricite,  vol.  4,  no.  12,  Sept.  21,  1918,  pp.  433-434,  1  fig.  A  small 
line  is  placed  between  electrodes  in  electrolyte  and  ratio  of  resistances 
of  distances  between  line  and  each  electrode  is  determined  by  Wheatstone 
bridge  operating  circuit  with  alternating  current;  correction  coefficient  for  air 
values  is  determined  in  similar  manner.  From  Elektrotcchnischc  Zeitschrift, 
vol.  39,  Feb.  7,  14  and  2!,  pp.  53,  62  and  7(1,  28  figs. 

Some  Notes  on  Leakage  Indicators,  G.  W.  Stubbings.  Electricity,  vol. 
32,  no.  1451,  Aug.  30,  1918,  pp.  453-454,  1  fig.  Principle  of  instruments 
measuring  slate  of  insulation  of  a  complete  electrical  system. 

Meters.  The  Demand- Meter  Situation,  C.  F.  Mathes.  Elec.  World,  vol.  72,  no.  22, 
Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  1024-1020.  Critical  discussion  of  demand  meters,  pointing 
the  advantages  that  are  gained  through  use  of  well-known  types  of  these 
instruments  and  remedies  for  some  of  the  troubles  encountered  in  their  practical 
application. 

Official  Testing  Laboratories.  British  Electrical  Proving  House.  Times  Eng. 
Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.  1918,  p.  197.  Essentials  of  schemed  testing  institution, 
with  authoritative  credentials,  to  deal  with  types  of  apparatus  rather  than  with 
individual  specimens. 

Test  Rinc  Method.  Test  Ring  Method  for  Determining  Transformer  Ratio  and 
Phase  Error,  H.  S.  Baker.  Elec.  Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  20,  Nov.  10,  1918, 
pp.  766-769,  6  figs.  Use  of  special  watt  meter  and  current  transformer  for 
current  transformer  testing.     From  paper  before  Am.  Inst,  of  Elec.  Engrs. 

POWER  APPLICATION 

Cement  Industry.  Electric  Motors  in  the  Cement  Industry.  R.  B.  Williamson. 
Proc.  Am.  Inst.  Elec.  Engrs.,  vol.  37,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  1237-1273,  9  figs 
Outline  of  various  kinds  of  machinery  used,  and  data  as  to  power  requirements; 
description  of  types  of  motor  best  suited  to  each  application  together  with 
starting  characteristics,  o\  erload  capacity,  torque  and  other  features.  Also 
in  Elec.  Rev.,  vol.  73,  nos.  20  and  21,  Nov.  23  and  26,  1918,  pp.  770-771  and 
813-814. 

Coal  Mining.  Explosionproof  Equipments  of  Colliery  Motors  and  Accessories  (in 
Japanese).     Denki  Gakkwai  Zasshi,  no.  363,  Oct.  10,  1918. 

The  Use  of  Electric  Power  in  the  Mining  of  Anthracite  Coal,  J.  B. 
Crane.  Proc.  Am.  Inst.  Elec.  Engrs  ,  vol.  37,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  1197-1202, 
7  figs.  Power  cost  and  current  consumption  of  anthracite  mines,  also  of 
bituminous  mines;  estimates  of  additional  coal  obtainable  by  electrification  of 
anthracite  mines,  illustrations  showing  representative  installations  of  electric 
drive. 

Furnaces.  Notes  on  Electric-Furnace  Problems,  J.  L.  McK.  Yardley.  Bui.  Am. 
Inst.  Min.  Engrs.,  no.  142,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  1593-1598,  4  figs.  Analysis  made  to 
determine  maximum  capacity  and  approximate  performance  of  a  new  furnace 
designed  to  operate  at  160  volts  on  a  60-cycle  current. 

Power  Factor  of  the  Electric-Arc  Furnace  -Fattore  di  potenza  dei  forni 
elettrici  ad  arco',  O.  Scarpa.  Revista  Tecnica  d'Eletrricita,  no.  1891,  Oct. 
25, 1918,  pp.  105-106.  Presents  formula  for  power  factor  of  arc  including  power 
factor  of  furnace  and  ohmic  resistance  of  electrodes. 

Technical  Analysis  of  Industrial  Electric  Furnaces;  Classification,  Choice 
of  Apparatus,  Installation  and  Operation  (Considerations  techniques  sur  les 
fours  electriques  industriels;  classification  choix  des  appareils,  installation 
mode  d'emploi  et  conduite)  Jean  Escard.  Revue  Generale  de  l'Electricite, 
vol.  4,  no.  16,  Oct.  19,  1918,  pp.  575-591,  31  figs.  Electric  arc  furnaces; 
electric  resistance  furnaces;  induction  furnaces;  electrothermoticand  aluminum 
furnaces. 

The  Electric  Furnace  After  the  War,  Francis  A.  J.  Fitzgerald.  Elec. 
Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  19,  Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  726-727,  2  figs.  Effect  of  the  war 
upon  electric  furnaces;  new  uses  to  replace  war's  needs;  tendencies  in  furnace 
design. 

Heating.  Electric  Heat  for  Drying  and  Baking,  George  J.  Kirkgasser.  Indus- 
Management,  vol.  56,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  489-495,  11  figs.  Types  of  indus- 
trial apparatus  that  have  had  rapid  development  during  past  five  years. 

Electric  Thermal  Storage  Heaters  for  Rooms,  English  Mechanic  &  World 
of  Sci.,  vol.  108,  no.  2796,  Oct.  25,  1918,  pp.  15.5-156.  Summary  of  report  used 
by  Committee  of  Swiss  Electrotechmcal  Union.  From  Schweizerischer 
Elektrotechnischer  Verein,  Bui.,  June  1918. 

Electrically  Heated  Industrial  Appliances  and  Devices,  George  J.  Kirk- 
gasser. Indus.  Management,  vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  417-423,  32  figs 
Outlines  most  important  applications  classified  for  18  different  industries 
and  shows  many  of  simpler  devices. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


45 


Ikon  Ore  Miking.  Central  Station  Service  Used  in  Operation  of  New  Jersey  Iron 
Ore  Mines,  L.  R.  W.  Allison.  Elec.  Rec.,  vol.  24,  no.  4,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  24-26, 
5  figs.  Installation  where  energy  generated  at  steam  station  is  transmitted 
to  mines  at  33,000  volts  for  operation  of  pumps,  air  compressors,  hoists,  etc., 
involving  consumption  of  600,000  kw-hr.  per  month. 

Lime  Plant.  A  Modern  Motor-Driven  Lime  Plant.  Cement  &  Eng.  News,  vol.  30 
no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  19-20,  4  figs.  Processes  in  electrically  driven  plant 
utilizing  waste  marble. 

Pimping.  Electricity  Supersedes  Steam  in  Los  Angeles,  Eng.  &  Cement  World, 
vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  18-19,  3  figs.  Electrical  operation  of 
pumping  plants,  it  is  said,  will  effect  an  annual  saving  of  18,000  bbl.  of  fuel 
oil.     Also  in  Elec.  Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  19,  Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  723-725,  3  figs. 

High  Efficiencies  Shown  bv  Motor-Driven  Water  Works  Pumps,  Geo 
H.  Gibson.  Can.  Engr.,  vol.  35,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  412-413,  2  figs. 
Data  on  two  12-in.  centrifugal  pumps. 

Rolling  Mills.  Electrically  Driven  Mills  at  Bethlehem,  J.  T.  Sturtevant.  Rlast 
Furnace,  vol.  6,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  417-419,  10  figs.  Layout,  equipment, 
power  consumption  and  tonnage  on  eleven  installations  at  Lehigh  plant, 
where  G.  E.  induction  motors  are  used. 

Ship  Propulsion.  Electricity's  Part  in  Building  and  Navigating  of  Ships,  II  A. 
Hornor.  Elec.  Eng.,  vol.  52,  no.  2,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  15-22,  20  figs.  Considera- 
tions entering  into  selection  of  propulsion;  commercial  angle,  first  cost, 
efficiency,  safetj  ,  upkeep,  cost  of  operation,  etc.;  propelling  machinery  of 
various  ships.     (Concluded.) 

Silk  Industry.  Electric  Drive  Applied  to  Silk  Iudustrv,  Charles  T.  Guilford,  Elec- 
Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  22,  Nov.  30, 1918,  pp.  855-857,  4  figs.  Advantages  of  central- 
service  for  this  work;  selection  of  motors  and  drives;  interesting  data  on  pre- 
sent installations. 

Sugar  Mills.  Complete  Electrification  of  Sugar  Mills,  Clarence  G.  Hadlev. 
Elec.  World,  vol.  72,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  1022-1024,  2  figs.  Extensive 
application  of  motors  in  this  industry  of  recent  origin;  satisfactory  results 
obtained  in  new  Cuban  mills,  showing  possibilities  that  may  arise  in  this 
field  as  it  is  developed. 

TELEGRAPHY  AND  TELEPHONY 

Radio  Telegraphy  and  Telephony.  A  Combination  Circuit  for  Tube  and  Crystal. 
Wireless  Age,  vol.  6,  no.  2,  Nov.  1918,  p.  21,  1  fig.  Combined  or  individual 
use  of  vacuum  tube  and  crystql  rectifier. 

A  New  Protective  Condenser.  Wireless  Age,  vol.  (i,  no.  2,  Nov.  1918, 
p.  34,  1  fig.  Designed  to  protect  electrical  transmission  lines  from  effect 
of  high-frequency  disturbances. 

A  Novel  Radio  Telegraph  Aerial.  Wireless  Age,  vol.  (i,  no.  2,  Nov.  1918, 
p.  20,  1  fig.  Type  having  series  of  coils  inserted  in  antenna  from  earth  to 
free  end. 

A  Thermionic  Valve  Slopemeter,  E.  V.  Appleton.  Wireless  World, 
vol.  6,  no.  68,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  458-460,  3  figs.  Derives  formula  to  compute 
slopes  of  grid  voltage-anode  current  and  plate  voltage-anode  current  curves 
at  any  particular  operating  plant. 

Marconi's  Improved  Radio  Transmitter.  Wireless  Age.  vol.  6,  no.  2, 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  19-20,  3  figs.  Method  of  producing  continuous  oscillations 
by  overlapping  wave  trains. 

Method  for  Exhausting  Vacuum  Tubes.  Win  less  Age,  vol.  li,  no  2, 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  20-21,  1  fig.  Apparatus  which  provides  for  heating  anode  by 
vigorous  bombardment  of  electrons  without  endangering  filament,  this  being 
method  to  drive  gases  from  plate. 

Propagation  of  Electric  Currents  in  an  Antenna  (Propagation  des  couranta 
Glectriques  dans  une  antenne),  H.  Chireix.  Revue  Generale  de  l'Electricite, 
vol.  4,  no.  11,  Sept.  14,  1918,  pp.  363-374,  9  tigs.  Formulae  Ml  in 
general  case  of  non-homogenous  antennae,  (2)  when  antenna  consists  of  one 
branch,  (3)  when  it  consists  of  two,  and  (4)  when  it  consists  of  three  branches 
having  different  self-inductances  and  different  capacities 

Solid-Contact  Detectors  (Contribution  a  l'etude  des  detecteurs  a  contacts 
solides).  Ren6  Audubert.  Journal  de  Physique,  vol.  7,  May-June  1918, 
pp.  127-128.  Study  of  physical  phenomena  which  probably  take  in  the  action 
of  crystal  deteotors  used  in  wireless  telegraphy.      (To  be  continued.) 

Some  Aspects  of  Radio  Telephony  in  Japan,  Eitaro  Yokoyama.  Wireless 
World,  vol.  6,  no.  68.  Nov.  1918,  pp.  430-435,  8  figs.  Account  of  recent 
discoveries:  Evolution  of  a  rarefied  gas  discharger.     (To  be  continued.) 

The  Radioelectric  Installation  at  Stavanger,  Norwav  (Stavanger  Radiol, 
Olaf  Moe.  Tekntsk  Ukeblad,  year  65,  no.  43,  Oct  25,  1918,  pp.  595-514,  23 
figs.     (To  be  continued.) 

Telephony  (Wire).  How  to  Locate  Telephone  Troubles.  J.  Bernard  Hecht, 
Telephony,  vol.  75,  nos.  21,  22  and  23,  Nov.  23,  30  and  Dec.  7,  1918,  pp.  32-34, 
3  figs.:  13-16,  10  figs,  and  16-18,  2  figs.  Rural  line  telephones  and  their 
circuits.  Suggestions  to  managers,  wire  chiefs  and  troublemen  of  local 
battery  exchanges.     (Continuation  of  serial.) 

Wave-Length  and  Weakening  of  Telephone  Circuits  (Longueur  d'onde 
et  affaiblissement  des  circuits  teJeponiques) ,  Pomey.  Revue  Gcn6rale  de 
l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  8,  Aug.  24,  1918,  pp.  251-253.  Simplification  of  author's 
formula  for  constant  B  given  in  Aug.  3  issue. 

TRANSFORMERS,  CONVERTERS,  FREQUENCY  CHANGERS 

Transformers,  A.  C.  Study  of  the  Calculations  Involved  in  the  Design  of  Large 
Capacity  Transformers  for  Use  with  Electric  Furnaces  (Etude  sur  le  calcul  de 
transformateurs  a  forte  intensity  pour  fours  electriques),  R.  Jacquot.  Revue 
Generate  de  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  15,  Oct.  12,  1918,  pp.  523-536,  9  figs. 
Explains  sudden  variations  in  efficiency  and  voltage  drop  by  conditions  of 
varying  load  and  suggests  practical  and  economical  modifications.  (To  be 
continued.) 

Rectifiers.  Three-Phased  Current  Rectifier  (Convcrtitore  di  correnti  trifasi  in 
correnti  continue).  O.  M.  Corbino.  L'Elettrotecnica,  vol.  5,  no.  28,  Oct. 
5,  1918,  pp.  392-394,  3  figs.     Apparatus  operating  by  rotary  mercury  jet. 


Substations.  Electric  Railway  Substations  for  Automatic  Transformation  (Sottos- 
tazioni  di  trasformazione  automatiche  per  l'alimentazione  de  fcrrovie 
elettriche),  A-  Gusmano.  L'Elettrotecnica,  vol.  5,  no.  31,  Nov.  5,  1918, 
pp.  444-446,  6  figs.     Principles  of  system  followed  in  America. 

Transformers,  D.  C.  Size  and  Working  Cost  of  Machines  for  Continuous-Current 
Transformation,  Thomas  Carter.  Elecn.,  vol.  81,  no.  2108,  Oct.  11,  1918. 
4  figs.  Methods  of  continuous-current  transformation;  differences  between 
three  schemes;  conclusions  in  regard  to  cost  and  method  of  operation;  curves 
of  overall  efficiency  of  transformer:  schemes  for  variable-speed  motors. 

Frequency  Changer.  Radio  Frequency  Changers,  E.  E.  Bucher.  Wireless  Age, 
vol.  6,  no.  2,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  10-13,  8  figs.  Reported  progress  in  their 
application  to  wireless  telegraphic  and  telephonic  communication.  (To  be 
continued.) 

TRANSMISSION,  DISTRIBUTION,  CONTROL 

Distribution,  Three-Phase.  Economic  increase  Made  in  Distribution  Capacity, 
S.  Bingham  Hood.  Elec.  World,  vol.  72,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  1030- 
1032,  7  figs.  Saving  of  copper  and  transformers  by  replacing  old  overloaded 
2300-volt  system  with  2300-2400-volt  star-connected,  three-phase,  common- 
neutral   primary   and   interconnected   secondary. 

How  to  Remedy  Inconveniences  of  Excessive  Overload  in  Three-Phase 
Network  (Comment  peut-on  remedier  aux  inconvenients  d'une  tres  forte 
surcharge  dans  un  r£seau  triphase),  E.  Piernet.  Revue  Generate  de  l'Elec- 
tricite, vol  4,  no.  15,  Oct.  12,  1918,  pp.  540-544,  2  figs.  Proposes  adjustment 
of  step-up  and  step-down  transformers  so  as  to  be  able  to  dispose  of  voltage 
U  so  long  as  delivered  power  does  not  exceed  a  certain  limit  and  of  voltage 
6V3  when  delivered  power  exceeds  this  limit. 

Interconnection.  More  Light  on  New  England  Interconnection.  Elec.  World, 
vol.  72,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  1027-1029,  1  fig.  Estimated  savings  to  be 
exceeded;  convenient  energy-exchange  arrangements;  railroad  electrification 
possible  without  buying  new  generators;  price  at  which  tie-line  energy  can  be 
sold.  From  paper  by  L.  L.  Elden  before  Boston  Section  of  Am.  Inst,  of  Elec. 
Engrs. 

Relays.  Factors  to  Consider  in  Applying  Relays,  E.  A.  Hester,  Elec.  World,  vol.  72, 
no.  20,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  931-934,  9  figs.  Determination  of  short-circuit 
current  connections  and  settings  suitable  for  radial  and  parallel  feeder  systems: 
protection  against  high-resistance  grounds  on  balance  systems. 

Relay  Protective  Devices,  C.  J.  Monk.  Tran.  South  African  Inst.  Elec. 
Engrs.,  vol.  9,  part  7,  July  1918,  pp.  140-143,  1  fig.  Proposes  short  method  of 
obtaining  approximate  circuit  currents  by  observing  voltage  drop  between 
two  stations  at  normal  load,  according  to  equation;  short-circuit  current  = 
Normal  voltage  times  load  current  divided  by  voltage  drop.  Discussion  of 
paper  published  in  Jl.  of  Inst.,  Oct.  1917. 

Substations.  Permanence  in  Outdoor  Substations,  S.  B.  Hood.  Elec.  World, 
vol.  72,  no.  20,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  928-930,  6  figs.  Discussion  of  standard 
design  used  in  all  sizes  from  300  leva,  to  2250  kva.  in  order  to  eliminate  fire 
losses  prevalent  in  modern  structures;  increase  in  cost  to  secure  permanence 
held   to  be  negligible. 

Remote  Controlled  Substations  Described,  W.  T.  Snyder.  Blast  Furnace, 
vol.  6,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  408-410,  2  figs.  Control  for  central  station 
and  motor-generator  substation  located  about  2200  ft.  from  main  power 
station,  feeding  250-volt  direct-current  transmission  line.  Paper  before 
Assn.  Iron  &  Steel  Elec.  Engrs. 

Switches.  An  Automatic  Throe-Phase  Switch,  W.  Ernst.  Elccn.,  vol.  81,  no.  2108, 
Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  491,  4  figs.  Abstract  of  article  in  Elektroteeunische  Zeit- 
schrift.  No.  4,  1918. 

Safety  Features  in  Switching  Installation,  M.  M.  Samuels  and  F.  BcehofT. 
Dice.  World,  vol.  72,  no.  19,  nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  878-880,  9  figs.  Review  of 
existing  alarm  systems  used  to  indicate  switch  positions  and  overheating  of 
apparatus;  weak  points  in  installations  and  suggestions  designed  to  bring 
about  their  improvement. 

Transmission  Lines.  Locating  Troubles  in  Electric  Lines  (Note  sur  les  essais  et 
mesures  relatifs  aux  lignes  eleetriques),  Louis  Puget.  Revue  G6ue>ale  de 
l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  16,  Oct.  19,  1918,  pp.  563-565,  2  figs.  Method  for 
measuring  resistance  of  line  and  locating  a  ground,  which  author  claims  to 
have  found  serviceable  in  his  experience  with  underground  lines.  The 
methods  given  are  applicable  to  overhead  lines  as  well. 

110,000- Volt  Transmission  Line  over  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  S.  Sven- 
ningson.  Proc.  Am.  Inst.  Elec.  Engrs.,  vol.  37,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  1275- 
1284,  3  figs.  Account  of  investigation  leading  to  construction  of  350-ft. 
towers  to  support  transmission  wires  on  a  span  of  4800  ft.;  design  of  towers 
and  insulators;  provisions  for  protection  from  ice  and  method  of  sag  calcula- 
tions. 

WIRING 

House  Wiring.  Three-  and  Four- Way  Switch  Circuits,  Terrell  Croft.  Elec.  Eng., 
vol.  52,  no.  2,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  23-25,  5  figs.  Cottage  wiring;  unusual  wiring: 
two-location  control.     (Concluded.) 

GENERAL   SCIENCE 

CHEMISTRY 

Electrolytic  Conductivity.  Electrolytic  Conductivity  in  Non-Aqueous  Solutions. 
The  Electrical  Conductance  of  Trimethyl-Para-Tolyl-Ammonium  Iodide  in 
Water  and  Several  Organic  Solvents,  Henry  Jermain,  Maude  Creighton 
and  D.  Herbert  Way.  Franklin  Inst.  Jl.,  vol.  186,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  675- 
798,  7  figs.     Investigations. 

Elements.  Automic  Number  and  Frequency  Differences  in  Spectral  Series,  Herbert 
Bell.  Lond.,  Edinburg  &  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  36,  no.  214,  Oct.  1918, 
pp.  337-347,  2  figs.  Numerical  tests  of  Rydberg's  law  that  square  root  of 
doublet  and  triplet  differences  is  proportional  to  automic  weights,  substituting 
atomic  number  for  atomic  weight. 


46 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Elements  in  the  Order  of  Their  Atomic  Weights,  Raymond  Szymanowitz. 
Chem.  News,  vol.  117,  no.  3059,  Oct.  25,  1918,  pp.  339-340.  Presents  table 
which  shows  numbers  follow  scheme  of  sequence  expressed  by:  X,  X  +3, 
X  +  3  +  1,  A'  +  3  +  1  +3,  etc.,  adding  1  and  3  alternately. 

Solutions.  The  Eleotrical  Conductivity  of  Acids  and  Rases  in  A<|ueous  Solutions, 
JnaneDdra  Chandra  Ghosh.  II.  of  the  Chem.  Soc,  vols.  113-114,  no.  072, 
(let.  lllls,  pp.  790-799.  Explains  abnormally  high  mobility  of  hydrogen  and 
hydroxylions  in  aqueous  solutions  on  assumption  that  electricity  is  partly 
carried  by  ordinary  process  of  convection  and  partly  propagated  through 
water  molecules  undergoing  alternate  dissociation  and  recombination; 
apparently  high  activity  of  strong  acids  and  bases  is  also  traced  to  this  cause; 
modifies  Ostwald  equation  for  electrolytes  where  degree  of  rissocation  is  less 
than  one. 

Structure  of  Matter.  Atomic  Structure  from  the  Physico-Chemical  Standpoint, 
Alfred  W.  Stewart.  Lond.,  Edinburgh  &  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  30,  no.  214, 
Oct.  19 IS,  pp.  320-330,  1  fig.  Model  atom  proposed  as  having  a  structure 
accounting  for  all  the  facts  known  concerning  elements,  including  radioactive 
transformations. 

Intcrfacial  Tension  and  Complex  Molecules,  G.  N.  Autonoff.  Lond., 
Edinburgh  &  Dublin,  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  36,  no.  215,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  377-390, 
5  figs.  Theory  of  molecular  attraction  based  on  modern  representation  of 
nature  of  atoms  and  molecules;  explanation  of  phenomena  of  molecular 
attraction  by  action  of  forces  which  cause  chemical  affinity;  deduction  of  rela- 
tion between  surface  tension  and  molecular  pressure. 

Valency.  Definition  of  Valency,  P.  11.  Loring.  Chem.  News,  vol.  117,  no.  3058, 
Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  319-322.  Simile  to  explain  significance  of  term  and  nature 
of  atoms  which  exorcise  variable  valencies. 


Fluorescence.  On  the  Phenomena  of  Fluorescence,  Desmond  Gcoghcgan.  Chem. 
News,  vol  117,  no.  3058,  Oct.  11,  1918  p.  322  Suggestsexperimentwhich.it 
is  said,  will  prove  that  rays  of  light  passed  through  a  sufficient  thickness  of  a 
fluorescent  substance  lose  thereby  power  of  exciting  fluorescence  when  they 
are  passed  through  a  second  layer  of  same  substance. 

Magneto-Thermo  Phenomena.  Magneto-thermal  Phenomena  (Le  phenomene 
magnetoealoriquc),  Pierre  Weiss  and  Auguste  Picard.  Journal  de  Physique, 
vol.7,  May-June  1917,  pp.  103-109,  1  fig.  Account  of  pronounced  changes  in 
temperature  which  were  observed  in  course  of  experimental  measurements 
preliminary  to  plotting  set  of  isothermals  for  nickel.  Near  Curie's  point 
temperature  increased  0.7  deg.  on  establishing  field  of  15,000  gausses. 

Optics.  The  Correction  of  Telescopic  Objectives,  T.  Smith.  Lond.,  Edinburgh  & 
Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  30,  no.  215,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  405-412.  Criticism  of 
expressions  for  constructional  data  for  small  objectives  as  given  by  A.  O. 
Allen  in  Phil.  Mag.,  June  1918. 

The  Scattering  of  Light  by  Air  Molecules,  R.  J.  Srutt.  Lond.,  Edinburgh 
&  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  30,  no.  214,  Oc  t.  1918,  pp.  320-321.  Supplements 
former  account  of  experiments  (Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  A.,  vol.  44,  p.  453,  1918)  by 
answering  inquiry  from  R.  W.  Wood  (Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  30,  p.  272,  Sept.  1918) 
in  regard  to  precautions  taken  for  drying  air  in  experiments. 

Quanta  Law  Researches  on  the  Limit  of  the  Continuous  Spectrum  of  X-Rays 
(Rccherches  sur  la  limite  du  spectra  continu  des  rayons  X),  Alex.  Muller. 
Archives  des  Sciences  Physiques  et  Naturelles,  year  123,  vol.  40,  Aug.  1918, 
pp.  03-73,  1  fig.  Theoretical  and  experimental  verification  of  Planck's 
law  of  quanta  as  generalized  by  Einstein  by  confirming  the  relation  c  V  = 
h  v  in  the  ease  of  the  continuous  spectrum  of  X-rays,  and  for  an  interval  from 
14  to  28  kilovolts. 


MAT  1 1  KM ATM   - 

Analytical  Functions.  Factoring  and  Prolongation  of  Analytical  Functions 
(Quelques  rcmarques  sur  la  decomposition  en  facteurs  primaircs  et  1c  pro- 
longement  des  fonctions  analytiques),  Kmile  Picard.  Comptes  rendus  des 
seances  de  l'Academie  des  Sciences,  vol.  107,  no.  12,  Sept.  10,  1918,  pp.  105- 
40S.  Further  comment  on  \\  oierstrass'  method  of  decomposition.  In 
Comptes  rendus,  vol.  92,  1881,  p.  090,  author  showed  application  of  this 
method  to  uniform  functions  whose  roots  approach  indefinitely  a  given  line. 

Divergent  Series.  A  Conspectus  of  the  Modern  Theory  of  Divergent  Scries,  Walter 
IS.  Ford.  Bui.  Am.  Math  Soc,  vol.  25,  no.  1,  Oct.  1918.  pp.  1-15.  Review 
of  modern  theory  of  divergent  series  in  regard  to  (1)  the  question  as  to  how  a 
sum  may  be  assigned  to  a  divergent  series  in  general,  and  (2)  the  functional 
properties  of  a  symptotic  series;  proposed  limitations  to  form  a  consistent  gen- 
eral theory  of  summation. 

KQUAT10NS.  Simultaneous  Linear  Differential  Equations  Involving  Partial  Derivatives 
and  Reduction  of  Hyper-Geometric  Functions  of  Two  Variables  (Sur  des 
equations  lineares  simultanees  aux  derivees  partielles  et  sur  descasdc  reduction 
des  fonctions  hypcr-geometriquos  de  deux  variables),  Paul  Appeli.  Comptes 
rendus  des  seances  de  l'Academie  des  Sciences,  vol.  107,  no.  12,  Sept.  10, 
1918,    pp.    IOS-413. 

Solution  of  Partial-Derivative  Equations  by  Means  of  Hermite's  Poly- 
nomials (Sur  les  equations  aux  derivees  partielles  verinees  par  les  polynomics 
d'Hermite,  deduits  d'une  exponcnticllc),  Pierre  Humbert.  Comptes  rendus 
des  seances  de  l'Academie  des  Sciences,  vol.  107,  no.  15,  Oct.  7,  1918,  pp. 
522-525.  Application  of  Appell's  method  (Comptes  rendus,  vol.  107,  191S, 
p.  309)  to  variables  obtained  from  differentiation  of  exponential  function  whose 
exponent  is  of  quadratic  form  in  ,V  and  )'. 

Solutions  of  Differential  Equations  as  Functions  of  the  Constants  of 
Integration,  Gilbert  Ames  Bliss.  Rul.  Am.  Math.  Soc,  vol.  25,  no.  l,_Oct. 
1918,  pp.  15-20.     Proposes-method. 

Treatment  of  Partial-Derivative  equations  by  Hypcrspherical  Poly- 
nomials (Sur  les  systemes  d'equations  aux  derivees  partielles  v6rifies  par  les 
polynomes  -hyperspheriques).  J.  Kampe  de  Ferict.  Comptes-rendus  des 
seances  de  l'Academie  des  Sciences,  vol.  107,  no.  15,  Oct.  7,  1918,  pp.  519-522. 
Study  of  case  of  n  linear  equations  involving  partial  derivatives  of  second  order. 

[sogeneous  Complex  Functions.  Note  in  Isogenous  Complex  Functions  of  Curves, 
W.  C.  Graustein.  Bui.  Am.  Math.  Soc,  vol.  24,  no.  10,  July  1918,  pp. 
473-477. 

Orthogonal  SUBSTITUTION.  Note  on  the  Construction  of  an  Orthogonant,  Thomas 
Muir.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  of  Edinburgh,  vol.  38,  part  2,  session  1917-1918, 
pp.  146-153.  Comments  of  and  addition  of  theorems  to  Cayley's  mode  of 
forming  an  orthogonal  substitution. 

Probarility.  An  Elementary  Derivation  of  the  Probability  Function,  Albert  A. 
Bennett.  Bui.  Am.  Math.  Soc,  vol.  24,  no.  10,  July  1918,  pp.  477-481. 
Derives  by  means  of  elementary  considerations  equation  of  probability  from 
sequence  of  binomial  coefficients 


PHYSICS 

Flame  PROPAGATION.  The  Propagation  of  Flame  through  Tubes  of  Small  Diameter. 
William  Pay  man  and  Richard  Vernon  Wheeler.  Jl.  Chem.  Soc,  vols.  113 
.  &  114,  no.  070,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  050-000,  3  figs.  Report  of  experiments,  performed 
in  connection  with  work  on  construction  of  miners'  safety  lamp,  on  speed  of 
uniform  movement  during  propagation  of  flame  in  mixtures  of  methane  and 
air  through  tubes  of  small  diameter  on  the  passage  of  flame  through  similar 
tubes  filled  with  mixtures  of  methane  and  air  and  open  at  both  ends  and 
on  the  passage  or  projection  of  flame  through  short  tubes  of  small  diameter. 


Radium.  On  Some  Properties  of  the  Active  Deposit  of  Radium,  S.  Ratner.  Lond., 
Edinburgh  &  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  30,  no.  215,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  397-405,  2 
figs.  Experimental  research  which  leads  author  to  question  whether 
phenomenon  of  recoil  of  RaC  from  RaB  has  ever  been  observed,  also  that 
proportion  of  recoil  atoms  of  RaB  carrying  negative  charge  in  less  than  1  to 
100,000. 

Relativity.  On  the  Essence  of  Physical  Relativity,  Joseph  Larmor.  Proc.  Nat. 
Academy  of  Sci.,  vol.  4,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  334-337.  Offers  objection  to 
Leigh  Page's  expression  (no  4,  p.  40)  for  translatory  force  required  to  sustain 
assigned  varying  velocity  in  electrostatic  system  of  type  usually  investigated 
as  model  of  electron. 

Semi-Fluids.  Mechanics  of  Semi-Fluids  (Mecanique  des  semi-fluides).  Comptes 
Rendus  des  Seances  de  l'Academie  des  Sciences,  vol.  107,  no.  7,  Aug.  12,  1918, 
pp.  253-250.  Discusses  possibility  of  disregarding  tangential  action  of  central 
cylinder  on  annular  part  of  the  limiting  surfaces. 

Vibrations  and  Wave  Motions.  Diffraction  of  Plane  Waves  by  a  Screen  Bounded 
by  a  Straight  Edge,  F.  J.  W.  Whipple.  Lond.,  Edinburgh  &  Dublin  Phil. 
Mag.,  vol.  36,  no.  215,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  420-424.  Adaptation  of  R.  Hargreaves' 
method  for  simple  harmonic  wave  (Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  36,  p.  191),  to  diffraction 
of  waves  of  arbitrary  type. 

Periodic  Irrotational  Waves  of  Finite  Height  T.  II.  Havelock.  Proc. 
Roy.  Soc,  vol.  95,  no.  A005,  Sept.  2,  1918,  pp.  38-51.  Extension  of  Mitchell's 
form  for  highest  wave  and  its  generalization  by  means  of  surface  conditions; 
method  of  approximation  for  coefficient,  calculation  for  highest  wave. 

The  Intcrferometry  of  Vibrating  Systems,  C.  Barus.  Proc  Nat. 
Academy  of  Sci.,  vol.  4,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  328-333,  4  figs.  Report  of 
experimental   work. 

The  Sount  Waves  and  Other  Air  Waves  of  the  East  London  Explosion 
of  January  19,  1917,  Charles  Davison.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  of  Edinburgh,  vol. 
38,  part  2,  session  1917-1918,  pp.  115-129,  1  fig.  Construction  of  paths  fol- 
lowed by  air  waves  and  sound  waves;  offered  explanation  for  fact  that  inaudible 
air  waves  were  observed  beyond  limits  of  sound  areas  by  reason  of  their  more 
nearly  horizontal  path. 


ORGANIZATION  AND  MANAGEMENT 

ACCOUNTING 

Army.  Accounting  Systems  in  Army  Camps,  E.  J.  Holmes.  Jl.  Actcy.,  vol.  26,  no.  6, 
Dec.  1918,  pp.  429-435.  Explains  the  system  used  by  the  U.  S.  Army  in 
connection  with  the  disbursement  of  funds  appropriated  by  Congress. 

Carrying  on  with  the  Accountants  in  the  American  Expeditionary  Forces, 
C.  B.  Holloway.  Jl.  Actcy.,  vol.  26,  no.  6,  Dec  1918,  pp.  412-416.  Specific 
operations  carried  on  by  the  accounting  personnel. 

Cost  Accounting.  Cost  Accounting  to  Aid  Production  (III),  G.  Charter  Harrison. 
Indus.  Management,  vol.  56,  nos.  5  and  6,  Nov.  and  Dec  1918,  pp.  456-463, 
2  figs,  and  391-398,  1  fig.  Emphasizes  necessity  of  cost-accounting  system 
and  illustrates  its  planning  with  diagram  showing  basic  features  of  simple 
system  for  a  business  manufacturing  various  kinds  of  standard  machines. 
(Continuation  of  serial.) 

Duties  of  a  Factory  Cost  Accountant,  Joseph  Gill.  Jl.  Actcy.,  vol.  26, 
no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  441-449.  A  thesis  presented  at  the  May  examinations 
of  the  Am.  Inst,  of  Accountants.     Routine  work  of  cost  accountants. 

Setting  Production  Standards  for  Industrial  Accounting  and  Engineering, 
F.  J.  Knieppel.  Jl.  of  Accountancy,  vol.  26,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  361-375. 
Explains  methods  of  determining  four  basic  standards. 

Inventories.  Verification  of  Inventories,  A.  L.  Philbrick.  Jl.  Actcy.,  vol.  26, 
no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  417-428.  Briefly  outlines  the  work  of  the  auditor  and 
his  responsibilities.     Difficulties  involved  in  the  verification  of  the  inventory. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


47 


Mail  Order.  Mail  Order  Accounting,  Harry  L.  Cavanagh.  Jl.  Actcy.,  vol.  26,  no. 
6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  436-440.  A  thesis  presented  at  the  May  examinations  of 
the  Am.  Inst,  of  Accountants. 

Tower  House.  Economics  of  the  Power  House,  L.  W.  Alwyn-Schmidt.  Power 
Plant  Eng.,  vol.  22,  no.  23,  Dec.  1,  1918,  pp.  949-952.  Problem  of  Power- 
house accounting  approached  from  point  of  view  oficonomist. 

EDUCATION 

Training  of  Employees.  Packard  Training  Schools  for  Employees,  D.  G. 
Stanbrough.  Indus.  Management,  vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  378-382, 
13  figs.  Four  schools  operated ;  for  men,  women,  instructors  for  women  and  for 
job  setters  and  foremen. 

Vestibule  School  of  Lincoln  Motor  Co.,  J.  M.  Eaton.  Indus.  Manage- 
ment, vol..  56,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  452-455,  10  figs.  Equipment  of  training 
rooms;  system  of  instruction  in  machine-shop  practice. 

Soldiers.  Vocational  Training  for  Returned  Soldiers.  Jl.  Eng.  Inst.  Can.,  vol.  1, 
no.  7,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  333-334.  Work  being  done  at  Toronto  and  McGill 
Universities. 

University.  The  Khaki  University.  Can.  Min.  Inst.,  bul.  no.  80,  Dec.  1918,  pp. 
985-989.  Letter  from  F.  D.  Adams  giving  an  account  of  the  work  and 
plans  for  future  development. 

FACTORY  MANAGEMENT 

Boiler  Shop.  Business  Equipment  in  the  Boiler  Shop,  Edwin  L.  Seabrook.  Boiler 
Maker,  vol.  18,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  305-307.  Suggests  items  of  business 
conduct  in  boiler  making  plant. 

Employment  Manager.  The  Employment  Manager,  Edward  D.  Jones,  Wood- 
Worker,  vol.  37,  no.  9,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  38-39.  Organization  and  direction  of 
course  offered  gratis  to  representatives  of  manufacturers  by  Management 
Division  of  War  Industries  Board. 

The  Employment  Manager  in  Our  Shipyards,  Edward  B.  Jones.  Int. 
Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  612-614.  Duties  of  general  exe- 
cutive; importance  of  schools;  wage  system  and  ideal  service;  psychology 
of  mass  action. 

Foremen.  Instructions  to  Assistant  Foremen,  George  II.  Shepard.  Indus.  Man., 
vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  403-407.  Prepared  by  plant  working  extensively 
on  governmental  orders  to  inspire  and  guide  minor  executives. 

Industrial  Organization.  After- War  Economics  of  Engineering.  Times  Eng. 
Supp.,  no.  529,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  225-226.  Suggests  that  plants  review  their 
methods  of  manufacture  and  adopt  convenient  modifications  when  necessary. 
Illustrations  of  practical  procedure  by  reference  to  foundry  work. 

Industrial  Organization  as  it  Affects  Executives  and  Workers,  Charles 
E.  Knoeppel.  Jl.  Am.  Soc.  Engrs.,  vol.  40,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  1031-1033. 
Proposes  rules  of  efficient  organization  for  practical  guidance  of  executives  in 
developing  system  of  industrial  relationship.  Presented  at  annual  meeting 
of  the  Sos. 

Management  —  The  Solution  of  the  Shipbuilding  Problem,  W.  L. 
Churchill.  Indus.  Management,  vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  19 IS,  pp.  361-366,  2 
figs.  Based  on  study  of  conditions  in  20  shipyards  and  pointing  to  manage- 
ment as  developed  recently  in  other  industries  as  proper  solution  to  problems. 

Practical  System  in  Factory  Operations,  M.  H.  Potter.  Can.  Machy., 
vol.  20,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  559-560,  6  figs.  Forms  of  charts  developed 
from  investigation  of  actual  case. 

Scientific  Management  Simplified.  Malcolm  Kcir.  Soi.  Monthly, 
vol.  7,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  525-529.  Adaptability  of  scientific  management 
to  industry;  fundamental  elements  of  scientific  management. 

Industries.  New  Industries,  H.  W.  Gepp.  Aust.  Min.  Std.,  vol.  60,  no. 
1564,  Oct.  31,  1918,  pp.  686-688.  Address  with  discussion  before  Soc.  of 
Chem.  Ind.,  Melbourne.  Essential  factors  in  the  successful  development 
of  new  industries  in  a  young  country. 

Mechanical  Department.  Coordination  in  the  Mechanical  Department,  W.  U. 
Appleton.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  63,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  73-774.  Recom- 
mendations for  system  and  harmony  within  department  and  with  other 
departments.     Paper  before  Canadian  Ry.  Club,  Oct.  1918. 

Rate  Setting.  Mastering  Power  Production,  Walter  N.  Polakov.  Ind.  Man.,  vol. 
56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  399-403,  6  figs.  Conservation  of  labor,  power  and 
fuel  in  relation  to  rates.     Tenth  article. 

Time  Studies  for  Rate  Settings  on  Gisholt  Boring  Mills,  Dwight  V. 
Merrick.  Indus.  Management,  vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  409-411,  1  fig. 
Fifth  article. 

Routing.  About  the  Handling  of  Mill  Work  (II),  Chas.  Cloukey.  Wood- Worker, 
vol.  37,  no.  9,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  23-24, 1  fig.  Part  which  routing  of  work  through 
mill  has  in  economical  production. 

Task  Setting.  The  Human  Factor  in  Task  Setting,  W.  E.  Camo.  Indus.  Manage- 
ment, vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  372-374,  1  fig.  Chief  conditions  that 
affect  factor;  how  they  are  evaluated;  how  to  predetermine  proper  allowance. 

Tool  Department.  Continuous  Tooling.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.  1918, 
p.  183.  Suggests  a  means  of  obtaining  increased  output  from  machine-shop 
tools. 

Tool  Department  of  Winchester  Works.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  19, 
Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  1129-1133,  4  figs.  Virtually  on  factory  production  basis, 
workers  being  trained  for  single  type  operation ;  preparation  section's  important 
functions. 

FINANCE  AND  COST 

Capital.  Capital:  Its  Waste  and  Its  Conservation,  Archibald  P.  Main.  Gas  Jl., 
vol.  144,  no.  2894,  Oct.  29,  1918,  pp.  249-251,  and  (discussion)  pp.  251-252. 
Means  by  which  author  judges  British  industry  can  make  best  use  of  available 


credit   and   financial   accommodation.     Paper  before   Soc.   of   British   Gas 
Industries. 

INSPECTION 

Graphic  Control.  Graphic  Production  Control,  C.  E.  Knoeppel.  Indus.  Manage- 
ment, vol.  56,  nos.  5  and  6,  Nov.  and  Dec.  1918,  pp.  383-390,  17  figs.,  496-502, 
14  figs.     Controlling  materials  and  operations.     Fourth  Article. 

Production  Records.  Keeping  Close  Track  of  Shop  Operation,  Robert  I.  Clcgg 
Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  1251-1253,  6  figs.  Records  of 
production  and  labor  bulletined  to  management;  reports  with  alarm-clock 
attachment. 

Supervision.  Mechanical  Department  Supervision,  Frank  Mc Manamy.  Ry.  Mach. 
Eng.,  vol.  92,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  597-598.  Better  supervision  and  more  of 
it  needed  to  keep  up  shop  output.     From  paper  before  New  York  Ry.  Club. 

LABOR 

Bargaining  (including  collective  systems).  Agreement  vs.  Bargaining,  Harry 
Tipper.  Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  784-785.  Claims 
confidence  between  employer  and  employee  is  impossible  so  long  as  both  base 
their  relations  upon  their  ability  to  take  advantage  of  a  bargain. 

Handling  Employment  Relations  Without  Help  from  the  Outside 
Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39,  no.  17,  Oct.  24,  1918,  pp.  722-723,  1  fig.  Collective- 
bargaining  plan  for  handling  all  matters  relating  to  wages,  hours  of  labor, 
discipline,  discharges  and  grievances. 

Important  Phases  of  the  Labor  Problem,  Magnus  W.  Alexander.  Iron 
Age,  vol.  102,  nos.  21  and  22,  Nov.  21  and  28,  1918,  pp.  1258-1325.  Problems 
of  pensions  and  insurance;  profit  sharing  in  industry;  adjustment  of  labor 
disputes;  working  conditions;  hours  of  work.  Nov.  21:  Recruiting  of  men; 
collective  bargaining  discussed. 


Bonuses 


.  Paying  Bonuses  to  Power  Plant  Employees,  Frederick  L.  Ray.  Nat. 
Engr.,  vol.  22,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  493-495,  and  (discussion)  pp.  495-497. 
Account  of  system  followed  by  Milwaukee  Elec.  Ry.  &  Light  Co.  Paper 
before  Nat.  Assn.  of  Stationary  Engrs. 

British  Labor  Administration.  Labor  Administration,  Edward  T.  Elbourne, 
Engineer,  vol.  126,  qos.  3276,  3278,  3279,  3280.  Oct.  11  and  25,  Nov.  1  and  8, 
1918,  pp.  299-300,  348-350,  2  figs.,  365-367,  4  figs.,  388-390,  1  fig.  Oct.  25: 
Women;  Nov.  1:  Time  office  (men);  Nov.  8:   Methods  of  Remuneration. 

Dilution.     Labor   Dilution   as   a    National    Necessity,    Frederick   A.    Waldron.     Jl 

Am.  Soc.    Mcch.  Engrs.,  vol.  40,  no.   12,  Dec.   1918,  pp.   1033-1035.     After 

referring   to   work  done  by  British  Bureau  of  Labor,     the  writer     outlines 

the  scope  of  labor  dilution  as  necessary  application  to  national  resources  of 

•   U.  S.      Presented  at  annual  meeting  of  society. 

Employment  Department.  Employment  Department  Routine  of  the  Curtiss  Aeroplane 
&  Motor  Corp.,  Charles  E.  Fouhy.  Ind.  Man.,  vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918, 
pp.  412-416,  17  figs.     Routine  and  forms  of  employment  department. 

Industrial  Relations.  Employment  of  Labor,  Dudley  R.  Kennedy.  Jl.  Am.  Soc. 
Mech.  Engrs.,  vol.  40,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  1030-1031.  Activities  of 
Industrial  Relations  Department  of  Hog  Island  plant  in  connection  with 
securing  and  maintaining  a  force  of  35,000  employees  and  providing  for 
their  needs  and  comfort.     Presented  at  the  annual  meeting  of  society. 

Fundamental  Factors  in  Sound  Industrial  Relations,  H.  T.  VValler. 
Ind.  Management,  vol.  56,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  367-371,  8  figs.  Seven 
lactors  discussed  by  author  and  illustrated  by  cartoons  interpreting  vital  truth. 
Use  of  Non-Financial  Incentives  in  Industry,  Robert  B.  Wolf.  Jl. 
Am.  Soc.  Mech.  Engrs.,  vol.  40,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  1035-1038,  2  figs. 
Account  of  instances  where  personal  interest  has  been  developed  in  workmen 
by  supplying  foremen  with  information  upon  costs,  methods  of  operation, 
possibilities  in  direction  of  economy  and  efficiency,  etc.  Presented  at  annual 
meeting  of  the  A.  S.  M.  E. 

Lunch  Rooms.  Feeding  Employees  at  a  Steel  Plant.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  19,  Nov. 
7,  1918,  pp.  1136-1138,  2  figs.  Reasons  for  abolishing  dinner  pail;  manage- 
ment of  lunchroom;  auxiliary  room  for  foreigners;  commissary. 

National  War  Labor  Board.  The  War  Labor  Board  and  the  Living  Wage,  Frank 
P.  Walsh.  Survey,  vol.  41,  no.  10,  Dec.  7,  1918,  pp.  301-303.  Account  of 
origin  of  National  War  Labor  Board,  its  purpose  and  achievements. 

Protit  Shaking.  A  Tested  Profit  Sharing  Plan,  Dale  Wolf.  Indus.  Management, 
vol.  56,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  486-488,  3  figs.  Average  of  46  per  cent  of  com- 
pany's profits  are  distributed  to  employees. 

Soldiers.  Returned  Soldiers  Make  Very  Good  Welders,  W.  F.  Sutherland.  Can. 
Machy.,  vol.  20,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  618-619,  2  figs.  Outline  of  work 
done  by  training  school. 

The  Employment  of  the  Returned  Soldier.  Can.  Machy.,  vol.  20, 
no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  501-562.  Resume^  of  problem  as  viewed  by 
English  correspondent.     From  Times  Eng.  Supp. 

The  Industrial  Restoration  of  Disabled  Soldiers,  Bert.  J.  Morris.  Indus. 
Management,  vo..  56,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  477-481,  4  figs.  Review  of 
accomplishments  of  other  nations  and  notes  on  organizations  preparing  to 
re-educate  American  soldiers. 

Turnover.  Interpretating  Labor  Turnover,  Luther  D.  Burlingame.  Am.  Mach., 
vol.  49,  no.  19,  Nov.  7.  1918,  pp.  855-858,  1  fig.  Discusses  real  meaning  and 
how  it  should  be  computed. 

Women.  Women  in  the  Machine  Shop,  S.  A.  Hand.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  23, 
Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1035-1037,  9  figs.  Successful  experience  of  large  firm  of 
machine  tool  builders  in  employment  of  women  workers. 

Women  Workers.  Women  in  the  Service  of  the  Railways,  Pauline  Goldmark.  Ry. 
Age,  vol.  65,  no.  23,  Dec.  6,  1918,  pp.  1010-1018.  Used  in  a  great  variety  of 
work.  Address  before  Labor  Reconstruction  Conference,  Academy  c) 
Political  Science,  N.  Y. 


48 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


LEGAL 

Boilep.  Contracts.  Construing  Boiler  Contracts,  A.  L.  H.  Street.  Power,  vol.  48, 
no.  22,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  7(i.".-7(JG.  Case  reported  in  the  Maryland  Court 
of  Appeals,  bearing  on  obligations  of  manufacturer  under  contract,  for  instal- 
lation of  boilers  according  to  particular  specifications. 

Casual  Employment.  What  Constitutes  Casual  Employment  ?  Chcsla  C.  Sherlock. 
Am.  Much.,  vol.  49,  no.  19,  Nov.  7.  1918,  pp.  850-852.  Discussion  of  certain 
legal  interpretations. 

Contributor  IN  Negligence.  Disobedience  of  Orders  by  Employees  and  Its 
Relation  to  Compensation.  Chesla  C.  Sherlock.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no. 
22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  980-982.     Review  of  some  court  decisions. 

Floors,  Slippery  (accidents  from).  Injuries  Caused  by  Slippery  Floors,  Chesla 
C.  Sherlock.  Power,  vol.  IN,  no.  22,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  790.  Some  court 
decisions. 

Simple  Tools  (accidents  from).  Liability  in  the  Use  of  Simple  Tools,  Chesla  C. 
Sherlock.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  939-940.  Some 
legal  aspects  of  employers'  liability  in  use  of  simple  tools. 

JM  BLIC  REGULATION 

Government  Trading.  The  Functions  of  the  Government  in  Relation  to  Industry, 
W.  L.  Hichens.  Iron  &  Steel  Trades  .11.,  nos.  3099  and  3100.  Nov.  2  and  9. 
1918,  pp.  488-489  and  514.  Examination  of  advisability  of  carrying  out 
suggestions  that  the  Government  engage  in  trading  undertakings. 

RECONSTRUCTION 

Electrical  Industry.  Problems  of  the  Reconstruction  Era.  Elec.  World,  vol.  72, 
no.  19,  Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  877-878.  Taking  effective  part  in  great  world 
war,  this  country  will  necessarily  be  powerful  factor  in  succeeding  period; 
closer  co-operation  in  electrical  industry  advocated. 

Export  Trade.  Reconstructing  Our  Business  Fabric  Shipping,  vol.  5,  no.  8, 
Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  15-16,  1  fig.  Steps  being  taken  and  progress  made  to  take 
advantage  of  present  opportunity  United  States  has  of  developing  inter- 
nationally. 

SAFETY  ENGINEERING 

BoiLER  ROOMS.  Boiler  Room  Holes.  Eng,  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov.  15, 
1918,  p.  (Wi.  Suggestions  to  boiler-room  attendants  on  the  care  of  oilers  and 
prevention  of  accidents.      From  Safety  Bui. 

Boiler  Shops.  Accident  Prevention  in  Boiler  Shops,  Boiler  Maker,  vol.  IS,  no.  11, 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  315-317,  5  figs.  Account  of  what  Bethlehem  Steel  Co.  has 
accomplished  and  consideration  of  causes  of  accidents. 

Disease  PREVENTION.      Engineers  and  Disease  Prevention.     Times  Eng,  Supp.,  no. 

529,   Nov.  1918,  p..  231.      Points  out  pari  engineers  can  play. 

First  Am.  Standardization  of  First  Aid  Methods,  C.  H.  Connor.  Safety  Eng., 
vol.  36,  no.  4,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  237-238.  From  Proc.  Seventh  Annual  Safety 
Congress. 

Foundries.  Injuries  from  Molten  Metal.  Chesla  C.  Sherlock.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102, 
no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  1262-1262.  Ordinary  perils;  defective  tools  and 
appliances;  basis  of  foundryman's  responsibility. 

Water-Si  pp i, y  Protection.  Protection  of  Water  Mains,  Fire  Hydrants  and  Valves 
in  Winnpeg.  Thomas  II.  Hooper.  Mun.  Jl.,  vol.  45,  no.  21,  Nov.  23,  1918, 
p.  410.      From  Quarterly  of  Nat.  Fire  Protection  Assn. 

Woodworking  Industry.  Infections  and  Blood  Poisoning  in  the  Woodworking 
Industry,  Leroy  Philip  Kuhn.  Safety  Eng.,  vol.  30,  no.  4,  Oct.  1918,  pp. 
228-230.      From  I'roc.  Seventh  Annual  Safety  Congress. 

SALVAGE 

Salvaging  and  Utilizing  Wastes  and  Scrap  in  Industry,  W.  Kockwood 
Conover.  Indus.  Management,  vol.  50,  no.  0,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  119-451. 
Significance  of  salvaging;  reclaiming  practice  for  number  of  classes  of  materials 
and   wastes. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Comparative  Methods.  Light-Traffic  Railway  vs.  Highway  and  Motor  Truck. 
Clement  C.  Williams.  Eng.  News-Rcc.,  vol.  81,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918, 
pp.  981-985.  Analyses  of  operating  expenses,  fixed  charges  and  amount  and 
kind  of  traffic  should  be  made  for  each  case. 

Motor  Trucks.  Highway- Motor  Truck  Problem  as  Viewed  by  User,  Manufacturer 
and  Engineer.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  908-977, 
2  figs.  Three  Views.  Limitations  to  be  Placed  on  Trucks,  from  User's 
Viewpoint,  by  George  H.  Pride;  Factors  that  Will  Govern  Future  Road 
Design,  by  Edward  L.  Viets;  Highways  and  Truck  Loads  they  Can  Econ- 
omically Sustain,  by  H.  Eltinge  Breed. 

Motor  Truck  Transportation  Growing  Rapidly.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  03, 
no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  703-709,  11  figs.  Formerly  regarded  as  competitive, 
inter-city  motor-truck  traffic  is  now  encouraged  by  railroads. 


INDUSTRIAL  PROCESSES 

Supp.,    no.    529, 


Nov.    1918,   p.    228. 


Alcohol.     Industrial   Alcohol.     Times   Eng 
Possible  sources  of  supply. 

Asphalt.     Chemical  Constitution  of  Artificial  Asphalts  (La  constitution  chimique 
des  asphaltes  artificiels).     Genie  Civil,  vol.  73,  no.  13,  Sept.  28,  1918,  p.  256. 


Results  of  experiments  with  petroleum  residues,   lignite,  tars  and  schist. 
From  Zeitschrift  fur  angewandte  Chemie,  June  11,  18. 

Coal  Distillation.  Distillation  at  Low  Temperature.  Gas  Age,  vol.  42,  no.  11, 
Dec.  2,  1918,  pp.  466-407.  Discusses  advantages  of  "  coalite  "  process. 
From  Journal  des  Usines  a  Gaz. 

Low  Thermal  Distillation  of  Coals,  G.  W.  Traer.  Coal  Industry,  vol.  1 , 
no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  393-395.  Details  of  experimental  plant;  character- 
istics of  semi-coke  or  charcoal;  how  to  make  a  coke  of  suitable  structure. 
Am.  Inst.  Min.  Engrs.  paper. 

D<  st  Precipitation.  Electrastatic  Dust  Precipitation.  William  H.  Easton.  Indus. 
Management,  vol.  56,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  473-475,  5  figs.  Dust-laden 
gases  become  ionized  when  passing  through  field  around  grounded  tubes  inside 
which  fine  wires  are  charged  with  current  of  50,000  to  100,000  volts 

Gas  Manufacture.  Coal  Conservation  in  Relation  to  Gas  Manufacture,  Tim 
Duxbury.  GasJI.,  vol.  144,  no.  2895,  Nov.  5,  1918,  pp.  302-305  and  (dis- 
cussion) pp.  305-308.  Results  of  experience  with  vertical  retorts.  Paper 
before  Manchester  Instu.  of  Gas  Engrs.  Also  in  Gas  World,  vol.  69,  no.  1789. 
Nov.  2,  1918,  pp.  202-203,  1  fig. 

Economizing  Coal  in  Gas  Manufacture,  Frederick  Shewring.  Gas  World, 
vol.  09,  no.  1789,  Nov.  2,  1918,  p.  261.     Comments  on  steaming  retorts. 

Inclined  Retort  Plant  at  Rome,  N.  Y.,  A.  Success,  S.  Bent.  Russell. 
Gas  Age,  vol.  42,  no.  11,  Dec.  2,  1918,  pp.  463-466,  4  figs.  Views  and 
mechanism  details  of  plant  having  daily  capacity  of  500,000  cu.  ft.  of  gas. 

Institution  of  Gas  Engineers.  Gas  Investigation  Committee.  Gas  Jl., 
vol.  144,  nos.  2894  and  2895,  Oct.  29  and  Nov.  5,  1918,  pp.  235-249,  3  figs. 
and  (discussion)  pp.  291-299.  Report,  of  sub-committee  appointed  to  .in- 
vestigate relative  efficiency  in  use  of  different  grades  and  compositions  of 
gas. 

Glass.  Substitutes  for  Glass.  Sci.  Am.  Supp.,  vol.  80,  no.  2235,  Nov.  2,  1918,  p. 
283.  Composition  of  siloxide  and  artificial  mica;  possibilities  of  derivatives 
of  cellulose,  oiled  cotton  cloth  and  vitro-cellulose.     From  La  Nature. 

Leather.  Recent  Developments  in  Leather  Chemistry.  Henry  R.  Proctor.  Jl. 
Roy.  Soc.  of  Arts,  vol.  06,  no.  3442.  Nov.  8,  1918,  pp.  770-781.  Discussion 
of  chemical  and  physical  changes  taking  place  in  tanning  process. 

Naphthalene  and  Benzol.  Estimation  of  Naphthalene  in  Coal  Gas,  Harold  G. 
Colman.  Gas  Jl.,  vol.  144,  no.  2894,  Oct.  29.  1918,  pp.  231-232.  Modifi- 
cations in  Colman-Smith's  method  (vol.  75,  p.  798). 

Notes  on  Benzol  and  Naphthalene  Recovery,  Harold  E.  Copp.  Gas 
Jl.,  vol.  144,  no.  2895,  Nov.  5,  1918,  pp.  311-313,  2  figs.  Results  obtained 
with  plant  installed  at  gas  works.  Paper  before  Midland  Assn.  of  Gas  Engrs. 
and  Mgrs.     Also  in  Gas  World,  vol.  09,  no.  1789,  Nov.  2,  1918,  pp.  205-266. 

NlTRIC  Acid.  Nitric  Aeid  as  a  By-Product  of  Internal  Combustion  Engines,  A.  W.  H. 
Oiepe.  Am.  Gas  Eng.  Jl.,  vol.  109,  no.  21,  Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  487-489, 
7  figs,  and  p.  492.  Process  to  precipitate  nitric  oxide  as  by-product  of 
internal-combustion  engines,  flue  gases,  illuminating  gas,  furnace  gas,  blast- 
furnace gas,  natural  gas,  etc. 

Oxygen  and  Hydrogen.  Electrolytic  Oxygen  and  Hydrogen.  Travellers'  Standard. 
vol.  6,  uo.  7,  July  1918,  pp.  137-145.  Method  of  producing  oxygen  and  hydro- 
gen and  their  respective  industrial  applications. 

Potash.  Recovery  of  Potash  from  Blast  Furnaces,  Linn  Bradley.  Iron  Age,  vol. 
102,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  1151-1153.  From  paper  before  Fourth  Nat. 
Expos,  of  Chem.  Ind.,  New  York,  September  1918. 

Stoneware.  Chemical  Stoneware,  Fred  A.  Whitaker.  Brick  &  Clav  Rec,  vol.  53, 
no.  11,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  875-877,  10  figs.  Account  of  development  of 
industry  in   United  States. 

Water  Gas.  Applications  of  Peat  for  the  Production  of  Water  Gas  (Trvs  Anvendels 
til  Frcmstilling  af  Vandagas).  Ingeniren,  year  27,  no.  86,  Oct.  26,  1918, 
pp.  501-562. 

MARINE  ENGINEERING 

AUXILIARY   MACHINERY 

Boats.  Boat  Lowering  Appliances.  J.  R.  Hodge.  Tran.  Inst.  Marine  Engrs.,  vol. 
30,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  123-127,  4  figs,  and  (discussion)  127-136,  1  fig.  Type  of 
disengaging  gear  designed  to  deal  simultaneously  and  automatically  at  both 
ends  of  boat,  to  free  it  from  davit  falls  or  tackles  as  soon  as  boat  is  water- 
borne. 

General  Rules  and  Regulations  Prescribed  by  the  Board  of  Supervising 
Inspectors  as  Amended  at  Board  Meeting  of  January,  1918.  Department  of 
Commerce,  Steamboat-Inspection  Service,  Aug.  1,  1918,  147  pp.,  5  figs. 
Rules  for  boiler  plate,  boilers  and  attachements,  boats  and  their  appliances, 
steamers,  barges  and  duties  of  inspectors;  list  of  instruments,  machines  and 
equipments  approved  for  use  on  vessels. 

Diving  Bell.  Diving  Bell  in  Use  at  Halifax  Ocean  Terminals,  J.  J.  MacDonald. 
Jl.  Eng.  Inst.  Can.,  vol.  1,  no.  6,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  252-262,  14  figs.  Outline  of 
function  design,  construction  and  operation;  formulation  of  principles  of 
design  proposed  as  applicable  to  future  work;  survey  of  fields  of  activity  where 
plant  of  this  type  promises  applicability. 

SALVAGE 

Salvage  Methods.  Salvage  of  Wrecked  Ships  (Le  sauvetage  des  navires  coules), 
A.  Poidloue.  Genie  Civil,  vol.  73,  no.  13,  Sept.  2S,  1918,  pp.  241-244,  6  figs. 
Review  of  processes  used  and  considerations  on  probability  of  future  develop- 
ments. 

Turning  Vessel.  Salvaging  the  Steamship  St.  Paul,  Charles  M.  Horton  Int. 
Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  644-648,  6  figs.  Methods  used 
in  turning  vessel;  Character  of  problems  solved;  placing  patch  under 
difficulties. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


49 


SHIPS 

Canada.  A  Canadian  Shipbuilding  Industry,  Thomas  Cantley.  Can.  Min.  Inst., 
bul.  no.  80,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  995-1000.  Excerpts  from  paper  at  20th  annual 
meeting  of  the  Institute.  The  question  of  developing  steel  shipbuilding  in 
Canada. 

Concrete  Ships.  Concrete  Ship  Design,  R.  J.  Wig.  Eng.  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13, 
no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  15-17,  9  figs.  Summary  of  conclusions  on  advisa- 
bility of  constructing  concrete  ships  reached  by  Concrete  Ship  Department, 
Emergency  Fleet  Corporation.  From  Special  Report  to  Chairman  of  Shipping 
Board.  Also  in  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  903-904, 
3  figs. 

Concrete  Ships.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.  1918,  pp.  184-185. 
Account  of  shipyards  where  18  concrete  vessels  are  under  construction  and 
others  will  shortly  be  started. 

Different  Types  of  Framing  in  Two  New  Government  Reinforced- 
Concrete  Ships.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  986-989, 
6  figs.  7500-ton  oil  tanker  has  close-spaced  frames  with  vertical  and  hori- 
zontal reinforcing  in  shell,  while  2500-ton  schooner  barge  has  long-span  framing 
system  with  diagonal  shell  reinforcement. 

Reinforced-Concrete  Barges  (Barca  de  hormigon  armado),  Julio  MurOa. 
Revista  de  Obras  Publica3,  year  66,  no.  2245,  Oct.  3,  191S,  pp.  493-497,  10 
i  figs.     Calculations  of  design  for  60-ft.  barge. 

Reinforced  Concrete  Vessels,  Walter  Pollock.  Can.  Engr.,  vol.  35,  no. 
17,  Oct.  24,  1918,  pp.  367-373,  5  figs.  Considerations  of  design  and  ideals 
aimed  by  builders;  strength,  advantages  and  disadvantages;  classification 
rules;  structural  details  of  hull,  steelwork  and  fittings.  Paper  before  British 
Instn.  of  Naval  Architects. 

Duct  Keels.  Improvements  in  the  Construction  of  Ships,  E.  F.  Spanner.  Ship- 
building and  Shipping  Rec,  vol.  12,  no.  9.  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  451-452.  Discusses 
question  of  duct  keels.     Before  Instn.  Engrs.  &  Shipbuilders. 

Isherwood  Framing.  Large  Freighters  of  Isherwood  Framing  Adapted  to  Bridge- 
Shop  Fabrication.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  853- 
857,  4  figs.  Problems  worked  out  by  co-operation  of  naval  architect  and 
engineer  on  barge  shop;  200  tons  weight  saved;  time  gained  in  detailing; 
all  molded  work  done  in  large  shop  at  shipyard. 

Reduction  Gearing.  Italian  Reduction-Geared  Turbine  Cargo-Steamship  "Ansaldo 
I."  Shipbuilding  &  Shipping  Rec,  vol.  12,  nos.  19  and  20,  Nov.  7,  and 
14, 1918,  pp.  447-450,  13  figs.,  470-471,  4  fig9.  Principal  dimensions,  plans  and 
photographs. 

Resistance.  Effect  of  Appendages  on  Resistance  and  Propulsion.  Shipbuilding 
&  Shipping  Rec,  vol.  12,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  452-453,  2  figs.  Account 
of  Luke's  experiments  with  various  angles  of  bossing,  with  outward-  and 
inward-turning  screws;  values  of  wake  fractions  and  hull  efficiencies;  resistance 
compared  with  resistance  of  naked  model.     (Concluded.) 

Rolling.  The  Rolling  of  Ships.  Sci.  Am.  Supp.,  vol.  86,  no.  2236,  Nov.  9,  1918, 
p.  299  Factors  upon  which  natural  period  of  roll  of  a  ship  depends;  results 
obtained  by  Froude  with  his  apparatus  to  record  angles  of  roll.  From 
Shipping   World. 


Standardized  Ships.  Structural  Steel  Standardized  Cargo  Vessels,  Henry  R. 
Sutphen.  Inst.  Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  695-968,  1  fig. 
How  quantity  production  was  met. 

Stresses.  Investigation  of  Shearing  Force  and  Bending  Moment  on  Ship  Structures, 
A.  M.  Robb.  Int.  Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  637:642.  8  figs. 
Moderate  amplitudes  of  heave;  sagging  bending  moment;  pitching  treated 
graphically;  effect  of  rotational  acceleration.     (Second  article  ) 

Tow  Boats.  Plans  and  Specifications  of  New  Wood  Tow  Boats.  Inst.  Mar.  Eng., 
vol.  23,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  673-674,  plate,  1  fig.     Built  for  hard  service. 

Wooden  Ships.  Building  Wooden  Ships  for  the  Emergency  Fleet  Corporation,  E.  A. 
Suverkrop.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  383-387,  11  figs. 
Planking  and  interior  work.     Third  article. 

YARDS 

Canada.  Canadian  Vickers  Shipbuilding  Works  at  Montreal.  Engineering,  vol.  106, 
no.  2754,  Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  395-396,  12  figs.  Illustrated  description  of  ship- 
building in  Canada. 

Departmental  Organization.     Effective  Arrangement  of  Departments  in  Ship- 

Iyard  Organization,  G.  F.  S.  Mann.  Int.  Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  11,  Nov. 
1918,  pp.  615-617.  Shipyard  divisions;  relations  between  organization 
departments  and  production  departments;  duties  of  chief  engineer. 
New  Lake  Shipyard  has  Side-Launching  Ways  Under  Cover.  Eng. 
News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  839-841,  3  figs.  Ships  built  at 
Ferguson  yard  fabricated  in  company's  shops  two  miles  away;  berths  covered 
with  cantilever  roof  served  by  semi-gantry  crane. 
Gr 


Great  Lakes.  Great  Lakes  Yards  Lead  Coast  Districts  in  Building  Ocean-Going 
Ships.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  978-980,  4  figs. 
Canal-size  steamers  produced  in  large  numbers;  spirit  of  co-operation;  yard 
capacity  doubled;  no  outside  fabrication;  equipment  of  varied  character; 
labor  shortage. 

ooter's  Island.  Methods  Used  at  Shooter's  Island  for  Constructing  Standard 
Ships,  Charles  M.  Horton.  Int.  Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  11,  Nov  1918, 
pp.  618-624,  13  figs.  Serving  individual  ways;  method  for  increasing  output; 
well-lighted  boiler  shop;  handy  plate-lifting  clamp. 

MECHANICAL  ENGINEERING 


AIR   MACHINERY 
Air  Conditioning.     Air  Conditioning,  Charles  L.  Hubbard.     Domestic  Eng.,  vol. 
85,  nos.  3  and  4,  Oct.  19  and  26,  1918,  pp.  82-84,  2  figs,  and  118-120,  5  figs. 
Possibilities  of  this  branch  of  heating  and  ventilating  engineering  and  how 
it  may  save  coal  and  raise  efficiency  of  employees  in  industrial  plant. 


Pneumatic  Tools  in  Winter.  Effects  of  the  Use  of  Pneumatic  Tools  on  the 
Nervous  System,  Francis  M.  Barnes.  Safety  Eng.,  vol.  36,  no.  4,  Oct.  1918, 
pp. 239-240.  Recommends  warming  chisel  in  cold  weather,  enlarging  or 
covering  shank  to  prevent  cramp  in  hand  muscles,  and  condemns  practice  of 
blocking)  xhaust  outlet,  thereby  forcing  current  of  cold  air  over  fingers. 
From  Proc  Seventh  Annual  Safety  Congress. 

CEMENT  AND  CONCRETE 

Aggregate.  Clean  Aggregates  Obtained  under  Difficult  Conditions,  C.  P.  Mowry. 
Cement  &  Eng.  News,  vol.  30,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  31-32,  3  figs.  Arrange- 
ment and  working  of  a  western  plant. 

Proportioning  the  Materials  of  Mortars  and  Concretes  by  Surface  Areas 
of  Aggregates,  L.  N.  Edwards.  Surveyor,  vol.  54,  no.  1398,  No.  1,  1918, 
pp.  209-210.  Results  of  tests  made  by  Toronto  Department  of  Works  with 
object  of  developing  surface-area  method  of  proportioning  and  securing  infor- 
mation relative  to  (1)  surface  area  of  aggregates  of  varying  granulometric 
composition,  (2)  quantity  of  water  necessary  to  produce  a  "normal" 
uniform  consistency  of  mortar  for  varying  sands  and  cement  constant,  and 
(3)  strength  of  mortar  attained  by  varying  proportion  of  cement  in  mix. 
Paper  before  Am.  Soc  for  Testing  Materials. 

Cement  Gun.  Cement  Gun  Used  for  Repairing  Pit  Stacks.  Blast  Furnace,  vol.  6, 
no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  399-401,  5  figs.  Steel  reinforcement  placed  on  old 
shell  and  gunite  applied. 

Cold- Weather  Concreting.  Cold  Weather  Concreting.  Eng.  &  Cement  World, 
vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  20-24,  8  figs.  Effect  of  low  temperatures 
on  concrete  work;  suggestions  of  Portland  Cement  Assn.  in  regard  to  heating 
materials  and  protecting  work. 

Disintegration.  Conclusions  on  Causes  of  Concrete  Disintegration,  A.  Blackie. 
Eng.  &  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  21,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  503-505.  From  paper 
before  Eng.  Ins.  of  Canada. 

Form  Units.  One  Set  of  Tool  Forms  Used  Three  Times  Completes  Concrete  Foundry, 
J._  M.  Villadsen.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918.  pp.  950- 
951,  3  figs.  Form  units  assembled  on  ground  with  reinforcement  in  place 
erected  by  derrick;  concrete  placed  by  telescoping  chute. 

Francois  and  Portier  Cementation  Processes.  Cementation  Processes  of 
Francois  and  P..iiicr,  A.  H.  Krynauw.  Contract  Rec,  vol.  52,  no.  44, 
Oct.  30,  19 18,  pp.  864-865.  Conditions  most  suitable  for  hard  setting  in  shortest 
time  when  cement  is  pumped  under  pressure  into  fissures;  cases  in  which 
cementation  has  been  successfully  applied;  comparison  between  two  processes. 
Paper  before  Chem.  Metallurgical  &  Min.  Soc. 

Moisture.  Effect  of  Water  on  Strength  of  Concrete.  -Contract  Rec,  vo..  52,  no.  44, 
Oct.  30,  1918,  p.  865,  1  fig.  Diagram  presenting  amount  of  water  used  in 
per  cent  of  quantity  giving  maximum  strength  against  per  cent  of  maximum 
strength.     Drawn  from  results  of  experimental  tests. 

Saturation  of  Concrete  Reduces  Strength  and  Elasticity,  M.  B.  Lagaard. 
Eng.  News-Rec,  vo..  81,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  908-910,  6  figs.  Tests, 
made  at  University  of  Minnesota,  show  that  moisture  content  of  specimens 
serves  to  counteract  benefits  of  moist  curing. 

CORROSION 

A  Case  of  Corrosion  Caused  by  Electrolytic  Action  in  aWestinghouse- 
Leblanc  Air  Pump  (Un  cas  de  corrosion  a  allure  electrolytique  dans  une 
pompe  a  air  Westinghouse-Leblanc) ,  L.  Conge.  Revue  Generate  de  1'Elee- 
tricite},  vol.  4,  no.  15,  Oct.  12, 1918,  pp.  539-540,  2  figs.  States  that  no  pipe  or 
machine  element  intended  to  operate  exposed  to  direct  action  of  any  kind 
of  water  should  be  composed  of  metals  capable  of  forming  a  voltaic  couple. 

FOUNDRIES 

Bras3  Foundry.  A  Brass  Foundry  With  Automatic  Ventilation,  Charles  Vickers. 
Foundry,  vol.  46,  no.  316,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  568-574,  11  figs.  Description  of 
foundry  with  its  ventilation  arrangements. 

Coreroom.  Modern  Coreroom  for  Malleable  Foundry,  Donald  S.  Barrows.  Iron 
Age,  vol.  102,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  1254-1255,  5  figs.  Designed  and 
constructed  for  50,000-ton  foundry,  provides  for  economical  handling  of  raw 
materials  and  finished  cores.  Abstract  of  paper  before  Am.  Foundrymen's 
Assn.,  Oct.  1918.  Also  in  Foundry,  vol.  46,  no.  316,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  577-578, 
5  figs. 

Die  Casting.  Die-Casting  of  Aluminum,  H.  Rix  and  H.  Whitaker.  Sci.  Am. 
Supp.,  vol.  86,  no.  2237,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  314-315.  Advantages;  heat 
treatment;  material  for  dies;  cost  of  process.     Paper  before  Inst,  of  Metals. 

Furnaces.  Continuous  Tunnel  Furnace  in  Malleable  Industry.  Philip  d'H. 
Dressier.  Foundry,  vol.  46,  no.  316,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  566-567,  5  figs.  Discus- 
sion of  paper  by  H.  E.  Diller  on  Experiments  in  Annealing  Malleable  Iron, 
at  annual  meeting  of  Am.  Foundrymen's  Assn.,  Milwaukee,  Oct.  1918. 

Electric  Furnace  in  the  Steel  Foundry,  W.  E.  Moore.  Iron  Age,  vol. 
102,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  1206-1207.  Comparison  of  electric  and  converter 
costs;  relation  to  power  station;  future  of  electric  steel  foundries.  From  paper 
before  Am.  Foundrymen's  Assn.,  Milwaukee,  Oct.  1918. 

Oil-Burning  Cupola  Operations  Analyzed,  John  Howe  Hall.  Foundry, 
vol.  46,  no.  316,  Dec.  1918,  p.  558.  Results  attained  in  melting  iron  for 
3-ton  converter  plant  point  to  saving  in  fuel  and  labor  with  more  steady 
output.     From  paper  before  Am.  Foundrymen's  Assn.,  Milwaukee,  Oct.  1918. 

Ladles.  Suggest  Standard  Sleeves  and  Nozzles.  Brick  &  Clay  Rec,  vol.  53,  no. 
11,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  882-883,  21  figs.  Standard  dimensions  for  round-face 
and  straight-face  nozzle  brick  for  foundry  ladles  proposed  by  Am.  Face 
Brick  Assn.,  also  dimensions  of  sleeves  for  foundry  ladles  proposed  by  a  com- 
mittee of  steel  men  and  founders  in  joint  assembly  with  a  committee  of 
manufacturers  of  sleeve  and  nozle  brick. 


50 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Malleable  Iron.  Malleable  Iron  Castings,  P.  A.  Paulson.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102, 
no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  p.  1266.  Advantages  over  steel  castings  for  agri- 
cultural purposes.  From  paper  presented  at  Am.  Foundrymen'a  Assn., 
Milwaukee,  Oct.   1918. 

The  Integrity  of  the  Malleable  Casting,  Enrique  Touceda.  Iron  Age 
vol.  102,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  1204-1205.  Possibility  of  obtaining 
thoroughly  sound  castings;  use  of  chills  detrimental;  effect  of  war  on 
industry.  From  paper  before  Am.  Foundrymen's  Assn.,  Milwaukee,  Oct. 
1918. 

Molding.  How  Marine  Cylinders  are  Molded  and  Cast,  F.  H.  Bell.  Can.  Machv. 
vol.  20,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  611-614,  7  figs.  Description  of  method 
used  in  a  Toronto  plant. 

Pit  Molding  an  Intricate  Condenser  Casting.  Foundry,  vol.  46,  no.  316, 
Dec.  1918,  pp.  552-557,  10  figs.  Structural  difficulties,  experienced  more 
generally  in  light  work,  attended  production  of  this  34,900-11).  casting. 

Patterns.  The  Engineer  in  Relation  to  the  Foundry,  E.  S.  Carman.  Iron  Age, 
vol.  102,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  1200-1202,  13  figs.  Machine  designs  not 
adapted  to  advanced  foundry  practice;  comparison  of  correct  and  incorrect 
patterns  for  floor  molding.  From  paper  before  Am.  Foundrymen's  Assn., 
Milwaukee,  Oct.  1918. 

Pouring.  A  Modern  Pouring  System.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  20,  Nov.  11,  1918, 
p.  1203,  3  figs.     New  type  of  pouring  device  and  hand  crane. 

Sand.  Improving  Foundry  Sand  Mixtures,  Henry  B.  Haneley.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102, 
no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  1146-1148,  3  figs.  Use  of  sand-mixing  machine; 
time  required  for  mixing;  effect  of  sea  coal  and  fireclay.  From  paper  before 
Am.  Fdrys.  Assoc,  Milwaukee,  October  1918.  Also  in  Foundry,  vol.  40, 
no.  316,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  559-562,  5  figs. 

Semi-Steel.  Methods  of  Manufacturing  Semi-Steel  for  Projectiles  (Sui  vari  metodi 
di  fabbricazione  della  ghisa  per  proiettili),  Giulio  Sirovich.  Ingegneria 
Italiana,  vol.  2,  no.  4,  Sept.  26,  1918,  pp.  178-180. 

Urgent  Shell  Need  Found  Foundries  Heady.  Foundry,  vol.  46,  no. 
316,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  581-587,  15  figs.  Manufacturing  operations  and  practices 
developed  in  American  foundries  would  have  furnished  tonnage  of  semi- 
steel  shell  beyond  all  prospective  requirements. 

Supervision.  A  Foundry  Supervision  System,  Paul  R.  Ramp.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102, 
no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1383-1385,  2  figs.  Routine  set  of  reports  designed  to 
provide  quick  and  accurate  gage  of  current  costs  and  operations.  From  paper 
before  Am.  Foundrymen's  Assn.,  Milwaukee,  Oct.  1918. 


Asn. 


FUELS  AND  FIRING 

Clinker  and  Ash  in  Fuel.  Times  Eng.  Supp.  no.  527,  Sept.  1918,  p.  186 
Methods  employed  for  curtailing  labor  entaded  in  removing  large  and  hard 
masses  of  clinker. 

The  Fusibility  of  Coal  Ash  and  the  Determination  of  the  Softening 
Temperature,  Arno  C.  Fieldncr,  Albert  E.  Hall  and  Alexander  L.  Field. 
Department  of  Interior,  Bureau  of  Mines,  Bui.  129,  1918,  146  pp.,  38  figs. 
Review  of  literature  on  subject;  effect  of  various  oxidizing,  reducing,  and 
neutral  atmospheres  such  as  are  found  in  various  parts  of  fuel  bed  on  softening 
temperature  of  ash  when  molded  in  form  of  Seger  cones;  development  of 
method  for  determining  fusibility  whereby  ash  is  caused  to  soften  and  form 
slags  in  which  iron  exists  in  approximately  same  state  of  oxidation  as  when  in 
fuel-bed  clinkers. 

Boiler  Firing.  Combustion  in  Its  Relation  to  Boilers,  E.  A.  Uehling.  Power, 
vol.  48,  no.  23,  Dec.  3,  1918,  pp.  804-806  Describes  requirements  for  com- 
plete combustion  and  discusses  combustion  efficiency  and  absorption 
efficiency. 

Generation  of  Heat  and  Its  Absorption  by  Boiler,  Henry  Misostow. 
Nat.  Engr.,  vol.  22,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  518-522,  4  figs.,  and  (discussion) 
pp.  522-525.  Conditions  which  will  realize  an  efficient  commercial  combustion 
and  suggestions  to  utilize-heat  indications  in  securing  good  performance  in 
boiler  room.     Paper  before  Nat.  Assn.  of  Stationary  Engrs. 

The  Firing  of  Steam  Boilers.  English  Mechanic  &  World  of  Sci.,  vol. 
108,  no.  2796,  Oct.  25,  1918,  p.  155.  Report  of  German  patent  comprising 
an  air  chamber  divided  by  two  transverse  partitions  and  placed  immediately 
below  top  portion  of  endless  chain  grate.  From  Zeitschrift  fur  Dampfkessel 
und  Maschinenenbetrieb,  July  5,  1918. 

Coal,  Combustion  Characteristics.  Combustion  Characteristics  of  Coals,  Joseph 
G.  Worker,  Elec.  Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  849-851.  Com- 
bustion characteristics  of  coals  and  their  influence  upon  choice  of  stoker  equipe- 
ment;  load  conditions  also  important  factor. 

Conservation.  Coal  Conservation.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.  1918,  p.  187. 
Abstract  of  report  of  Coal  Conservation  Committee  of  Ministry  of  Re- 
construction. 

England's  Fuel  Rationing  Order.  Heat.  &  Vent.  Mag.,  vol.  15,  no.  11, 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  17-21.  Provisions  of  new  regulation  limiting  supply  of  coal, 
gas  and  electricity  to  domestic  consumers. 

Fuel  Regulation  during  the  War,  P.  R.  Noyes  and  D.  M.  Myers.  Nat. 
Engr.,  vol.  22,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  481-492.  Discussion  by  Federal  Govern- 
ment officials  before  Nat.  Assn.  of  Stationary  Engrs. 

Industrial  Coal  Economy,  David  Wilson.  Machy.  Market,  no.  939, 
Nov.  1,  1918,  pp.  19-20.  Suggestions  based  on  the  experience  of  the  author 
who  is  technical  advisor  to  Coal  Controller.  Paper  before  Assn.  of  Engrs.- 
in-charge.  (To  be  continued.)  Also  in  Elecn.,  vol.  81,  no.  2110,  Oct.  25, 
1918,p.540. 

Proposed  Coal-Rationing  Rules  for  the  United  States.  Heat.  &  Vent. 
Mag.,  vol.  15,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  21-23.  Allowances  designed  for  heating, 
cooking  and  hot-water  service  in  residences,  flats  and  apartment  houses. 
Final  draft  of  report  of  Committee  on  Fuel  Conservation,  Am.  Soc.  of  Heating 
and  Vent.  Engrs. 

Rational  Utilization  of  Commercial  Fuels  (Sur  ^utilisation  rationnelle 
des  combustibles  dont  dispose  actuellement  l'industrie).  Revue  Generate 
de  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  14,  Oct.  5,  1918,  pp.  505-511.  Report  of  the 
Ministry  of  Armament  and  War  Manufacturies.  From  Bulletin  des  Usines 
de  Guerre,  Aug.  26  and  Sept.  2,  1918,  pp.  137-149  and  145-147. 


Gasoline.  Substitute  for  Gasoline  Tested.  Motor  Age,  vol.  34,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918, 
p.  15.  Excerpts  of  tests  made  by  Bureau  of  Standards  on  secret  product  said 
to  be  composed  of  inexpensive  and  easily  obtainable  materials. 

Hand-Fired  Plants.  Fuel  Economy  in  Hand-Fired  Power  Plants.  Power  Plant 
Eng.,  vol.  22,  no.  23,  Dec.  1,  1918,  pp.  953-956,  4  figs.  Settings,  stacks  and 
breechings.     Fourth  article. 

Load  Factor.  Coal  Consumption  Rates  in  Various  Central  Stations  and  Industrial 
Plants.  Elec.  Rev.,  vol.  73,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  846-848,  2  figs.  Result 
of  study  by  Hydro-Electric  Commission  of  Ontario  proves  superiority  of 
large  power  plant  and  emphasizes  economy  of  high  load-factor. 

Oil  Fuel.  California  Petroleum  as  a  Fuel  Oil,  Thomas  J.  Royer.  Nat.  Engr.,  vol. 
22,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  525-533,  13  figs.,  and  (discussion)  pp.  533-534. 
Account  of  development;  study  of  use  in  steam-boiler  practice  ana  suggestions 
for  satisfactory  operation;  test  in  a  water-works  pumping  station.  Paper 
before  Nat.  Assn.  of  Stationary  Engrs. 

Pulverized  Coal.  First  Pulverized  Coal  Installation  in  Western  Canada,  n.  R. 
Collins.  Min.  &  Ens.  Rcc,  vol.  23,  nos.  17  and  18,  Sept.  30,  1918,  pp.  177- 
179.     Features  of  pulverizing  plant. 

Pulverized  Fuel,  E.  R.  Knowles.  Steam,  vol.  22,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918, 
pp.  128-133,  10  figs.  Temperatures  attainable;  disadvantages  of  pulverized 
coal  as  fuel:  requirements  for  successful  burning.     (Concluded.) 

Pulverized  Fuel  in  the  Oneida  Street  Plant  of  the  Milwaukee  Elec.  Ry.  <fe 
Light  Co.,  F.  Dornbrook.  Nat.  Engr.,  vol.  22,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  535-537, 
and  (discussion)  pp.  537-539.  Results  obtained  with  trial  installation. 
Paper  before  Nat.  Assn.  of  Stationary  Engrs. 

Pulverizing  Coal,  J.  Cunliffe.  Eng.  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13,  no.  10, 
Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  56-58.  Waste  resulting  from  burning  coal  in  lumps; 
preparation,  application  and  burning  of  pulverized  coal. 

Waste  Heat.  Waste  Heat  from  Steel  Furnaces,  Thomas  B.  Mackenzie.  Times 
Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.  1918,  p.  195.  Method  of  utilizing  waste  heat  from 
open-hearth  furnaces  in  generation  of  steam.  Paper  before  Iron  &  Steel 
Inst. 

HANDLING  OF  MATERIALS 

Coal.  Coal  Handling  Plant  of  Virginian  Railway,  E.  F.  Case.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  63, 
no.  21,  Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  731-735,  9  figs.  Account  of  extensive  additions 
to  this  railroad's  plant  at  Sewall's  Point,  Va. 

Excavation  Material.  Comparison  of  Excavation  Haulage  by  Motor  Trucks. 
Industrial  Railways  and  Teams.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  22,  Nov. 
28,  1918,  pp.  993-996.  1  fig.  Detailed  cost  accounts  on  construction  of 
Brooklyn  Army  Supply  Base  show  that  trucks  are  more  economical  than  teams 
and  less  economical  but  more  flexible  than  railways. 

Grain.  Car  Equipment  for  Loading  or  Unloading  Grain  (Installations  pour  le 
transport  des  grains  montees  sur  wagons).  G6nie  Civil,  vol.  73,  no.  14,  Oct. 
5,  1918,  pp.  261-263,  11  figs.     Two  systems;  by  air  pressure,  and  by  suction. 

Ore.  Large  Ore  Storage  in  a  Limited  Space,  F.  L.  Prentiss.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  22, 
Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  131 1-1313,  4  figs.  Double  bin  system  of  Iroquois  Iron  Co 
solves  material-handling  problems  and  results  in  short  haul  to  skip  cars. 

Sand.  Pneumatic  Car  Provides  Efficient  Method  of  Handling  Sand,  W.  L.  Whitlock. 
Elec.  Ry.  Jl.,  vol.  52,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  967-968.  5  figs.  By  use  of 
new  sand  car,  crew  of  regular  car  takes  care  of  sand  transportation  which 
formerly  required  services  of  three  additional  men. 

HEAT  TREATING 

Malleable  Cast  Iron.  Experiments  in  Annealing  Malleable  Cast-iron,  H.  E. 
Diller.  Foundry,  vol.  46,  no.  316,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  564-566,  4  figs.  Results  of 
several  laboratory  experiments  show  that  malleable  iron  can  be  annealed  in 
tunnel  furnace  in  48  hours  or  les.  From  paper  before  Am.  Foundrymen's 
Assn.,  Milwaukee,  Oct.  1918. 

Quenching  Steel.  Warping  of  Steel  bv  Repeated  Quenching,  J.  H.  Whiteley.  Iron 
Age,  vol.  102,  no.  21,  No^ .  21,  1918.  pp.  1256-1257,  6  figs.  How  the  metal 
contracts;  direction  of  its  flow;  interesting  features  revealed  by  microscope. 
From  paper  before  Iron  and  Steel  Inst.,  London,  Sept.  1918. 

HEATING  AND  VENTILATION 

Equipment.  Care  of  Heating  and  Ventilating  Equipment,  Harold  L.  Alt.  Power, 
vol.  48,  no.  21,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  736-738,  3  figs.  Down-draft  furnace. 
Also  in  Power,  vol.  48,  no.  23,  Dec.  3,  1918,  pp.  801-803,  5  figs. 

Factory  Heating.  Factory  Heating,  Charles  L.  Hubbard.  Steam,  vol.  22,  no.  5, 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  123-i27,  9  figs.  System  of  heating  with  hot  water  under  forced 
circulation.      (To  be  continued.) 

Some  Factory  Heating  Problems,  B.  C.  Moore.  Wood- Worker,  vol. 
37,  no.  9,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  26-27.  Considerations  of  the  economical  value  of 
keeping  a  factory  heated  night  and  day. 

Hot  Air  Furnace.  How  to  Improve  the  Hot-Air  Furnace,  Charles  Whiting  Baker. 
Department  of  Interior,  Bureau  of  Mines,  Tech.  Paper  208.  20  figs.  Recom- 
mends practice  of  adding  auxiliary  cold-air  duct  by  which  air  supply  to  furnace 
may  be  taken  from  inside  the  house,  instead  of  from  outdoors,  during  very 
cold  or  windy  weather. 

House  Heating.  Economical  Heating  of  Cottages  and  Small  Houses,  Frederick 
Grant.  Domestic  Eng.,  vol.  85,  no.  5,  Nov.  2,  1918,  pp.  160-162,  4  figs. 
Suggests  features  of  design  for  both  hot-water  and  steam-heating  systems. 

Office  Building  Heating.  Fuel  Economy  in  the  Singer  Building,  Norman  King 
Power,  vol.  48,  no.  20,  Nov.  12,  1918,  pp.  710-711.  Some  figures  on  ccsti  and 
economies. 

Vapor  Heating.  Modern  Practice  in  Vapor  Heating.  Heat.  &  Vent.  Mag.,  vcl. 
15,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  44-46,  5  fizs.     The  Moline  System.     Sixth  article. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


51 


Ventilation.  A  Discussion  cf  Ventilating  Practices,  Charles  A.  Mitke.  Coal 
Industry,  vol.1,  no.  10, Oct.  I918.pp.379-3S1.  Analysis  of  working  conditions 
as  affected  by  ventilation;  installation  of  mechanical  ventilation.  Paper 
before  Nat.  Safety  Congress. 

No  Quarrel  Necessary  Between  Natural  and  Mechanical  Ventilation 
Advocates.  Heat.  &  Vent.  Mag.,  vol.  15,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  37-40. 
Clear  and  well-defined  field  for  each  method  depending  upon  required  air 
conditions  with  given  type  of  occupancy  and  occupation.     From  reply  by 

E.  Vernon  Hill  to  newspaper  article. 

HOISTING  AND  CONVEYING 

Cranes.  Handling  Shipbuilding  Material  at  Atlanta  Shipyard.  Ens:.  News-Rec, 
vol.  81,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1020-1022,  8  figs.  Planned  for  direct  routing; 
three  craneways  in  fabricating  yard;  shape  shop  in  open;  turret  cranes  at 
shipbuilding  berths;  assembly  yard. 

Hoisting  and  Conveying  Machinery  (Des  appareils  dc  manutentiou  dans 
l'industrie  en  general),  F.  Seba.  Revue  Generale  de  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  nos. 
12  and  14,  Sept.  21,  and  Oct.  5,  1918,  pp.  423-433  and  493-504,  39  figs. 
Sept.  21:  construction  and  arrangement  of  bridge  cranes,  traversing  jib 
hoists,  ceiling  hoists  and  foundry  hoists.  Oct.  5,  trai  eling  cranes  with 
auxiliary  crab,  rollers,  rails,  gear  shafts,  drums,  cables  and  grab  hoists. 

Some  Heavy  Fitting-Out  Cranes — I.  Fixed  Cranes  at  Kearny  and  Hog 
Island  Yards.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  nos.  20  and  21,  Nov.  14  and  21, 
1918,  pp.  885-890,  6  figs.;  937-941,  6  figs.  100-ton  trolley  bridge  spanning 
slipway  supplemented  by  portal  cranes;  platform  derrick  of  unusual  capacity 
and  reach  uses  single-motor  hoisting  engine  at  Hell  Gate  arch-erection  plant. 
Nov.  21:  II.  Cantilever  and  Jib  Travelers  at  Newark  Bay  and  Bristol; 
double  cantilever  bridge  traveling  along  pier  commands  line  of  ships  on  cither 
side;  provision  for  extension;  friction  draft  gear  buffers;  tower  jib  crane  fitted 
with  special  safety  devices. 

Drums.     Drum  Shapes  as  Affecting  the  Mine  Hoist  Duty  Cycle  and  Motor  Ratine, 

F.  L.  Stone.  Proc.  Am.  Inst.  Elec.  Engrs.,  vol.  37,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  1203- 
1221,  22  figs.  Points  out  that  the  problem  of  drum  shape  consists  in  varying 
diameter  of  different  parts  of  winding  drum  so  that  load  may  be  accelerated 
and  retarded  at  beginning  and  end  of  its  travel  with  minimum  consumption 
of  power,  and  gives  numerical  examples  of  performance  of  various  drum 
shapes  under  assumed  conditions. 

Electbic  Hoisting  Machines.  Electric  Hoisting  Machines  (I.es  machines 
d'extraction  a  commande  eJectrique),  G.  Rouet,  Revue  Generale  de  l'Elec- 
tricite\  vol.  4,  no.  13,  Sept.  28,  1918,  pp.  451-457,  9  figs.  Comparison  between 
Leonard  and  three-phase  types. 

Ropes.  Ropes  for  Hoisting  Coal  from  Mines,  M.  W.  Reed.  Coal  Industry,  vol.  1, 
no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  388-391.  Discussion  concerning  strength,  elasticity, 
bending  stress,  starting,  stopping,  corrosion,  clips  and  sockets  for  hoisting 
ropes;  care  and  life  of  hoisting  ropes.     Paper    before  Nat.    Safety   Congress. 

HYDRAULIC  MACHINERY 

Flow  or  Water.  A  Proposed  Hvdraulic  Experiment,  Lord  Ravleigh.  Lond., 
Edinburgh  &  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  38,  no.  211,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  315-310, 
1  fig.  Observation  of  flow  of  liquid  between  two  cylinders  revolving  about 
their  axes  in  opposite  directions  for  the  purpose  of  testing  Fronde's  explanation 
regarding  phenomena  which  take  place  when  fluid  passing  along  uniform  pipe 
arrives  at  place  where  pipe  expands. 

Flow  of  Water  in  Wash  Water  Troughs  for  Rapid  Sand  Filters.  Eng. 
&  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  20,  Nov.  13,  1918,  pp.  161-462,  2  figs.  From 
description  in  Cornell  Civil  Engineer  of  experiments  made  by  Ernest  C. 
Fortier  and  Frank  V.  Fields  to  determine  surface  curves  for  flow  of  water  in 
wash  water  troughs  and  to  develop  formula  for  assistance  of  designers  of 
troughs. 

Flow  of  Water  Through  One-  and  One-Half-Inch  Pipe  and  Valves, 
Frederick  W.  Greve,  Jr.,  Purdue  Univ.,  Bui.  1,  Eng.  Experiment  Station, 
vol.  2,  no.  2,  July  1918,  21  pp.  16  figs.  Tables  and  formulae  for  determining 
head  losses  incurred  with  use  of  pipes  and  valves. 

Hydraulic  Experiments  with  Valves,  Orifices,  Hose,  Nozzles,  and  Orifice 
Buckets,  Arthur  N.  Talbot,  Fred  B.  Seely,  Virgil  R.  Fleming  and  Mehin 
L.  Enger.  Univ.  of  Illinois  Bui.,  vol.  15,  no.  37,  May  13,  1918,  Bui  105, 
80  pp.,  28  figs.  Loss  of  hydraulic  head  in  small  valves;  flow  of  water  through 
submerged  orifices;  fire  streams  from  small  hose  and  nozzles;  orifice  bucket 
for  measuring  water. 

Tides.  Power  from  the  Tides,  J.  O.  Boving.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  529,  Nov. 
1918,  pp.  232-233,  0  figs.  Design  of  turbines  which  author  thinks  will  render 
utilization  of  tidal  power  economically  feasible. 

Water  Hammer.  Causes  of  Shock  in  Hydraulic  Mains,  Alfred  Towler.  Machy. 
Market,  no.  942,  Nov.  22,  1918,  pp.  17-18.  Broad  consideration  of  cause 
and  effect  in  principle  of  violent  collision  as  determined  by  momentum. 
Paper  before  Leeds  Assn.  Engrs. 

Maxima  Excess  Pressures  Produced  by  Water  Hammer  (Etude  sur  les 
maxima  de  surpression  dans  les  ph6nomenes  de  coups  de  belier),  Maurice 
Gariel.  Revue  Ge*nerale  de  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  nos  11  and  12,  Sept.  21  and 
Oct.  5,  1918,  pp.  403-411.  6  figs.,  and  183.  490,  4  figs  Analysis  of  modern 
theory  of  water  hammer  leads  author  to  establish  that  Michaud's  formula  for 
maximum  excess  pressure  applies  to  great  majority  of  turbine  installations: 
that  Joukowski-Allievi's  formula  applies  to  conduits  of  uniform  dimensions 
when  opening  closes  in  less  than  2  /.,a  (where  /.  is  length  in  meters  and  a 
velocity  of  propagation  of  wave;  and  Sparre's  formula  in  cases  of  non-uniform 
conduits  and  extremely  rapid  shut-off.  Oct.  5:  Investigations  of  phenomena 
of  pressure  waves  developed  in  conduit  by  sudden  release  at  opening  and 
account  of  experimental  verification  of  theoretical  conclusions. 

Watebwheels.  Principles  of  Waterwheel  Design.  David  R.  Shearer.  Power, 
vol.  48,  no.  21,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  732-734,  5  figs.  Some  of  underlying  prin- 
ciples simply  illustrated,  referring  particularly  to  relation  between  velocity 
of  water  and  the  peripheral  velocity  of  wheel. 

INTERNAL  COMBUSTION  ENGINES 

Hbavt  Oil  Engines.  The  Diesel  Engine,  Its  Fuels  and  Uses,  Herbert  Haas. 
Automotive  Eng.,  vol.  3,  no.  9,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  4 1 8-424.     General  characteristics 


of  oil  engines;  three  general  types;  various  cycles  and  comparison  of  advan- 
tages of  each;  comparative  economies;  detail  of  construction.  (To  be  con- 
tinued.) Also  in  Jl.  Soc.  Automotive  Engrs.,  vol.  3,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp. 
299-308,  5  figs. 

The  Heavy  Oil  Engine,  Charles  E.  Lucke,  Int.  Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  11, 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  625-029  (Conclusion  of  article.) 

The  Semi-Diesel  Engine.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  529,  Nov.  1918, 
p.  245.     Characterisitics  and  design. 

The  Semi-Diesel  Oil  Engine,  James  Richardson.  Engineering,  vol. 
106,  no.  2756,  Oct.  25,  1918,  pp.  461^404,  12  figs.  Review  of  mny  types  of 
semi-Diesel  engines.     Paper  before  Diesel  Engine  Users'  Asso.  Oct.  24,  1918. 

High  Speed  Engine.  Modern  Types  of  Engines,  Harry  R.  Ricardo.  Machy.  Market, 
no.  941,  Nov.  15,  191S,  pp. 17-18.     Features  of  high-speed  engine  design  and 

f)oints  upon  which  designers  have  concentrated  their  attention.  Paper 
>efore  North-East  Coast  Instn.  of  Engrs.  &  Shipbuilders.  (To  be  continued.) 
Also  in  Int.  Mar.  Engr.,  vol.  23,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  650-651. 

Magnetos.  Operation  of  Internal-Combustion-Engine  Magnetos  (Sul Funzionamento 
dei  magneti  di  accensione  dei  motori  a  scoppio),  Emilio  Biffi.  l'EIectrotec- 
nica,  vol.  5,  nos.  22,  24  and  28,  Aug.  5  and  25,  Oct.  5,  1918,  pp.  302-306, 
326-332  and  386-392,  26  figs.  Aug.  5  and  25;  theory  of  the  magneto-generator. 
Oct.  5 :  theory  of  formation  of  spark  in  secondary  coil.     (To  be  continued.) 

Marine  Engines.-  Two  versus  Four-Cycle  Internal  Combustion  Marine  Engines. 
Giovanni  Chiesa.  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2757,  Nov.  1,  1918,  pp.  482J 
486,  6  figs.  Purpose  of  article  is  to  coordinate  arguments  which  have  been 
alleged  for  and  against  both  types  in  their  best  form  of  construction  and 
to  endeavor  to  draw  conclusion  after  careful  consideration  of  all  points  of 
question. 

Mixture.  Mixing  the  Mixture,  Robert  Miller.  Motor  Boat,  vol.  15,  no.  22,  Nov. 
25,  1918,  pp.  11-14,  6  figs.  Points  out  importance  of  securing  uniform  mixture 
in  cylinder  in  order  to  socure  chemical  combination  and  considers  the  problem 
of  direct  injection. 

Pistons.  Piston  Design,  Harry  R.  Ricardo.  Automobile  Engr.,  vol.  8,  no.  119 
Oct.  1918,  pp.  274-278,  12  figs.  Design  in  which  connection  between  ring- 
carrying  portion  of  piston  and  slipper  surface  is  severed,  so  that  heat  can  only 
be  conductd  to  slipper  surfaces  by  way  of  main  webs,  these  being  so  con- 
structed that  heat  from  crown  is  distributed  evenly  over  surface  of  slippers 
Also  in  Autocar,  vol.  41,  no.  1201,  Oct.  26,  1918,  pp.  409-410,  3  figs. 

LUBRICATION 

Cranes,  Electric.  Electric  Crane  Lubrication,  Geo.  R.  Rowland.  Lubrication, 
vol.  5,  no.  12,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  2-10,  10  figs.  Ring  oiling  system  which  consists 
of  oil  reservoir  and  brass  ring  attached  to  and  revolving  with  shaft. 

(  itting  Tools.  Cutting  lubricants  and  Cooling  Liquids.  Shipbuilding  &  Shipping 
Rec,  vol.  12,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  445-440.  Enumeration  of  factors 
upon  which  selection  of  suitable  cutting  lubricant  or  cooling  liquid  depends 
and  suggestions  in  regard  to  their  manipulation.  From  report  issued  by 
Advisory    Council    of    Department    of    Scientific    &    Indus.     Research. 

Economy.  Lubricant  Economy,  D.  Street.  Can.  Machy.,  vol.  20,  no.  22,  Nov.  28, 
1918,  p.  617.  Necessity  for  practicing  economy  and  suggestions  for  reducing 
waste. 

Steam  Cylinders.  Problems  of  Steam  Cylinder  Lubrication  (III),  W.  F.  Osborne. 
Blast  Furnace,  vol.  6,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  414-410.  Factors  affecting  opera- 
tion and  lubrication  of  compound  engines. 

MACHINE  ELEMENTS  AND  DESIGN 

Bearings.  Saving  Power  by  Efficient  Bearings,  F.  H.  Lenox.  Text'le  World  Jl., 
vol.  54,  no.  23,  Dec.  7,  1918,  pp.  91-95,  4  figs.  Equipment  method  and  results 
of  experiments  to  determine  power  required  to  overcome  friction  of  shaft 
bearings. 

Rolts  and  Screws.     S.  A.  E.  Standard  Screws  and  Bolts.  Jl.  Soc.  Automotive  Engrs., 
vol.  3,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  333-335,  1  fig.     Brief  account  of  development  of 
standards  and  comparison  of  standard  screw-thread  pitches  used  in  nve-inch- 
sj  stems  most  generally  adopted  in  American  and  British  practice, — B    W  S 
B.  S.  F.,  U.  S.  S.,  S.  A.  E.  Reg.,  S.  A.  E.  Fine. 

Crankshafts.  Problems  of  Crankshaft  Design,  Otto  M.  Burkhardt.  Aerial  Age, 
vol.  8,  no.  7,  Oct.  28,  1918,  pp.  370-379,  15  figs.  Mathematical  analysis  of 
three  groups  of  forces  necessary  to  induce  and  maintain  speeds  of  3000  r.p.m. 
or  more;  pressures  due  to  gaseous  mixture,  inertia  forces  and  centrifugal  forces. 
Paper  before  Eng.  Soc.  of  Buffalo. 

Gears,  The  Internal  Gear.  Pamphlet  published  by  Fellows  Gear  Shaper  Co.,  92 
pp.,  55  figs.  Popular  presentation  of  the  comparative  tooth  action  of  internal 
and  external  gear  teeth,  together  with  directions  for  cutting,  and  samples  of 
applications  . 

MACHINE  SHOP 

Tool  Making.  Tooling  Up  Single  Spindle  Automatics  aDd  Lathes.  Can.  Machy, 
vol.  20,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  530-537,  6  figs.  Operations  for  British  101 
fuse  body. 

Grinding.  Grinding;  Its  Utility  in  the  Modern  Shop,  D.  Street.  Can.  Machy., 
vol.  20,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  p.  623.  Convenience  of  substituting  grinding 
for  tooling  in  certain  machine  operations. 

Belting.  Belting  Speeds;  Saw  Speeds;  Bearing  Alloys,  G.  F.  Cosgove.  Wood- 
Worker,  vol.  37,  no.  9,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  28-29.  Account  of  experiments  made 
with  gang  ripping  machines  with  saws  located  above  stock  to  be  ripped, 
feed  being  by  means  of  a  grooved  traveling  bed  which  carries  the  stock  beneath 
saws. 


52 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Tool  Department. 


DnilL  Sharpening.  Central  Plant  for  Sharpening  Drill  Steels  Savc3  Money  in 
Quarrying.  Eng.  News-Kec  .,  vol.  81,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  929-930, 
3  figa.  Sharpening  shop  with  two  men  replaces  five  Bmithies;  steel  conveyor, 
oil-fired  furnaces  and  concrete  quenching  vat. 

Gages.  Making  Thread  Gages,  T.  H.  Fenner.  Can.  Machy.,  vo..  20,  no.  19,  Nov.  7, 
1918,  pp.  529-532,  7  figs.  Description  of  plant  and  methods  of  a  Canadian 
firm. 

Milling.  Continuous  Milling,  A.  Thomas.  Automobile  Engr.,  vol.  8,  no.  119, 
Oct.  1918,  pp.  296-298,  12  figs.     Notes  on  operation  of  Becker  machine. 

Operation.  Scientific  Organization  of  the  Machine  Shop  (Organisation  Scientifique 
de  1'usinage),  P.  Denis.  Genie  Civil,  vol.  73,  nos.  12,  13  and  14,  Sept.  21, 
28  and  Oct.  5,  1918,  pp.  227-230,  246-251  and  268-271,  23  figs.  Methodical 
execution  of  turning,  countersinking  and  drilling.  Sept.  21 :  selectin  of  most 
economical  cutting  speed  by  construction  of  individual  tool  curves  showing 
cutting  speed  against  volume  of  material  removed  by  tool  at  that  speed  before 
it  needs  resharpening.  Sept.  28:  further  study  of  tool  curves  and  their 
utilization  in  determining  the  most  effective  thermal  treatment  for  tools  used 
in  cutting  operations.  Oct.  5:  numerical  illustrations  and  resumS  of  conclu- 
sions reached. 

Punch  Press.  Safe  Punch  Press  Operation,  W.  W.  Roach.  Safety  Eng.,  vol.  36, 
no.  4,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  231-233.  Discusses  installation  and  use  of  mechanical 
guards,  introduction  of  safe  practices  and  education  of  press  operators.  From 
Proc.  Seventh  Annual  Safety  Congress. 

Square  Holes.  Generating  a  Square  Hole  with  a  Gear  Shaper  Cutter,  Douglas  T. 
Hamilton.     Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  949-950,  2  figs. 

partment.  Supervising  a  Large  Tool  Department,  C.  W.  Starker.  Indus. 
Management,  vol.  5G,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  481-486.  Step  toward  groat  it 
economy  in  tool  department.  Methods  developed  in  tool  department  to 
coordinate  requirements  and  minimize  tocl  expense. 

MACHINERY,  METAL  WORKING 

Boring  Bar.  Making  Boring  Bars  for  Big  Guns,  M.  E.  Hoag.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49, 
no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  987-988,  4  figs.  Describing  boring  of  hole  42  feet 
long  1  yi  inches  in  diameter. 

Grinder.  Heald  Cylinder  Grinder.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918, 
pp.  1053-1054,  2  figs.  Description  of  machine  built  by  Heald  Machine  Co., 
Worcester,  Mass.,  with  principal  dimensions. 

Lathe.  Amalgamated  Shell-Turning  Lathe.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  19,  Nov.  17 
1918,  p.  869,  1  fig.     Short  description  with  principal  dimensions. 

Slotting  Machine.  A  New  Slotting  Machine  of  the  Milling  Type,  J.  V.  Hunter. 
Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  21,  1918,  pp.  953-  56,  9  figs.  Description  with  prin- 
cipal data  of  new  machine  tool  brought  out  by  Racine  Tool  and  Machine  Co., 
Racine,   Wis. 

MACHINERY,  SPEUiAi, 

Clocks.  Studies  in  Clocks  and  Time- Keeping:  No.  1.  Theory  of  the  Maintenance 
of  Motion,  R.  A.  Sampson.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  of  Edinburgh,  vol.  38,  part  1 
and  2,  session  1917-1918,  pp.  75-114,  11  figs.,  and  169-128.  Practical  details 
of  three  clocks,  Riefler,  synchronome,  and  Cottingham;  theoretical  dis- 
cussions on  maintenance  of  motion,  air  resistance,  barometric  error,  escape- 
ment error,  temperature  compensation,  and  other  points  connected  with 
exact  timekeeping.     No.  2:  Tables  of  the  Circular  Equation. 

Evaporators.  Lillie  Multiple  Evaporator.  Steam,  vol.  22,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918, 
pp.  142-143,  3  figs.  Evapo  rator  in  which  liquid  is  spread  over  heating  surfaces 
in  thin  films. 

Hoisting  Jacks.  Hydraulic  Car  Lift  Gives  Increased  Output  to  Shops,  Homer 
MacNutt.  Elec.  Ry.  Jl.,  vol.  52,  no.  21,  Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  927-928,  4  figs 
Description  with  illustrations  of  hydraulic  hoisting  jack. 

Quarrying  Machines.  Labor-Saving  Methods  and  Machines  in  Limestone 
Quarrying.  Eng.  &  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  21,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  478-479. 
From  pamphlet  by  0li\  er  Bowles  issued  by  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Mines. 

Quenching  Machine.  A  Quenching  Machine  for  Hardening  Small  Drawing  Dies. 
Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1045-1016,  4  figs.  Description 
of  machine  de^  eloped  by  S.  A.  Potter  Tool  a  nd  Machine  Works,  70  East  130th 
St.,  New  York. 

Road  Finisher.  Road  Finisher  Produces  Denser  Concrete.  Cement  &  Eng.  News, 
vol.  30,  no.  1,  Nov.  1918,  p.  34,  2  figs.  Machine  which  subjects  mixture  to 
continuous  agitation  by  tamper. 

Scales.  Modern  150-Ton  Track  Scale  Now  in  Use,  Frank  C.  Perkins.  Can.  Machy., 
vol.  20,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  544-547,  9  figs.  Mechanism  of  design 
in  which  plate-steel  fulcrums  are  used. 

Screens,  Gravel.  Comparative  Analysis  of  Gravel  Screens,  Raymond  W.  Dull. 
Cement  &Eng.  News,  vol.30,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  21-23,  10  figs.  Considers 
gravity,  cylinder,  overhung  conical  and  inclined  conical  types. 

Tool-Setter.  Alignment-Tester  and  Microscopic  Tool-Setter.  Engineering,  vol. 
106,  no.  2754,  Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  398-399,  7  figs.  Description  of  an  instrument 
constructed  by  Cambridge  Scientific  Instrument  Company,  Limited 
Cambridge. 

MATERIALS  OF  CONSTRUCTION  AND  TESTING  OF  MATERIALS 

Asphalt.  Standardization  of  Required  Consistency  for  Asphalt,  J.  R.  Draney. 
Contract  Rec,  vol.  32,  no.  46,  Nov.  13,  1918,  p.  910,  Quotes  present  varia- 
tions and  suggests  possible  specifications. 


Koileh  Platk.  Materials  of  Steam  Boiler  Construction,  A.  J.  Dixon.  Boiler  Maker, 
vol.  18,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  317-319.  Action  of  carbon  in  boiler  plate; 
dangers  of  free  use  of  cast  iron;  laminar  structure  of  wrought  iron.  From 
Power. 

Cracks.  Prevention  of  Season  and  Corrosion  Cracks,  W.  B.  Price.  Am.  Machy., 
vol.  49,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  848-850,  7  figs.  Paper  before  Am.  Soc.  for 
Testing  Materials,  Atlantic  City,  June  1918. 

Monel  Metal.  Note  on  Monel  Metal,  John  Arnott.  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no. 
2756,  Oct.  25,  1918,  p.  451,  3  figs.  Composition,  microstructure,  strength  or 
rolled  materials,  effect  of  annealing,  strength  at  high  temperature,  use. 

Silica  Brick.  Silica  Brick  Tests.  Eng.  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov. 
15,  1918,  p.  62.  Brief  report  of  experiments  conducted  in  France  which 
revealed  that  notable  quantities  of  iron  oxide  do  not  sensibly  lower  fusing  point 
of  silica,  even  when  lime  is  present. 

MEASUREMENTS  AND  MEASURING  APPARATUS 

Depth  Gauge.  A  Micrometer  Depth  Gauge,  C.  H.  Copland.  Model  Engr.,  vol.  39, 
no.  914,  Oct.  31,  1918,  pp.  239-240,  6  figs.  General  arrangement  and  details 
of  gage  intended  for  use  on  munition  or  other  fine  work. 

Hardness.  The  Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers.  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no. 
2756,  Oct.  25,  1918,  pp.  469-472,  5  figs.  Discussion  of  three  papers  on  hardness 
testing,  "A  Law  Governing  the  Resistance  to  Penetration  of  Metals  When 
Tested  with  a  10-mm.  Steel  Ball;  and  a  New  Hardness  Scale  in  Energy  Units, 
by  Prof.  C.  A.  Edwards,  "  Tho  Value  of  the  Indentation  Method  in  the 
Determination  of  Hardness,"  by  H.  G.  C.  Batson,  and  "  The  Ludwick  Hard- 
ness Test,"  by  W.  C.  Unwin,  all  read  at  meeting  of  Inst.,  Oct.  1918. 

The  Ludwik  Hardness  Test,  W.  C.  Unwin.  Engineering,  vol.  106, 
no.  2756,  Oct.  25,  19 18,  p.  478.     Paper  before  Inst,  of  Mech.  Engrs.,  Oct.  19 18. 

The  Resistance  of  Metals  to  Penetration  Under  Impact,  C.  A.  Edwards, 
Engineering,  vol.  126,  no.  3276,  Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  314.  Abstract  of  paper 
before  Inst,  of  Mech.  Engrs.,  June  1918. 

Value  of  the  Indentation  Method  in  the  Determination  of  Hardness  • 
R.  G.  C.  Batson.  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2756,  Oct.  25,  1918,  pp.  475-477, 
6  figs.     Paper  before  Inst,  of  Mech.  Engrs.,  Oct.  1918. 

Heat- Measurement.  Heat- Measuring  Instruments,  C.  E.  Clewell.  Am.  Mach., 
vol.  49,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1021-1025,  12  figs.  Principal  types  of  pyro- 
meters; features  connected  with  their  use;  typical  uses;  cases  of  practical 
installations  of  pyrometers  illustrated. 

Indicators.  Indicator  Cord  Connections,  R.  T.  Strohm,  Southern  Engr.,  vol.  30, 
no.  4,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  4041,  7  figs.  Collection  of  methods  used  by  engineers 
to  connect  cord  to  reducing  motion. 

Minimeter.  The  Minimeter  for  Fine  Measuring,  Frank  C.  Perkins.  Can.  Machy., 
vol.  20,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  592-593,  5  figs.  Principle  and  forms  of 
Hirth  apparatus  for  measuring  threads,  balls,  cylindrical  parts  and  grooves, 
also  for  inside  measuring  of  various  diameters. 

Permeability.  Determination  of  Permeability  of  Balloon  Fabrics,  Junius  David 
Edwards.  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  no.  261,  Oct.  16,  1918,  pp.  358-364,  7  figs. 
Theory  of  process;  volume-loss  methods;  penetration  methods;  experimental 
apparatus;  effect  of  experimental  conditions  on  apparent  permeability;  operat- 
ing directions  and  calculations.    From  Aviation  &  Aeronautical  Eng. 

Variance.  Variance  of  Measuring  Instruments  and  Its  Relation  to  Accuracy  and 
Sensitivity,  Frederick  J.  Schlink.  Jl.  Franklin  Inst.,  vol.  186,  no.  6,  Dec. 
1918,  pp.  743-747.     Abstract  of  notes  from  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Standards. 

Viscosity.  On  the  Measurement  of  the  Viscosity  of  Liquids  (Sur  la  mesure  de  la 
viscosity  des  huiles),  C.  Chfineveau.  Journal  de  Physique,  vol.  7,  May- 
June  1917,  pp.  109-114,  1  fig.  Apparatus  for  measuring  absolute  viscosity 
by  application  of  Poiseuille's  law. 

MECHANICS 

Beams.  Curved  Beams,  James  J.  Guest.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  vol.  95,  no.  A665,  Sept. 
2,  1918,  pp.  1-21,  6  figs.  Determination  of  stresses  produced  by  bending 
moment  in  uniform  curved  beams  of  several  'special  sections;  method  of 
estimating  maximum  stress  applicable  to  sections  considered  and  approxi- 
mately to  any  other  section  not  having  extraordinary  features. 

The  Buckling  of  Deep  Beams,  J.  Prescott.  Lond.,  Edinburgh  &  Dublin 
Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  36,  no.  214,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  297-314,  7  figs.  Attempt  to 
develop  mathematical  theory  of  side  buckling  of  beam  having  a  depth  much 
greater  than  its  breadth  by  assuming  buckling  has  actually  occurred  and 
finding  value  of  couples  at  end  which  will  maintain  buckled  state  of  beam  . . 

Elasticity.  Elastic  Solids  Under  Body  Forces,  D.  N.  Mallik.  Lond  ,  Edinburgh 
&  Dublin  Phil.  Mag.,  vol.  36,  no.  214,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  321-326.  Derives  from 
equation  of  equilibrium  of  isotropic  solid  under  body  forces  mathematical 
expression  for  its  displacement. 

Theory  of  Elastic  Phenomena  Taking  Place  in  Punching  and  Drawing 
of  Plastic  Blocks  (Theorie  du  poinconnage  et  de  l'6coulement  des  blocs  plas- 
tiques;  phase  felastique  de  ces  phenomenes),  J.  Boussmesq.  Comptes  rendus 
des  seances  de  l'Academie  des  Sciences,  vol.  167,  no.  15,  Oct.  7,  1918,  pp.  505- 
510.  Studies  general  case  of  cylindrical  block.  Supplement  to  four  previous 
communications  (Comptes  rendus,  vol.  167,  July  29,  Aug.  5,  12,  19,  pp. 
186,  221,  253,  285)  on  the  verification  of  Trosca's  formula?. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


53 


£p«ings.  A  Now  Theory  of  Plate  Springs.  David  Landau  and  Percy  H.  Parr.  Jl. 
Franklin  Inst.,  vol.  186,  no.  6,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  699-721,  8  figs.  Mathematical 
study  of  effect  of  tapering  ends  of  leaves  on  strength  of  spring.  Continued 
from  vol.  185,  April  1918,  p.  481.     (To  be  continued.) 

Tubes.  Contribution  to  Our  Knowledge  on  Calculation  of  Stresses  in  Tubes  (Bidrag 
till  Kiinnedom  om  tubers  berakning).  Folke  L:son  Grange.  Teknisk  Tid- 
skrift,  Vag — och  Vatten-Byggnadskonsl,  year  48,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp. 
145-147,  4  figs. 

MOTOR  CAR  ENGINEERING 

Design.  Aeronautical  Experience  Will  Profoundly  Affect  Motor  Car  Practice,  A.  A. 
Remington.  Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39,  no.  18,  Oct.  31,  1918,  p.  776.  Empha- 
sizes necessity  for  greater  standardization  and  more  research  work.  Presi- 
dential address  before  British  Instn.  Automobile  Engrs. 

Post- War  Chassis.  Automobile  Engr.,  vol.  8,  no.  119,  Oct.  1918,  pp. 
279-280.  Possible  effects  of  aircraft  engine  experience  and  other  factors 
bearing  upon  design.     (To  be  continued.) 

Engines  Gasoline.  The  "  American",  Sleeve- Valve  Motor.  Auto,  vol.  23,  no.  44, 
Nov.  1,  1918,  pp.  820-822,  6  figs.  How  sleeves  are  operated;  suggestion  to 
overcome  tendency  not  to  get  rid  of  exhaust,  by  offsetting  forward  sleeve 
exhaust  port  from  its  present  direct  opposition  to  inlet  and  narrowing  and 
deepening  both  it  and  others  corresponding  in  cylinder  wall  and  in  head. 

Engines,  Kerosene.  Beaver  Kerosene  Tractor  Engines.  Automotive  Industries, 
vol.  39,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  839  and  862.  2  figs.  Horsepower  and 
torque  curves  of  $X  *  6-in.  engine  and  record  of  5-hr.  endurance  test  on  full- 
open  throttle  at  900  r.p.m. 

Fuel  Consumption.  Tests  for  Reducing  Fuel  Consumption  on  Motor  Vehicles 
(Forsog  paa  Besparelse  af  Braendselsolie  ved  Automobilkorsel) ,  Paul  Bergsoe. 
Ingenioren,  year  27,  no.  85,  Oct.  23,  1918,  pp.  557-558. 

Gas  Fuel.     Coal  Gas  for  Motor  Vehicles.     Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.,  1918, 

£.  187.     Modifications  for  running  under  compressed  charges  introduced  by 
ondon  General  Omnibus  Co. 

Kerosene  Burning  (see  Engines,  Kerosene).  Kerosene  Vaporization,  L.  E. 
French.  Automotive  Industries,  vol.  39,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  p.  845, 
2  figs.  Apparatus  embodying  tube  and  hot-spot  systems  of  vaporizing 
heavy  fuel  for  internal-combustion  engines,  the  two  effects  being  automatically 
balanced. 

The  Bellem-Bregeras  Kerosene  Atomizer,  Auto,  vol.  23,  no.  45,  Nov.  8 
1918,  p.  845,  2  figs.     Theoretical  value  and  practical  performance  results. 

Lubrication.  Lubrication  and  Fuel  Tests,  P.  J.  Dasey.  Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39, 
no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  875-877,  4  figs.  Deals  with  tests  made  on  a 
Buda  tractor-type  engine.  Devorik's  new  synthetic  gasoline.  Paper 
before  section  of  Soc.  Automotive  Engrs. 

Single-Feed  System  Oils  Car  from  Seat.  Automotive  Ind.,  vol.  39,  no.  17, 
Oct.  24,  1918,  p.  719  Multiple-plunger  hand  pump  and  reservoir  constructed 
to  supply  oil  under  pressure  to  all  points  on  chassis. 

Steam  Vehicles.  Solid  Fuels  for  Steam  Vehicles.  Motor  Traction,  vol.  27,  no.  709, 
Oct.  2,  1918,  pp.  243-244.  Review  of  tests  conducted  by  coal  controller  to 
prove  that  other  fuels  than  Welsh  coal  could  be  used. 

Tractors.  Heider  Friction  Drive  Tractor.  Automotive  Industries,  vol.  39,  no.  20, 
Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  831-832,  4  figs.  FrictioD  drive  which  enables  a  con- 
siderable number  of  tractor  speeds  and  belt  speeds  to  be  obtained  without  use 
of  shifting  gears. 

Wheels.  Front  Wheel  Wobble,  Walter  Boyle.  Motor  Traction,  vol.  27,  no.  712, 
Oct.  23,  1918,  pp.  305-306,  2  figs.  Sketch  of  method  to  give  trailing  effort 
to  front  wheels  by  tilting  steering  heads. 

PIPE 

Tile.  Tile  Pipe  Versus  Iron  Pipe  for  Drains,  Osborne  Smith.  Contract  Rec,  vol. 
32,  no.  44,  Oct.  30,  1819,  p.  873.  Brief  account  of  author's  experience  and 
suggestions  in  regard  to  jointing. 

POWER  GENERATION 

Canada.  Utilizing  Canada's  Water  Powers,  J.  B.  Challies.  Can.  Mfr.,  vol.  38, 
no.  8,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  25-27.  Future  possibilities  and  requirements  for  their 
realization.     From  paper  before  Can.  Soc.  Civil  Engrs. 

POWER  PLANTS 

Boiler  Inspection.  Ontario  Boiler  Inspection  Office.  Power,  vol.  48,  no.  20, 
Nov.  12,  1918,  pp.  698-699,  13  figs.  Examples  of  dangerous  conditions  found 
in  boilers  described  and  illustrated. 

Boiler  Operation.  Boiler  Room  Efficiency,  A.  H.  Blackburn.  Power  Plant  Eng., 
vol.  22,  no.  22,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  919-920.  Analysis  of  fuel;  losses  in  boiler 
room;  instruments;  coal  handling.  Abstract  of  paper  before  Annual  Con- 
vention of  Smoke  Prevention  Assn. 

Economic  Operation  of  Steam  Turbo-Electric  Stations,  C.  T.  Hirshfeld 
and  C.  L.  Karr.  Department  of  Interior,  Bureau  of  Mines,  Tech.  Paper 
204,  29  pp.,  5  figs.  Analysis  of  methods  used  in  boiler  from  for  producing 
steam  required  and  distributing  load  between  main  units  available.  Dis- 
cussion of  economic  source  for  auxiliary  power  and  conclusion  that  auxiliary 
power  in  excess  of  that  obtainable  with  exhaust  steam  absorption  can  be 
procured  from  main  generators  in  electrical  form  at  lower  thermal  cost 
than  in  any  other  way. 

Economical  Working  of  Boiler  Plant,  P.  D.  Kirkman.  Machy.  Market 
no.  942,  Nov.  22,  1918,  p.  18.  List  of  modern  efficiency  apparatus  and  of 
items  to  be  studied  in  connection  with  waste  and  efficiency.  Address  to 
Manchester  Branch  of  British  Assn.  of  Textile  Mgrs. 


Economy  in  Boiler  Operation,  Thomas  M.  Gray.  Southern  Engr., 
vol.  30,  no.  4,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  42-43,  1  fig.  Ad\antages  and  disadvantagi , 
of  high  furnace  temperatures;  conditions  produced  by  forcing  boilers  consider- 
ably beyond  their  rating;  sampling  and  analyzing  of  flue  gases. 

Boiler  Settings.  Boiler  Setting  Radiation  and  Air  Leakage,  E.  S.  Hight.  EIoc 
World,  vol.  72,  no.  21,  Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  974-975,  1  fig.  Results  of  experi- 
ments to  determine  best  method  of  covering  boiler  settings  to  bring  about, 
reduction  in  radiation  and  escape  of  air;  type  of  covering  which  saves  $1000 
per  500-hp.  battery  per  year. 

Central  Stations.  A  Kilowatt  Hour  and  the  Coal  Required  to  Produce  It,  B.  H. 
Blaisdell.  Elec.  Eng.,  vol.  52,  no.  2,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  26-28.  Waste  inherent 
in  piesent  system  of  generating  power  and  remarks  on  some  of  the  losses  due 
to  imperfect  manipulation.  Paper  before  Manila  Section  of  Nat.  Elec. 
Light  Assn. 

Increasing  the  Economy  of  Central  Station  Operation,  J.  W.  Andree. 
Elec.  World,  vol.  72,  no.  19,  Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  881-882.  Overhauling  water 
conduits  and  prime  movers;  burning  natural  gas  to  save  fuel  oil;  other  proved 
methods. 

Coke  Oven  Plants.  Power  Plants  at  By-Product  Coke-Ovens,  F.  E.  Harris. 
Jr.  &  CI.  Trds.  Rev.,  vol.  96,  no.  26117,  April  26,  1918,  pp.  450-452,  2  figs. 
Discusses  requirements  and  how  to  obtain  satisfactory  results. 

Condensers.  Condensers  and  Condenser  Engineering  Practice,  D.  D.  Pendleton. 
Power,  vol.  48,  no.  20  and  21,  Nov.  12  and  19,  1918,  pp.  720-722  and  756-757. 
Abstract  of  paper  presented  at  twelfth  annual  convention  of  Assn.  of  Iron 
and  Steel  Elec.  En  .,  Baltimore,  Sept.  1918. 

Cost.  Improving  Factory  Steam  Plants  (V),  H.  A.  Wilcox.  Power  Plant  Eng. 
vol.  22,  no.  22,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  915-918,  2  figs.  Test  to  determine  proper 
division  of  costs;  schedule  of  operation  for  power  department. 

Economizers.  Exact  Data  on  the  Running  of  Steam  Boiler  Plants,  D.  Brownlie. 
Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2757,  Nov.  1,  1918,  pp.'  481-482.  Economizers. 
First  article. 

Efficiency.  Steam  Plant  Efficiency.  Coal  Trade  Jl.,  year  50,  no.  49,  Dec.  4,  1918 
pp.  1433-1434.  Suggestions  addressed  operating  officers,  superintendents, 
chief  engineers,  motive  power  department  officials  and  men  in  charge  of 
stationary  power,  heating  and  pumping  plants  by  U.  S.  Railroad  Adminis- 
tration. 

Exhaust  Steam.  Maintenance  of  a  Proper  Heat  Balance,  R.  N.  Ehrhart.  Power, 
vol.  48,  no.  20,  Nov.  12,  1918,  pp.  692-694,  4  figs.  Describing  hand  and 
automatic  control  of  exhaust  steam  from  auxiliaries  so  that  quantity  of 
exhaust  steam  available  for  feed  heating  may  at  all  times  bo  proportioned  to. 
load  on  main  units,  thus  preventing  waste  of  exhaust  at  light  loads. 

High  Pressure  Steam.  The  Use  of  High-Pressure  and  High-Temperature  Steam 
in  Large  Power  Stations,  J.  H.  Shaw.  Inst.  E.  E.,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  1-10 
5  figs.  From  the  point  of  view  of  the  engineer  interested  in  the  generation 
of  electricity.     Also  in  Machy.  Market,  no.  942,  Nov.  22,  1918,  pp.  19-20. 

Individual  Plants.  New  General  Electric  Steam  Turbine  Shop,  F.  L.  Prentiss. 
Iron  Ag  ,  vol.  102,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  1195-1199,  6  figs.  Construction 
and  other  features  in  large  plant  designed  for  heavy  machine  work;  production 
methods  followed. 

Plant  Arrangement  and  Cost  of  Construction.  Elec.  World,  vol.  72, 
no.  19,  Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  888-890,  3  figs.  Features  of  latest  station  of  Turners 
Falls  Power  &  Electric  Co.,  may -become  one  of  most  important  steam 
plants  in  New  England.     (Second  article.) 

Power  Industry.  Conditions  in  the  Power  Industry,  Ludwig  W.  Schmidt.  Power 
vol.  48,  no.  23,  Dec.  3,  1918,  pp.  798-800.  Digest  of  reports  of  U.  S.  consuls 
on  power  situation  in  various  parts  of  world  and  influence  of  war  upon  this 
industry. 

The  Power  Plant  Problem  in  South  China,  Harold  B.  Wilson.  Power, 
vol.  48,  no.  21,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  747-748.  Only  pioneer  work  has  been  done 
and  there  is  opportunity  for  America  in  this  field. 

Scale.  Heat  Loss  Due  to  Scale.  Can.  Mfr.,  vol.  38,  no.  8,  Aug.  1918,  p.  31,  1  fig 
Chart  showing  approximate  annual  loss  with  coal  at  different  prices. 

Screens,  Water.  Screening  Condensing  Water  Efficiently  and  Economically,  Henry 
J.  Edsall.  Steam,  vol.  22,  no.  5,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  133-137,  7  figs.  Describds 
traveling  screens  with  automatic  cleaning  features. 

Stack  Losses.  Steam  Plant  Efficiency,  Henry  Kreisinger.  Coal  Trade  Jl.,  year 
50,  no.  47,  Nov.  20,  1918,  pp.  1392-1393.  Causes  of  high  ash  loss;  methods  of 
determining  stack  losses;  causes  of  large  excess  of  air  and  remedy.  (To  be 
concluded.) 

Temperature  Regulation.  Automatic  Temperature  Regulation  as  a  Fuel  Con- 
servation Measure.  Heat.  &  Vent.  Mag.,  vol.  15,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp. 
40-43,  Advance  report  of  a  Committee  on  Automatic  Heat  Control,  as 
furnished  to  Fuel  Administration.  For  presentation  at  annual  meeting  of 
Am.  Soc.  of  Heating  and  Vent.  Engrs.,  New  York,  Jan.  1918. 

Water  Softening.  Home- Made  Water  Softening  Plant,  H.  D.  Odell.  Power,  vol. 
48,  no.  21,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  728-731,  3  figs  Description  of  home-made 
water-softening  plant  and  experiences  with  it. 

Wire  Making  Plants.  Power  Generation  for  Wire  Making.  Power  Plant  Eng., 
vol.  22,  no.  22,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  907-914,  15  figs.  Description  of  planti 
of  John  A.  Roebling  Sons  Co.,  Trenton,  N.  J. 


54 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


POWER  TRANSMISSION 

Gbars.  Savins  Coal  at  the  Gear  and  Wheel  Tread,  C.  W.  Squier.  Elec.  Rv.  JI., 
vol.  52,  no.  20,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  876-878,  7  figs.  Discussion  of  losses  in 
gearing;  showing  how  correct  gear  ratio  with  low  armature  speed  will  save 
power;  comparing  goarless  and  geared  motors  and  two  and  four  motor 
equipments. 

PRODUCER  GAS 

Machine  Shop  for  Gas  Producer  Work.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  23, 
Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1373-1378,  14  figs.  Features  of  new  plant  of  Smith  Gas 
Engineering  Co.,   Dayton,   Ohio.     Producer  operation  for  poewr  purposes. 

REFRIGERATION 

Ammonia  Compression.  Improving  a  Refrigerating  Plant,  E.  W.  Miller. 
Refrigerating  World,  vol.  53,  no.  9,  Sept.  1918,  pp.  25-26,  1  fig.  Account  to 
work  done  in  installation  consisting  of  a  50-ton  horizontal  double-acting 
compressor,  a  150-up.  combination  fire-  and  water-tube  boiler,  pumps  and 
a  50-kw.  generating  unit. 

The  Ammonia  Compression  Refrigerating  System  (XXII),  W.  S.  Doan. 
Refrigerating  World,  vol.  53,  no.  9  and  10,  Sept.  and  Oct.  1918,  pp.  31-32. 
3  figs.  Troubles  likely  to  develop  in  piston-rod  stuffing  box  and  manner  ol 
overcoming  them. 

Ammonia  Leakage.  Finding  "  Lost "  Ammonia  in  Refrigerating  Plants,  E.  W. 
Miller.  Power,  vol.  48,  no.  21,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  734-735.  Common  causes 
for  leakage  of  ammonia. 

Ice  Plants.  Ice  Plant  Troubles,  E.  W.  Miller.  Southern  Engr.,  vol.  30,  no.  4,  Dec. 
1918,  pp.  48-50.  Outline  of  conditions  in  actual  case  and  suggestions  on 
economical  operation. 

Operation.  Making  a  Neglected  Refrigerating  Plant  Give  Capacity,  E.  W.  Miller. 
Power,  vol.  48,  no.  23,  Dec.  3,  1918,  pp.  810-811,  1  fig.  What  was  done  to 
make  comparatively  new  plant  give  rated  capacity. 

Small  Machine.  Small  Refrigerating  Machines,  John  E.  Starr.  Refrigerating 
World,  vol.  53,  no.  9,  Sept.  1918,  pp.  11-12.  Difficulties  presented  by  small 
machines  in  addition  to  the  difficulties  existing  in  all  machines. 

RESEARCH 

The  National  Engineering  Societies  and  the  National  Research  Council, 
Geo.  Ellery  Hale,  Proc.  Am.  Inst.  Elec.  Engrs.,  vol.  37,  no.  10,  Oct.  191s, 
pp.  1223-1236.  War  duties;  present  organization  of  research  information 
service;  international  cooperation  in  research. 

STANDARDS  AND  STANDARDIZATION 

Metric  System.  The  Metric  System,  Harry  Allcock.  Surveyor,  vol.  54,  no.  1399, 
Nov.  8,  1918,  p.  227.  Criticism  of  arguments  presented  by  Committee  on 
Commercial  and  Industrial  Policy  After  the  War  in  their  report  against 
early  introduction  of  metric  system. 

Use  of  the  Metric  System  in  the  United  States.  Sci.,  vol.  48,  no.  1248, 
Nov.  29,  1918,  pp.  540-541.  Resolution  adopted  by  United  States  Section 
of  International  High  Commission  regarding  use  of  metric  system  in  U.  S. 
in  order  to  foster  Pan-American  commercial  relations. 

Screw  Threads.  Inaugural  Presidential  Address  to  the  Manchester  Association 
of  Engineers.  Steamship,  vol.  20,  no.  353,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  112-115.  Con- 
sideration of  various  aspects  of  problem  of  standardizing  screw  threads  and 
other  industrial  products. 

STEAM  ENGINEERING 

Boilers.     Safe  Working  Pressure  for  Steam  Boilers,  H.  F.  Gauss.     Power,  vol.  48, 
no.  22,  Nov.  26,  1918,  pp.  772-774.     Simple  treatment  dealing  with  efficiency 
■  of  riveted-joints,  bursting  and  safe  working  pressures  for  boilers,  and  per- 
missible pressure  on  stayed  surfaces. 

Exhaust  Steam.  Commercial  Value  of  Exhaust  Steam,  Frederick  C.  Ruck.  Nat. 
Engr.,  vol.  22,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  498-507.  Data  from  actual  observations 
and  practical  experience  covering  a  period  of  several  years.  Paper  before 
Nat.  Assn.  of  Stationary  Engrs. 

Turbine  Gives  Additional  Line  Shaft  Power.  Blast  Furnace,  vol.  6, 
no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  430-432,  1  fig.  Possiblities  for  expansion  by  use  of 
exhaust  steam  in  low-pressure  turbines;  efficiency  of  reduction  gears. 

Straight-Flow  Engines.  Details  of  Construction  of  Straight-Flow  Steam  Engines 
(Constructie-details  van  gelykstroom-stoommachines),  D.  A.  De  Fremery 
De  Ingenieur,  year  33,  no.  42,  Oct.  19,  1918,  pp.  807-817,  23  figs. 

Turbines.  Avoiding  Distortion  in  Turbine  Operation,  Webster  Tallmadge.  Power, 
vol.  48,  no.  22,  Nov.  26,  1918,  pp.  762-765,  8  figs.  Explaining  some  of 
careless  treatments  afforded  steam  turbines  through  ignorance  and  thought- 
lessness and  how  to  avoid  them. 

Care  in  the  Operation  of  Small  Turbines,  J.  A.  MacMurchy.  Power, 
vol.  48,  no.  21,  Nov.  19,  1918,  pp.  744-745.  Parts  of  small  steam  turbine 
which  should  receive  particular  attention. 

The  Steam  Turbine  (IX).  Southern  Engr.,  vol.  30,  no.  4,  Dec.  1918, 
pp.  52-53,  3  figs.  Installation,  operation  and  maintenance  of  Terry  steam 
turbine.     (To  be  continued.) 

THERMODYNAMICS 

Heat  Transmission  Tables.  New  Heat  Transmission  Tables  (II),  William  R. 
Jones.  Heat.  &  Vent.  Mag.,  vol.  15,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  24-29.  Compila- 
tion of  factors  as  given  by  leading  authorities  covering  latest  types  of  con- 
struction. 


Specific  Heats.  The  General  Character  of  Specific  Heats  at  High  Temperatures. 
Walter  P.  White.  Proc.  Nat.  Academy  of  Sci.,  vol.  4,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918, 
pp.  343-346.  Experimental  determination  of  specific  heats  of  three  forms  of 
silica  and  two  silicates  for  temperatures  up  to  1300. 

WELDING 

Electric  Welding.  A  New  Type  of  Portable  Arc  Welder.  Eng.  &  Cement  World, 
vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  p.  64,  2  figs.  Arrangement  consisting  of 
Lincoln  150-ampere  arc-welding  generator  direct-connected  to  Wington 
G.  L.  5  gasoline  engine  and  intended  for  mounting  on  automobile  truck. 

Boiler  and  Other  Repairs  by  Electric  Welding.  Can.  Machy.,  vol.  20, 
no.  21,  Nov.  21,  1918,  pp.  596-599,  4  figs.  Development  of  art  and  con- 
ditions necessary  to  insure  satisfactory  results.  Paper  before  Inst,  of  Marine 
Engrs. 

Electric  Arc  Welding,  Robert  E.  Kinkead,  Power,  vol.  48,  no.  22,  Nov. 
26,  1918,  pp.  791-792.  General  descriptive  article.  Paper  before  Cleveland 
Eng.   Soc. 

Electric  Welding — A  New  Industry,  II.  A.  Horner.  Proc.  Am.  Inst. 
Elec.  Engrs.,  vol.  37,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  1185-1195,  29  figs.  Brief  review 
of  uses  of  electric  spot  and  arc  welding  in  the  United  States  prior  to  formation 
of  Electric  Welding  Committee  of  Emergency  Fleet  Corporation;  develop- 
ments in  apparatus  in  last  six -months,  activities  of  Welding  Committee  in 
applying  electric  welding  process  to  shipbuilding  industry. 

Electric  Welding  for  Shipbuilding  Purposes,  W.  S.  Abell.  Shipbuilding 
<fe  Shipping  Rec,  vol.  12,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  471-474.  Summary  of 
investigations  undertaken  and  of  development  of  industry.  Paper  before 
North-East  Coast  Insti.  Engrs.  &  Shipbuilders. 

Electric  Welding  for  Ships.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  529,  Nov.  1918, 
p.  239.  Results  of  tests  in  regard  to  strength,  elasticity,  alternating  stress 
and  other  factors  affecting  reliability  of  welded  joints. 

Electric  Welding  Nomenclature  and  Symbols.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  63,  no. 
20,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  702-707,  34  figs.  Scheme  developed  for  Emergency 
fleet  Corporation  to  indicate  types  of  welds  in  ship  construction. 

Electric  Welding  on  the  Rock  Island  Lines,  E.  Wanamaker.  Boiler 
Maker,  vol.  18,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  308-310.  Gives  actual  results  which 
show  reduction  in  maintenance  cost.     Before  Western  Ry.  Club. 

Inspection  of  Steel  Arc  Welds,  O.  S.  Escholtz.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no. 
23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1390-1391,  2  figs.  Factors  determining  their  character; 
penetration  and  electrical  tests;  analysis  of  welds  and  their  heat  treatment. 

Nomenclature  for  Electric  Welding,  H.  G.  Knox.  Engineering,  vol. 
106,-no.  2758,  Nov.  8,  1918,  pp.  522-526,  27  figs.  From  paper  before  Engrs.' 
Club  of  Philadelphia,  June  26,  1918 

The  Welding  of  Steel,  B.  K.  Smith.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  23,  Dec.  5, 
1918,  pp.  1025-1026.  From  paper  before  Northwestern  Welder's  Assn., 
Minneapolis,  Oct.  1918. 

Heat  Treatment.  Treatment  of  Metals  After  Welding.  Can.  Mfr.,  vol.  38,  no.  8, 
Aug.  1918,  pp.  29-30.  Practical  guide  as  to  correct  temperature  to  which 
metal  should  be  heated  and  order  of  procedure.  Prepared  by  l'Air  Liquide 
Society,  Toronto. 

Oxyacetylene  Welding.  Defective  Oxy-Acetylene  Welds,  D.  Richardson.  Flight, 
vol.  10,  no.  42,  Oct.  17,  1918,  pp.  1175-1176.  Brief  considerations  on  six 
causes  of  defective  welds;  impure  acetylene,  irregular  delivery  of  gases, 
faulty  manipulation  of  blowpipe,  faulty  filling  materials,  faulty  preparation 
and  adjustment,  and  faulty  after  treatment  of  welds.  Paper  before  British 
Acetylene  Assn. 

Oxy-Acetylene  Pipe  Welding  and  Cutting.  Gas  Age,  vol.  42,  no.  11, 
Dec.  2,  1918,  pp.  471-474,  7  figs.  Resume  of  standard  practice.  (To  be 
continued.) 

The  Oxy-Acetylene  Flame  and  Blowpipe  Efficiency,  Arthur  Stephenson. 
Acetylene  &  Welding  Jl.,  vol.  15,  no.  181,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  174-179,  2  figs. 
Volumes  of  air,  oxygen  and  nitrogen  required  in  flame;  factor  governing 
heating  value  per  unit  volume  consumed;  conditions  which  limit  tempera- 
ture of  flame.     (To  be  continued.) 

The  Steel  Ship  and  Oxy-Acetylene  Welding,  J.  F.  Springer.  Inst. 
Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  12,  Dee.  1918,  pp.  699-701.  Behavior  of  steel  when 
heated.     Restorative   measures. 

VARIA 

\iinement  Charts.  Construction  of  Atinement  Charts,  Ralph  E.  Turner.  Power 
Plant,  Eng.,  vol.  22,  no.  23,  Dec.  1,  1918,  pp.  956-961,  7  figs.  Working 
formulas  of  three  variables  into  simple  alinement  charts. 

China.  China  a  Market  for  the  American  Machine  Tool,  L.  W.Schmidt.  Am.  Mach., 
vol.  49,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  893-896.  Electric  power  and  industrial 
development;  possibilities  for  American  trade;  difficulties  to  overcome. 

Engineers'  Act  on  Status  of.  Draft  of  Proposed  Act  for  Engineers.  Jl.  Eng. 
Inst.  Can.,  vol.  1,  no.  7,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  331-332.  Wording  of  Act  proposed  in 
province  of  Saskatchewan  defining  status  of  engineer. 

MECHANICAL  PROCESSES 

Boiler.  How  to  Design  and  Lay  Out  a  Boiler  (1),  Win.  C.  Strott.  Boiler  Maker, 
vol.  18,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  311-313,  4  figs.  Formula  for  safe  working 
pressure;  maximum  ultimate  tensile  strength  for  steel;  factors  of  safety. 
(To  be  continued.) 

Chains,  Cast  Steel.  Manufacturing  a  Shorthand  Machine,  M.  E.  Hoag.  Am. 
Mach.,  vol.  49,  nos.  19,  20  and  21,  Nov.  7,  14  and  21,  1918,  pp.  853-854, 
8  figs.,  902-904,  8  figs,  and  946-947,  8  figs.  Describing  mechanical  features 
of  machine,  some  tools  and  dies.     (First  article.) 

Rapid  Development  of  Electric  Cast  Steel  Anchor  Chain  Industry, 
W.  L.  Merrill.  Int.  Mar.  Eng.,  vol.  23,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp  630-634.  8 
figs.  Electric  welding  versus  hand  welding;  tests  and  results.  Abstract  of 
article  in  Gen.  Elec.  Rev. 

Handles.  The  Uses  of  Wood  (VII),  Hu  Haxwell.  Am.  Forestry,  vol.  24,  no.  299 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  679-687,  15  trigs.     Woods  used  in  manufacture  of  handle*. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


55 


Logging.  Filling  the  Allies'  Rush  Order  for  Airplane  Spruce,  Nathan  A.  Bowers. 
Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81.  no.  23,  Deo.  5,  1918.  pp.  1023-1031,  11  figs.  Best 
talent  of  country  assembled  to  develop  methods  new  to  logging  and  sawmill 
practice;   13  railroads  built  and  100,000  workers  coordinated. 

Pliers.  Manufacturing  Drop-Forged  Pliers,  Ellsworth  Sheldon.  Am.  Mach.,  vol. 
49,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  889-893,  14  figs.  Describing  operations  in- 
volved in  manufacture  of  drop-forged  pliers. 

Quarrying.  Quarry  Economics,  Oliver  Bowles.  Eng.  &  Cement  World,  vol.  13, 
no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  49-50.  Labor  requirements  of  various  drills;  waste 
of  labor  through  inefficient  blasting;  effect  of  physical  character  of  rock. 

Rolling  Mills.  Blooming  Mill  Now  Rolliug  Plata3.  Iron  Trade  Rev.,  vol.  G3, 
no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1285-1288,  4  figs.  Transformation  at  Baldt  Works, 
New  Castle,  Del.     How  the  plan  was  worked  out. 

Electric  Rolling  Mill  Plant,  Engineer,  vol.  120,  no.  3270,  Oct.  11,  1918. 
pp.  312-314,  17  figs.     Principles  of  speed  control. 

The  Predetermination  of  Power  Demands  of  Rolling  Mills  (Om  bestam- 
ning  och  forutherakning  av  energiatgangen  vid  valsverk),  Frithiof  Holmgren. 
Bihand  till  Jern-Kontorets  Annaler,  year  19,  no.  10,  Oct.  15,  1918,  pp.  489- 
515,  6  figs. 

•Si keening.  Economical  Production  of  Washed  Sand  and  Gravel.  Eng.  &  Cement 
World,  vol.  13,  no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  .32-5  4,  2  figs.  Description  of  Gilbert 
screen. 

Tractor.  Manufacturing  the  Caterpillar  Tractor,  Frank  A.  Stanley,  Am.  MacB., 
vol.  49,  nos.  20,  22  and  23,  Nov.  14,  28  and  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  897-901,  14  figs.; 
977-980,  9  figs,  and  1040-1042,  12  figs.;  Nov.  28:  Making  connecting  rods; 
Dec.  5:  Small  parts.     Milling  work. 

The  Manufacture  of  Diamond  Transmission  Chain,  J.  V.  Hunter.  Am. 
Mach.,  vol.  49,  nos.  19  and  23,  Nov.  7  and  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  845-848,  9  figs., 
and  1027-1031,  10  figs.      Making  rollers;  Dec.  5:    Making  block  chain. 

METALLURGY 

ALUMINUM 

Aluminum  and  Its  Alloys,  Dr.  Roscnhain.  Aeronautics,  vol.  15,  no.  259, 
Oct.  2,  1918,  pp.  321-322.  Uses  and  possibilities  in  aircraft.  Lecture  at 
British  Sci.  Products  Exhibition. 

Aluminum  and  Its  Light  Alloys — VI.  Bibliography,  Paul  D.  Merian. 
Chem.  &  Metallurgical  Eng.,  vol.  19,  no.  10,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  729-732. 
Composition;  applications;  electrical;  vessels;  deoxidation;  aluminothermy; 
chemical  properties;  corrosion;  alterability;  physical  properties;  electrical 
conductivity;  thermoelectromotive  force  characteristics;  conductivity;  effort 
of  temperature  on  properties.     (To  be  continued.) 

BLAST  FURNACE 

Fuel  Economy  in  Blast  Furnace  Practice,  T.  C.  Hutchinson.  Blast  Fur- 
nace, vol.  6,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  419-420,  3  figs.  Discussion  concerning 
results  obtained  with  working  furnace  model  built  for  determination  of  efficient 
distribution  of  charge.     Paper  before  British  Iron  &  Steel  Inst.    (Concluded.) 

COPPER 

BnoNZE3.  The  Constitution  of  the  Tin  Bronzes,  Samuel  L.  Hoyt.  A.I.M.E.,  Bui., 
no.  144,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  1721-1727,  14  figs.  Notes  on  progress  made  in  estab- 
lishing what  happens  over  the  upper  heat  effect. 

Lead  in  Copper.  The  Spectroscopic  Determination  of  Lead  in  Copper,  C.  W.  Hill 
and  G.  P.  Luckey.  Bui.  Am.  Inst.  Min.  Engrs.,  no.  142,  Oct.  1918,  pp. 
1581-1592,  4  figs.  Details  of  apparatus  and  its  standardization,  and  com- 
parison of  accuracy  of  quantitative  spectroscopic  method  for  determining 
small  amounts  of  lead  with  that  of  standard  electrolytic  determination. 
Variations  and  other  applications  of  method  are  found  in  Proc.  Am.  Electro- 
chem.  Soc.  (1918),  32,  191,  and  in  Met.  &  Chem.  Engr.  (1917),  17,  659. 

Utah  Copper  Plant.  The  Utah  Copper  Enterprise,  T.  A.  Rickard.  Min.  &  Sci. 
Press,  vol.  117,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  713-724,  16  figs.  Flow  sheet  of 
mill;  plan  and  section  of  Richards-Janney  classifier  as  used  in  mill;  flow  sheet 
of  primary  and  secondary  crushing  plants.     (To  be  continued.) 

FLOTATION 

Mill  Practice  at  Flotation  Plant  of  Utah  Leasing  Co.,  H.  H.  Adams. 
Salt  Lake  Min.  Rev.,  vol.  20,  no.  15,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  21-25,  4  figs.  Work 
of  reclaiming  metal  contents  from  old  tailing  dumps. 

IRON  AND  STEEL 

Cast  Iron.  The  Prevention  of  Growth  in  Gray  Cast  Iron,  J.  E.  Hurst.  Iron  Age, 
vol.  102,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  1144-1145,  3  figs.  Causes  of  phenomenon; 
effect  of  entrance  of  oxidizing  gases  and  formation  of  case;  application  of 
dies  and  permanent  molds.  Paper  before  Iron  and  steel  Institute,  London, 
September,  1918.  Also  in  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2754,  Oct.  11,  1918,  p 
415,  3  figs. 

Electrical  Hardme^.  Electrical  Resistance  of  Hardened  Steel,  E.  D.  Campbell. 
Engineering,  vol.  101,  no.  2757,  Nov.  1,  1918,  pp.  509,  2  figs.  On  rate  of 
change  at  IT)  de?.  r-2-it.,  and  of  oHinary  temperatures  in  electrical  resistance 
of  hardene  1  steel.     I'.ipic  before  Iron  and  Steel  Inst. 


Ingots.  Making  Sand-Cast  Forging  Ingots,  W.  L.  Booth.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no. 
19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  1139-1140,  2  figs.  Development  of  practice  on  Pacific 
Coast;  replacing  Eastern  ingots;  advantages  claimed  for  sand  mold.  From 
article  in  October  issue  of  Metal  Trades. 

Internal  Stresses.  Internal  Stresses  Developed  in  Metals  and  Alloys  by  Sudden 
Cooling  (Efforts  internes  developpes  dans  les  mStaux  et  alliages  par  l'effet 
d'un  refroidissement  rapide),  M.  Portevin.  Comptes  rendus  des  stances 
de  TAcademie  des  Sciences,  vol.  167,  no.  15,  Oct.  7,  1918,  pp.  531-533. 
Measurements  of  dimensional  variations  in  steel  specimens.  Also  in  Revue 
Generate  de  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  18,  Nov.  2,  1918,  p.  652. 

Open-Hearth  Furnaces.  The  Principles  of  Open-Hearth  Furnace  Design,  Charles 
H.  F.  Bagley.  Engineering,  vol.  106,  no.  2754,  Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  400- 
401,  2  figs.     From  paper  before  Iron  and  Steel  Inst.,  Sept.  1918. 

Steel  Hardening.  Further  Experiments  on  Spontaneous  Generation  of  Heat  in 
Recently  Hardened  Steel,  Charles  F.  Brush,  Robert  A.  Hadfield  and  S.  A. 
Main.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  vol.  95,  no.  A666,  Oct.  7,  1918,  pp.  120-138,  7  figs. 
Recapitulation  of  previous  investigations;  account  of  recent  experimental 
work  which  was  confined  mainly  to  variations  of  heat  treatment  of  one  partic- 
ular nickel-chromium  steel;  presentation  of  empirical  law  which  seems  to 
regulate  approximately  gradual  diminution  of  evolution  of  heat. 

OCCLUDED  GASES 

Gases  in  Metals.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  529,  Nov.  1918,  p.  243. 
Influence  on  mechanical  properties;  opinions  of  scientists,  industrial  research 
workers  and  manufacturers.     Conference  of  Faraday  Soc. 

WASTE  RECUPERATION 

Recuperation  and  Utilization  of  Waste  or  Copper,  Zinc,  Lead,  Tin, 
Aluminum  and  Their  Alloys  (La  recuperation  et  ^utilisation  des  dechets 
de  cuivre,  zinc,  plomb,  Stain,  aluminium  et  de  leurs  alliages),  Paul  Raous 
Genie  Civil,  vol.  73,  no.  13,  Sept.  28,  1918,  pp.  251-255,  5  figs.  Electrolytic 
processes  for  recuperation  of  tin ;  recuperation  of  aluminum ;  electrolytic  separa- 
tion of  metals  entering  in  an  alloy.     (Concluded.) 

MINING  ENGINEERING 

ALLOYS,  FERROUS 

Electric  Furnace.  Two-Ton  Electric  Furnace  Makes  Alloys.  Can.  Machy., 
VJ>1.  20  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  563-565,  10  figs.  Equipment  of  plant  using 
Heroult  furnaces  for  non-ferrous  alloys. 

BASE   MATERIALS 

Serpentine.  The  Origin  of  Serpentine,  an  Historical  and  Comparative  Study,  W.  N. 
Benson.  Am.  JI.,  of  Sci.,  vol.  46,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  693-731,  4  figs.  Concludes 
from  examination  of  geological  data  that  ultrabasic  masses  in  chrysolite 
or  antigorite-serpentine  are  alteration  product  or  originally  intrusive  peridotite 
often  more  or  less  pyroxenic,  and  that  m  some  cases  the  hydration  was  Drought 
about  by  agency  of  waters  emanating  from  same  magna  that  produced 
periodite,  the  change  having  been  completed  by  end  of  one  orogenic  period  of 
vulcanity. 

COAL  AND  COKE 

Anthracite.  Anthracite  Production  and  Resources  of  the  United  States,  Eli  T, 
Connor.  Can.  Min.  Inst.,  bul.  no.  80,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  1001-1005.  Map. 
Excerpts  from  address  at  20th  annual  meeting  of  the  Institute.  Progress 
of  the  anthracite  industry  since  1895. 

Breakers  and  Washeries.  Hazards  and  Safeguards  in  Anthracite  Breakers  and 
Washenes,  D.  K.  Glover.  Safety  Eng  ,  vol.  36,  no.  4,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  234-236 
Recommends  clearance  of  7  fit.  from  center  of  track  on  each  side.  From  Proc. 
Seventh  Annual  Safety  Congress. 

Coke  Ovens.  Economic  Considerations  in  Coke-Oven  Practice,  W.  Colquhoun. 
Ir.  &  CI.  Trds.  Rev.,  vol.  97,  no.  2646,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  511-543.  Advan- 
tages of  by-product  coke-ovens.  Abstract  of  paper  and  discussion  read  before 
Midland  Inst,  of  Min.,  Civ.  &  Mech.  Engrs. 

Instantaneous  Combustion.  Instantaneous  Combustion  of  Coal  and  Gas  at  Bedford 
Collieries,  Leigh,  F.  N.  Siddall.  Trans.  Manchester  Geol.  &  Min.  Soc,  vol. 
35,  part  10,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  318-325,  3  figs.,  and  (discussion)  pp.  325-327. 
Account  of  conditions  in  shaft  before  and  after  occurrence  of  an  outburst. 


M.  Sherwin.     CI.  Age,  vol.  14,  no.  23,  Dec. 
Known  chiefly  for  its  hardness  and  low  ash 


Kentucky.     The  Hazard  Coal  Field,  P. 
5,  1918,  pp.  1031-1034,  11  figs. 
content.     Describes  region. 

Shoveling  Machines.  Shoveling  Machines  for  Coal  Mines.  Coal  Industry,  vol. 
1,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  382-384,  4  figs.  Development  of  mines;  method  of 
operating  shoveling  machines;  tests  under  different  conditions. 

EXPLOSIVES 

Permissible  Explosives  for  Mine  Use,  J.  H.  Squires.  Coal  Industry,  vol 
1,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  375-379,  9  figs.  Definition  of  permissible  explosives 
and  description  of  tests  and  appliances-necessary  to  determine  classification. 

IRON 

Ai.s\ce-Lokraine.  Iron  Ore  Supplies  of  Alsace-Lorraine,  Sidney  Paige.  Iron  Age, 
vol.  102,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  1149-1150.  From  symposium  on  "Certain 
Ore  Resources  of  the  World  "  prepared  for  meeting  of  Iron  and  Steel  section. 
Am.  Inst,  of  Min.  Engrs.,  Milwaukee,  October  1918. 


56 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Brjquetting.  Present  Knowledge  and  Practice  in  Briquetting  Iron  Ores  (V),  Guy 
Barrett  and  T.  B.  Rogerson.  Automotive  Eng.,  vol.  3,  no.  9,  Oct.  1918, 
p.  425.  The  Grcenwalt,  West  and  other  general  processes;  general  obser- 
vations on  briquetting,  its  applications,  cost  under  various  processes,  disad- 
vantages and  possiblities.     (Concluded.) 

LEAD 

Flotation.  The  Development  of  Galena  Flotation  at  the  Central  Mine,  Broken  Hill, 
R.  J.  Harvey.  Instn.  Min.  &  Met.,  bul.  170,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  1-17,  7  figs. 
Experimental  work  and  results. 

MAJOR  INDUSTRIAL  MATERIALS 

Manganese.  Manganese  Deposits  in  the  Colorado  River  Region.  Salt  Lake  Min. 
Rev.,  vol.  20,  no.  15,  Nov.  15,  1918,  p.  30.  Replacement  deposits;  methods 
and  cost  of  mining.     (Concluded.) 

Sulphur.  Sulphur  Deposits  of  the  Trans  Pecos  Region  in  Texas,  Kirby  Thomas. 
Eng.  &  Min.  JI.,  vol.  106,  no.  23,  Dec.  7,  1918,  pp.  979-981,  3  figs.  Origin, 
character  of  deposits,  methods  of  mining,  etc. 

MINES  AND  MINING 

Bounces.  An  Unsual  Bounce  Condition,  A.  C.  Watts.  CI.  Age.  vol.  14,  no.  23,  Dec. 
5,  1918,  pp.  1028-1030,  4  figs.  Bounces  occurred  with  annoying  frequences. 
A  fault  was  driven  through  and  analysis  made  of  existing  conditions. 

Cementing  of  wells.  Cement  Plugging  for  Exclusion  of  Bottom  Water  in  the 
Augusta  Field,  Kansas.  Bul.  Am.  Inst.  Min.  Engrs.,  no.  142,  Oct.  1918,  pp. 
1613-1620,  6  figs.  Results  obtained  from  preliminary  cementing  of  wells  in 
effort  to  cut  off  bottom  water. 

Field  Tests.  Field  Tests  for  the  Common  Metals  in  Minerals.  Univ.  Ariz.,  bul. 
no.  93,  Min.  Tech.  Series,  no.  21,  pp.  1-20.  Compiled  to  be  used  as  a 
text  for  lectures  on  "  Prospector's  Mineralogy." 

Gas  Detector.  Improved  Mine-Gas  Detector.  Min.  &  Eng.  Rec,  vol.  23,  nos. 
17  &  18,  Sept.  30,  1918,  pp.  180-181,  1  fig  Apparatus,  developed  by 
Bureau  of  Mines,  for  determining  presence  of  inflammable  gases  and  pro- 
portion of  gas  present. 

Mine  Timbers.  Preservative  Treatment  of  Mine  Timbers  as  a  Conservation  Measure 
Kurt  C.  Barth.  CI.  Age,  vol.  14,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  1025-1027.  Three 
methods  of  application  available. 

Minerals  Control  Act.     Will  the  Government  Fulfill  Its  Obligations  to  Those 

Who  Undertook   Mineral  Developments  at  Its  Request?      Mfrs.  Rec,  vol. 

74,  no.  23,  Dec.  5,  1918,  pp.  73-74.     Discusses  the   Minerals  Control  Act 

and  necessary  protection  to  make  the  United  States  more  self-sustained  as  a 

nation. 
Rescue  Apparatus.     New  Form  of  Oxygen  Mine  Rescue  Apparatus,  H.  V.  Manning. 

Min.  &  Eng.  Rec,  vol.  23,  nos.  17  &  18,  Sept.  30,  1918,  pp.  179-180,  2  figs. 

Apparatus,  developed  by  Bureau  of  Mines,  for  use  poisonous  or  irrespirable 

atmospheres  in  mines  after  fires  or  explosions. 

Stone  Dust  Removal.  Spraver  for  Stone-Dusting  in  Mines.  A.  Rushton.  Tran. 
Manchester  Geol.  &  Min.  Soc,  vol.  35,  part  10,  Aug.  1918,  pp.  327-329. 
Features  of  ejector  which  blows  stone  dust  into  atmosphere  of  mine  by-means 
of  compressed  air.  Stone  dust  is  carried  from  atmosphere  of  mine  in  the  same 
way  as  coal  dust. 

Temperature  Measurements.  Measurement  of  Temperature  at  Great  Depths 
(Mesure  de  la  temperature  dans  les  sondages  a  toute  profondeur).  M. 
Verzat.  L'Echo  des  Mines  et  de  la  MStallurgie,  no.  2582,  July  14,  1918,  p. 
343.  Account  of  the  measurement  of  temperature  at  a  depth  of  1616  meters 
made  by  the  Cie.  des  Mines  du  Sud  de  la  Mure. 

Timbering.  Safe  and  Efficient  Mine  Timbering,  Robert  Z.  Virgin.  Coal  Industry, 
vol.  1,  no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  369-372, 12  figs.  Explains  and  illustrates  different 
methods  and  analyzes  each  with  regard  to  safety  and  efficiency. 

Transfer  Chutes.  Driving  and  Timbering  Transfer  Chutes,  C.  T.  Rice.  Eng.  & 
Min.  Jl.,  vol.  106,  no.  23,  Dec.  7,  1918,  pp.  991-993,  3  figs.  Method  employed 
the  Coeur  d'Alene  district. 

MINOR  INDUSTRIAL  MATERIALS 

Antimony,  Strontium,  etc.  Antimony,  Graphite,  Nickel,  Potash,  Strontium,  Tin, 
E.  S.  Boalich  and  W.  O.  Castello,  Cal.  State  Min.  Bur.,  report  no.  5,  Mar. 
1918,  44  pp.     Properties,  occurrence  and  uses  of  these  substances. 

Tungsten.  Tungsten,  Molybdenum  and  Vanadium,  E.  S.  Boalich  and  W.  O.  Castello. 
Cal.  State  Min.  Bur.,  report  no.  4,  Mar.  1918,  34  pp.  Properties,  ores,  occur- 
rence and  uses  of  these  minerals. 

Wolfram  Ore  and  Tungsten.  Chem.  News,  vol.  117,  no.  3059,  Oct.  25, 
1918,  pp.  337-338.  Report  of  Departmental  Committee  on  the  Eng.  Trades 
after  the  War.     From  Jl.  Roy  Soc.  of  Arts,  vol.  66,  no.  3436. 

OIL 

Water  Troubles.  Water  Troubles  in  the  Mid-Continent  Oil  Fields  and  Their 
Remedies,  Dorsey  Hager  and  G.  W.  McPherson.  Bul.  Am.  Inst.  Min. 
Engrs.,  no.  142,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  1620-1627,  2  figs.  Classification  of  troubles 
and  account  of  results  obtained  by  shutting  off  water. 

PRECIOUS  MINERALS 

Kalgoorlie.  Kalgoorlie  Goldfield.  Aust.  Min.  Std.,  vol.  60,  no.  1564,  Oct.  31,  1918, 
pp.  705  and  707.  Report  of  J.  B.  Jaquet  on  circumstances  connected  with 
certain  earth  tremors,  presence  of  methane  gas,  systems  of  working,  etc. 


RARE  MINERALS 

Wilsonium.  Wilsonium,  Henry  Bonaparte.  Min.  &  Eng.  Rec,  vol.  23,  nos.  17  and 
18,  Sept.  30,  1918,  pp.  176-177.  Chemical  and  physical  nature  and  occur- 
rence of  new  mineral  named  in  honor  of  President  Wilson  by  its  discoverer 
Franklin  Heath. 

TIN 

Metallurgy.  Effect  of  Heating  and  Heating  and  Quenching  Cornish  Tin  Ores 
Before  Crushing  Arthur  Yates.  Inst.  Min.  of  Met.,  bul.  170,  Nov.  14, 
14,  1913,  pp.  1-3.  Summary  of  investigation  made  in  the  laboratories  of  the 
Royal  School  of  Mines. 

Ore  Handling.  Installation  for  Mechanical  Handling  of  Tin  Ore  at  Boeboes  Valley 
on  the  Banka  (Installaties  voor  machinale  ontginning  van  tinerts  in  de 
Boeboes-vallei  op  Banka),  A.  Van.  der  Ham.  De  Ingenieur,  vol.  33,  no.  41, 
Oct.  12,  1918,  pp.  789-802,  19  figs. 

Tin  Conservation.  A  Symposium  on  the  Conservation  of  Tin.  A.I.  M.E.  bul. 
no.  144,  Dec  1918.  pp.  1729-1764.     Eight  short  papers. 

Conserving  Tin  in  Different  Solder  Mixtures,  Milton  L.  Lissberger. 
Foundry,  vol.  46,  no.  316,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  579-580.  Experiments  indicate  that 
the  ideal  alloy  should  contain  . .  per  cent  tin  and  54  per  cent  lead;  preventing 
tin  waste.  From  paper  before  Milwaukee  meeting  of  Inst,  of  Metals 
Division  of  Am.  Inst,  of  Min.  Engrs. 

TRANSPORTATION 

Dump  Cars.  Dumps  and  Dump  Hoppers,  C.  L.  Miller.  Coal  Industry,  vol.  1, 
no.  10,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  373-374,  2  figs.  Suggestions  for  making  layouts 
addressed  to  mining  engineers  having  no  other  data  at  hand  than  details  of 
mine  car. 

MUNICIPAL  ENGINEERING 

Dilution.  Sewage  Disposal  by  Dilution.  Times  Eng.  Supp.,  no.  527,  Sept.  1918, 
p.  188.  Experimental  investigation  of  Royal  Commission  on  Sewage  Disposal 
into  self-purifying  capacity  of  rivers. 

Direct  Oxidation.  Sewage  Treatment  in  Easton.  Mun.  Jl.,  vol.  45,  no.  20,  Nov. 
16,  1918,  pp.  386-388,  4  figs.  Details  and  method  of  operation  of  plant  of 
1,000,000  gal.  capacity  of  "  direct  oxidation  "  type. 

Sewer  Pipe.  Incrustation  in  Vancouver  Sewer  Pipe,  A.  G.  Dalzell.  Can.  Engr., 
vol.  35,  no.  19,  Nov.  7,  1918,  pp.  403-406,  3  fige.  Objectionable  features  which 
have  developed  in  machine-made  concrete  pipe,  8  to  30  in.  in  diameter. 

Sludge  Dewatering.  •  Two  important  Sludge  Problems,  Arthur  J.  Martin.  Contract 
Rec,  vol.  32,  no.  48,  Nov.  27,  1918,  pp.  941-942.  Suggestions  in  regard  to 
use  of  compressed  air  and  removal  of  water  contained  in  sludge. 

Town  Planning.  The  Problem  of  City  Development,  An  Economic  Survey,  A.  G. 
Dalzell.  Jl.  Eng.  Inst.  Can.,  vol.  1,  no.  7,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  319-330,  16  figs. 
Comparison  of  rectangular  and  diagonal  systems  of  city  outline  and  study 
of  conditions  in  Vancouver. 

Town  Planning  in  Halifax  and  Vicinity,  H.  L.  Seymour.  Jl.  Eng.  Inst. 
Can.,  vol.  1,  no.  6,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  262-268,  3  figs.  Schemes  indicating  width 
of  streets,  open  spaces,  building  lines  and  character  of  buildings. 


MUNITIONS  AND  MILITARY  ENGINEERING 

Ballistics.  A  Field  Ballistic  Problem,  Meade  Wildrick.  Jl.  U.  S  Artillery,  vol. 
49,  no.  3,  May-Aug.  1918,  pp.  159-186,  9  figs.  Numerical  illustration  of  (1) 
construction  of  range  table,  (2)  construction  of  rangj  correction  curves, 
(3)  construction  of  deflection  correction  chart,  (4)  correction  for  variation  in 
muzzle  velocity  due  to  a  variation  in  weight  of  projectile,  and  (5)  correction 
for  variation  in  temperature  of  powdered  charge. 

Effect  of  the  Earth's  Rotation  Upon  the  Point  of  Fall,  Fred  M.  Green 
and  C.  W.  Green.  Jl.  U.  S.  Artillery,  vol.  49,  no.  3,  May-Aug.  1918,  pp.  192- 
204,  10  figs.  Derives  from  consideration  of  effect  of  difference  in  velocity  of 
gun  and  target  due  to  earth's  rotation,  approximate  expressions  for  cor- 
rections required  in  trajectory  of  projectile  fired  at  long  range. 

Notes  on  Inclined  Trajectories,  F.  M.  Green  and  C.  W.  Green.  Jl. 
U.  S.  Artillery,  vol.  49,  no.  3,   May-Aug.  1918,  pp.  187-191,  1  fig. 

Simpson's  Resection,  Stanley  H.  Simpson.  Jl.  U.  S.  Artillery,  vol.  49, 
no.  3,  May-Aug.  1918,  pp.  208-214,  3  figs.  Explains  method  in  which,  angles 
being  measured  in  mils,  instead  of  plotting  actual  arcs,  short  chords  of  these 
arcs  are  plotted  on  a  scale  large  enough  to  make  chords  practically  coincident 
with  arcs. 

The  Elliptic  Trajectory  Over  the  Earth,  G.  Greenhill.  Engineering, 
vol.  106,  no.  2754,  Oct.  11,  1918.     A  mathematical  article. 

Bullets.  Explosive,  Expansive  and  Perforating  Bullets,  Claude  Pernelle.  Sci. 
Am.  Supp.,  vol.  86,  no.  2238,  Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  332-333,  5  figs.  Types  used 
by  German  and  Austrian  armies.     Translated  from  La  Nature. 

Howitzers.  How  the  155-Mm.  Howitzer  is  Made,  J.  V.  Hunter.  Am.  Mach.,  vol. 
49,  nos.  21  and  22,  Nov.  21  and  28,  1918,  pp.  941-945,  17  figs.,  and  983-986, 
14  figs.  Work  on  howitzer  jacket  after  it  has  been  rough -machined  and 
heat-treated,  Nov.  28:   Making  the  tube. 

Mobile  Batteries.  Railroad  Men  Man  Mobile  Battery  for  Navy.  Ry.  Age, 
vol.  65,  no.  22,  Nov.  29,  1918,  pp.  967-969,  4  figs.  Description  of  14-inch 
naval  guns  on  railway  mounts  which  worked  destruction  oehinl  German 
lines. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


57 


Ordnance  Manufacture.  Finding  the  "Choke  Points"  of  Ordnance,  John  H. 
Van  Deventer.  Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,  pp.  967-971,  6  figs. 
One  of  series  of  articles  on  work  of  Ordnance  Dept. 

Munitions  Production  by  British  Railways.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  63,  no.  19, 
Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  671-672.  Account  of  reorganization  of  railway  shops  in 
Great  Britain  to  become  one  of  England's  chief  sources  of  supply  for  munitions 
of  war.     Adapted  from  Board  of  Trade  Journal,  London. 

The  Manufacture  of  Guns  (La  fabrication  des  canons),  Ch.  Dantin. 
Genie  Civil,  vol.  73,  no.  1875,  July  20,  1918,  pp.  41-17,  21  figs.  Considerations 
governing  choice  of  metal  and  description  of  manufacturing  process. 

What  Ordnance  Is  and  Does,  John  H.  Van  Deventer.  Am.  Mach  , 
vol.  49,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp.  876-881,  7  figs.  Organization  of  Ordnance 
Department  and  what  it  dues.     First  article. 

Ordnance  Plant.  A  War-Time  American  Ordnance  Plant.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102, 
no.  22,  Nov.  28,  1918,-  pp.  1326-1328,  5  figs.  Description  of  new  plant  of 
Tacony  Ordnance  Corporation. 

Shells.  The  Manufacture  of  Semi-Steel  Sheets.  Iron  Age,  vol.  102,  no.  22,  Nov. 
28,  1918,  pp.  1317-1321,  32  tigs.  Practice  as  recommended  by  Ordnance 
Department;  chemical  metallurgical,  molding  and  machining  details. 

Spotting  Board.  Spotting  Board,  G.  R.  Meyer.  Jl.  U.  S.  Artillery,  vol.  49,  no.  3, 
May- Aug.  1918,  pp.  205-207,  1  fig.  Constructed  to  furnish  battery  com- 
mander with  information  as  to  longtitudinal  deviation  of  his  shots. 


Santa  Fe  Heavy.  A.  T.  &  S.  F.  4-8-2  Type  of  Locomotives.  Ry.  Mech.  Engr. 
vol.  92,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  649-652,  3  figs.  Heaviest  of  type  yet  built. 
Principal  dimensions  and  data. 

Santa  Fe  Passenger.     Mountain  Type  Locomotive  for  the  Santa  Fe      Ry    Rev 
.       vol.  63,  no.  20,  Nov.  16,  1918,  pp.  697-698,  3  figs.     Description  and  principal 
data  of  heavy  fast  passenger  locomotive.     Also  in  Ry.  Age,  vol.  65,  no    *>2 
Nov.  29,  1918,  pp.  957-959,  1  fig. 

Standard.  Data  for  Standard  Locomotives.  Ry.  Mech.  Eng.  vol.  92,  no.  11, 
Nov.  1918,  pp.  607-610,  12  figs.  Tonnage  rating  charts  and  clearance  and 
weight  diagrams  for  government  locomotives  now  built. 

Standard  Switcher.  Standard  Six- Wheel  Switcher.  By.  Mech.  Eng.,  vol.  92 
no.  11,  Nov.  191S,  pp.  593-596,  5  figs.  Principal  data  and  description 
with  drawings. 

Superheating.  Superheater  Locomotive  Performance.  Ry.  Mech.  Engr.,  vol.  92 
no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  652-655,  1  fig.  Abstract  of  committee  "report  pre- 
sented at  the  1918  Convention  of  the  Traveling  Engrs.  Assn.,  with  discussion. 

Virginian  Heavy  Grade  Pusher.  Virginian  2-10-10-2  Locomotives  Ry  Mech 
Eng.,  vol.  92,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  600-601,  li  tigs.  Principal  data  and 
description  with  drawings.     Built  for  heavy  grade  pusher  service. 


RAILROAD  ENGINEERING 

BRITISH 

British  Railways.  British  Railways  Under  War  Conditions.  Engineer,  vol.  126 
no.  3280,  Nov.  8,  1918,  pp.  390-391.  What  they  cost  the  country.  Eighth 
article. 

ELECTRIC  RAILROADS 

{Not  including  Strut  and  Interurhan  Lines) 

Argentine  Railways.  Electric  Traction  on  the  Central  Argentine  Railway.  Ry. 
Gaz.,  vol.  29,  no.  18,  Nov.  1,  1918,  pp.  466-469,  4  figs.  Cables;  substations. 
(Continuation  of  serial.)  Also  in  Engineer,  vol.  126,  no.  3279,  Nov.  1,  1918, 
pp.  367-370,  12  figs. 

Energy  Consumption.  Energy  Consumption  of  Cars  Is  Affected  by  Temperature 
Changes,  M.  B.  Rosevear.  Elec.  Ry.  Jl.,  vol.  52,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918, 
pp.  958-960,  2  figs.  That  power  required  for  car  operation  is  affected  by 
variations  in  schedule  speed,  number  of  passengers  carried  and  temperature  ir 
shown  by  extended  study-made  by  Public  Service  Railway,  Newark,  N.J. 

Substations.  Automatic  Substations  and  Direct-Current  Railway  Systems  (Les 
sous-stations  automatiques  et  les  reseaux  de  traction  a  courant  continu) . 
Revue  Generate  de  l'Electricite,  vol.  4,  no.  11,  Sept.  14,  1918,  pp.  386-392, 
7  figs.  Details  of  operation;  scheme  of  connections  for  600-volt  systems; 
tables  of  results  obtained  in  actual  installations. 

ELECTRIFICATION 

Montreal  Tunnel.  Montreal  Tunnel  Zone  Electrification,  William  G.  Gordon. 
Elec.  Ry.  Jl.,  vol.  52,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  962-965,  5  figs.  Summary 
of  details  of  rolling  stock,  overhead  and  substation  equipment;  design  and 
construction  problems.  Abstract  of  paper  before  Am.  Inst,  of  Elec.  Engrs. 
Toronto,  Nov.  1918. 

EQUIPMENT 

Ditcher.  Electrically  Operated  Ditcher  Effects  Big  Saving,  Charles  W.  Ford. 
Elec.  Ry.  Jl.,  vol.  52,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  960-961,  5  figs.  This  is  first 
electric-machine  built  for  ditching  purposes;  operates  at  1200  or  1500  volts  with 
30-hp.  motor. 

LABOR 

British  Railways.  British  Railways  Under  War  Conditions.  Engineer,  vol.  126, 
no.  3279,  Nov.  1,  1918,  pp.  371-372.  Raihvaymen's  war  bonus.  Seventh 
article. 

MAINTENANCE 

Maintenance  of  Way  Records  and  Reports.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  63,  no.  19, 
Nov.  9,  1918,  pp.  667-668.  Methods  being  worked  out  by  Railroad  Adminis- 
tration for  establishing  accurate  records;  will  standardize  reports. 

Pacific  Electric's  New  Car  Storage  and  Repair  Facilities,  Clifford  A. 
Elliott.  Elec.  Ry.  Jl.,  vol.  52,  no.  21,  Nov.  23,  1918,  pp.  914-917,  11  figs 
Description  of  three  divisional  storage  track  layouts  with  car  houses  and  repair 
shops. 

LOCOMOTIVE 

Boiler  for  Mallet  Locomotive.  Large  Boiler  for  New  Mallet  Locomotive.  Boiler 
Maker,  vol.  18,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  303-304,  4  figs.  Sections  and  elevations 
of  boiler  built  for  heavy  grades,  having  firebox  length  of  181  1-16  in.  and  desined 
for  215-lb.  working  pressure. 

Feed  Water  Heating.  Locomotive  Feed  Water  Heating,  H.  S.  Vincent.  Ry 
Mech.  Engr.,  vol.  92,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  serial  1st  part,  pp.  645-649,  8  figs. 
Discussion  of  exhaust  steam  and  waste  gas  methods  of  preheating. 

French  Compound.  Recent  Locomotives  for  the  French  State  Railways,  F.  C. 
Coleman.  Ry.  Age,  vol.  65,  no.  20,  Nov.  15,  1918,  pp.  861-863,  4  figs. 
Principal  data  and  decriptions  of  four-cylinder  compound  pacific  type  and 
simple  consolidation  type  built  in  Great  Britain. 

Hock  Island  Heavy.  2-10-2  Type  Locomotive  for  the  Rock  Island  Lines.  Ry.  Age, 
vol.  65,  no.  23,  Dec.  6,  1918,  pp.  992-994,  6  figs.  Novel  and  interesting 
features. 


NEW  CONSTRUCTION 

American-Built  Railroad  Cutoff  will  Relieve  Traffic  Congestion  in 
France,  Robert  K.  Tomlin,  Jr.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  19,  Nov  7 
1918,  pp.  832-835,  14  figs.  A  5^  mile  double-track  line  for  Expeditionary 
forces;  big  embankment  chief  feature;  bridge  half  a  mile  long. 

OPERATION  .AND  MANAGEMENT 

British  Operation.  Presidential  Address  to  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  John 
A.  F.  Aspinall.  Ry.  Gaz.,  vol.  29,  no.  19,  Nov.  8,  1918,  pp.  487-494.  British 
railway  engineering  and  operation;  immediate  problems  to  be  faced. 

Fuel  Conservation.  Conservation  of  Fuel  on  the  Railroads.  Ry.  Age,  vol  65 
no.  21,  Nov.  22,  1918,  pp.  913-916.  Abstracts  of  papers  present edVy  railway' 
men  before  New  York  Ry.  Club. 

Work  of  the  Fuel   Conservation  Section,   E.   C.   Schmidt.     Ry    Rev 
yol.  63,  no.  22,  Nov.  30,  1918,  pp.  769-772.     Organization  and  work'of  this 
department  of  Railroad  Administration. 

Supervision  of  Locomotives,  British.  District  Supervision  of  Locomotives  on 
British  Railways,  W.  Patterson.  Ry.  Gaz.,  vol.  29,  no.  18,  Nov.  1,  1918 
pp.  469-471.  Review  of  work  in  a  typical  district  with  a  staff  of  about  500 
persons  and  sheds  to  which  are  allotted  150  engines. 

Traffic  Control.  Controlling  the  Freight  Traffic,  North-Eastern  Railway 
Engineer,  vol.  126,  no.  3276,  Oct.  11,  1918,  pp.  305-306,  3  figs.  Description 
of  traffic  control  of  North-Eastern  Railway,  and  control  board. 

PERMANENT  WAY  AND  BUILDINGS 

Floor  Slabs  and  Culverts.  Railway  Practice  in  Design  of  Concrete  Floor  Slabs 
and  Flat  Top  Culverts.  Eng.  &  Contracting,  vol.  50,  no.  21,  Nov.  20, 
1918,  pp.  511-512.  Results  of  questionnaire  by  George  II.  Tinker.  From 
Oct.  Bulletin  of  Am.  Ry.  Eng.  Assn. 

Relocation  of  Lines.  New  York  Central  Relocates  Lines  to  Cross  Barge  Canal  at 
the  Tonawandas.  Eng.  News-Rec,  vol.  81,  no.  20,  Nov.  14,  1918,  pp. 
893-896,  2  figs.  Detour  two  miles  long  around  hearts  of  cities  at  once  combines 
bridges  over  waterways  and  solves  difficult  problem  of  eliminating  grade 
crossings  and  occupation  of  main  business  streets. 

RAILS 

Tran  verse  Fissures.  Tranverse  Fissures  and  Phosphorus  Streaks  in  Rails  G  F 
Comstock.  Ry.  Age,  vol.  65,  no.  22,  Nov.  29,  1918,  pp.  961-963,  2  figs.  New 
evidence  of  influence  of  segregation  and  of  advantage  of  reheating  blooms. 
Abstract  of  paper  before  Am.  Inst,  of  Min.  Engrs. 

Transverse  Fissures  Cause  Rail  Failures.  Ry.  Age.  vol.  65,  no  23 
Dec.  6,  1918,  pp.  1007-1009.  Abstract  of  James  E.  Howard's  report  of  the 
rail  failure  at  Central  Islip,  N.  Y. 

ROLLING  STOCK 

CLEANING.  Passenger  Car  Cleaning  on  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  E.  Elcy 
Can.  Ry.  Club,  vol.  17,  no.  0,  Sept.  1918,  pp.  19-22,  and  (discussion)  pp.  23-3 1! 
Nature  and  amount  of  work  required  by  different  classes  of  cars. 

Coal  Cars.  Design  of  Seventy-Ton  Coal  Car  with  Tandem  Hoppers.  Ry.  Mech 
Eng.,  vol.  92,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  611-613,  5  figs.  Principal  data  with 
description  and  drawings. 

Flat  Cars.  Shipping  Large  Marine  Boilers.  Boiler  Maker,  vol.  18,  no.  11,  Nov. 
1918,  p.  307,  1  fig.  Describes  special  flat  car  for  shipping  Scotch  boilers. 
From  Marine  Jl. 

Lighting.  Standards  of  Passenger  Car  Lighting.  Ry.  Rev.,  vol.  63,  no.  19,  Nov. 
9,  1918,  pp.  672-673.  Specifications  prepared  by  mechanical  department  of 
United  States  Railroad  Administration  for  electric  lighting  of  passengers 
equipment  cars  hereafter  to  be  purchased  by  administration  for  use  of  roads 
under  its  control. 

Refrigerator  Cars.  Standard  U.  S.  R.  A.  Refrigerator.  Ry.  Mech.  Engr.,  vol. 
92,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  663-668,  7  figs.  Latest  practices  in  design.  Also 
in  Ry.  Age,  vol.  65,  no.  21,  Nov.  22,  1918,  pp.  906-910,  4  figs. 


58 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


SAFETY  AND  SIGNALLING  SYSTEMS 

Coupling  and  Uncoupling.  Prevention  of  Accidents  Due  to  Coupling  and 
Uncoupling  Cars.  E.  M.  Switzer.  Safety  Eng.,  vol.  36,  no.  4,  Oct  101 
pp.  202-204.     From  Proc.  Seventh  Annual  Safety  Congress. 

Interlocking.  Single  Line  Interlocking  on  the  New  South  Wales  Railways.  Ry. 
Gaz.,  vol.  29,  no.  19,  Nov.  8,  19i8,  pp.  495-597,  4  figs.  Outline  of  system  of 
interlocking  and  signalling  line  stations. 

Plant  Railroad  Hazards.  Plant  Railroad  Hazards.  C.  II.  Raltzcll.  Safely 
Eng.,  vol.  36,  no.  4,  Oct.  1918,  pp.  252-250,  2  figs.  Possibilities  of  personal 
injuries  in  plants  situated  on  main  line  tracks  and  manner  of  avoiding  them. 
From  Proc.  Seventh  Annual  Safety  Congress. 

Signalling.  Proceedings,  Annual  Meeting,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  19-20,  191S, 
Ry.  Signal  Assn.,  Jl.  23d  year.  No.  4,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  313-420,  4  figs. 
Addresses,  committee  reports,  etc. 

SHOPS 

Roiler  Tube  Fitting.  Modern  Locomotive  Boiler  Tube  Practice  at  Doncaster 
Works,  Great  Northern  Railway.  Ry.  Gaz.,  vol.  29,  no.  19,  Nov.  8,  1918, 
pp.  499-500,  4  figs.  Methods  employed  for  fitting  and  expanding  DOUer  tubes 
and  superheater  Hues. 


Car  Repairs.  Car  Department  of  the  Milwaukee.  Ry.  Mech.  Eng.,  vol.  92,  no. 
11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  015-020,  9  figs.  Organization  and  methods  of  handling 
light  and  heavy  car  repairs  with  samples  of  forms  used. 

Grinding.  Grinding  in  Locomotive  Shops,  M.  H.  Williams.  Ry.  Mech.  Eng., 
vol.  92,  no.  11,  Nov.  1918,  pp.  629-032,  4  figs.  Uses  to 'which  internal, 
cylindrical  and  surface  grinding  machines  may  be  put  with  success. 

Locomotive  Repairs.  Accuracy  in  Locomotive  Repairs,  M.  H.  Williams.  Ry 
Mech.  Engr.,  vol.  92,  no.  12,  Dec.  1918,  pp.  673-077,  8  figs.  Methods  of 
making  and  fitting -men  and  repair  parts  for  locomotives  with  gages  and 
micrometers. 

Repair  Shops.  American  Railroad  Repair  Shops  in  France,  Robert  K.  Tomlin,  ,Ir. 
Am.  Mach.,  vol.  49,  no.  21,  Nov.  21,  pp.  933-938,  7  figs.  How  these  shops 
were  built  by  American  engineers  in  France 

SPECIAL  LINES 

Logging  Roads.  Soldiers  Build  Logging  Roads  in  Spruce  Forests,  W.  A.  Welch 
Ry,  Age,  vol.  65,  no.  19,  Nov.  8,  1918,  pp.  805-807,  6  figs.  Description  of 
construct  ion  of  over  350  miles  of  new  railway  in  Northwest  for  carrying 
airplane  lumber  to  mills. 


EMPLOYMENT  BUREAU 


Situations  Vacant 


Paper  Mill  Engineer 

Young  man  who  is  technical  graduate  and  has  had 
four  or  five  years  practical  experience  along  paper  mill 
lines.    Address  Box  25. 

Chief  Draftsman 

Opening  for  an  engineer  to  take  charge  of  drafting 
room  and  also  to  do  some  outside  work  particularly  in 
mill  layouts  and  building  construction  of  a  mechanical 
nature.     Address  Box  24. 

Municipal  Engineer. 

An  engineering  graduate  of  at  least  one  or  two  years' 
experience  in  municipal  work  for  junior  roadway  assistant. 
Membership  of  The  Engineering  Institute  and  men  who 
have  seen  active  service  will  be  given  preferable  consider- 
ation.    Apply  E.  R.  Gray,  City  Engineer,  Hamilton,  Ont. 

Designing  and  Mechanical  Engineer. 

Designing  Mechanical  Engineer,  thoroughly  exper- 
ienced in  design  of  cranes,  coal  and  ore  handling  bridges 
and  towers,  coal  tipple  equipments,  conveying  machinery, 
etc.  High  grade  technical  man  wanted  to  take  charge 
of  design,  state  education  and  experience  in  detail,  age, 
nationality,  salary  desired.  Information  confidential. 
Location,   Canada.     Apply  Box   23. 

Hydrometric  Engineer 

An  Hydrometric  Engineer  in  the  Irrigation  Branch  at 
Calgary,  Department  of  the  Interior,  at  a  salary  of  $1,500 
per  annum.  Candidates  should  be  science  graduates  of 
a  recognized  university  or  hold  grade  in  one  of  the  organiz- 
ations mentioned  below  or  have  practical  experience 
sufficient  to  guarantee  a  sound  knowledge  of  engineering. 

The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

British  Institute  of  Civil  Engineers. 
American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers. 
Address: — Civil  Service  Commission,    Wm.    Foran, 
Secretary. 


An  Analyst 

An  Analyst  on  the  staff  of  the  Laboratory  at  Halifax, 
Department  of  Trade  and  Commerce,  Grade  E  of  the 
First  Division.  Appointment  is  provisional  at  $1,400 
per  annum.  If  satisfactory,  permanent  employment  at 
$1,700  will  be  made,  subject  to  passing  successfully  the 
examination  prescribed  by  section  9  of  The  Adulteration 
Act.  Applicants  must  be  graduates  of  a  recognized 
university  with  honours  in  chemistry,  and  must  have 
had  at  least  one  year's  subsequent  experience  in  chemical 
analysis. 

Forest  Ranger 

A  Forest  Ranger  in  charge  of  the  Nisbet  Reserve, 
Department  of  the  Interior,  at  a  salary  of  $1,400  per 
annum.  Candidates  must  be  between  the  ages  of  21 
and  45  and  must  be  physically  fit.  They  must  have  a 
thorough  knowledge  of  woods  work,  including  scaling 
timber,  elementary  surveying,  and  road  construction. 
They  must  have  sufficient  education  and  ability  to  carry 
on  the  business  connected  with  the  administration  of 
the  Forest  Reserve,  to  keep  office  records  and  prepare 
reports.  The  appointee  will  be  required  to  live  in  a  house 
provided  by  the  Department  on  the  Forest  Reserve  and 
must  provide  himself  with  necessary  equipment  for 
travelling  around  the  reserve. 

Publicity  Agent 

A  Publicity  Agent  to  take  charge  of  the  publicity 
work  of  the  Department  of  Immigration  and  Colonization 
at  a  salary  of  $4,000  per  annum.  Candidates  should 
possess  the  following  qualifications : —  ability  to  prepare 
and  direct  newspaper,  magazine  and  farm  journal  adver- 
tising campaigns,  both  in  Canada  and  elsewhere,  setting 
forth  the  settlement  opportunities  in  Canada;  knowl- 
edge and  experience  with  (a)  follow-up  systems,  (b)  the 
production  and  circulation  of  motion  pictures,  and  (c) 
the  natural  resources  of  Canada;  ability  to  direct  lecture 
campaigns;  a  personal  acquaintance  with  writers,  publicists 
and  organization  now  dealing  with  the  opportunities  and 
land  settlement  problems  of  Canada. 

All  applications  must  be  received  not  later  than 
the  24th  day  of  January.  Apply  Wm.  Foran,  Secretary, 
Civil  Service  Commission  of  Canada,  Ottawa,  Ont. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


69 


Made  in  Canada 


One  of  ih 

On  FORD  Service  Stations 

Most  of  the  large  flat  roofs   in   the  United   States  as  well  as  many  others  in 

Canada,    carry  the  Barrett  Specification   type  of  roof. 

But    for   covering    smaller    buildings    with    a   roof-area   of  5,000  feet  or   more, 

Barrett  Specification  Roofs  are  equally  satisfactory  and  economical. 

These  are  the  reasons  for  their  wide  popularity: 

First — Their    cost    per    year    of    service    is    lower    than    any  other   permanent 

roof-covering. 
Second—They  cost  nothing  to  maintain. 
Third — They  carry  a  Surety  Bond  Guaranty  for  twenty  years    something'that 

no  other  manufacturer  has  ever  offered. 
Fourth—They  take  the  base  rate  of  fire-insurance. 
Fifth    Experience  proves  that  they  will  last  much  longer  than   twenty  years 

because  they  contain   more  waterproofing  material  than  any  other  roofing, 

and,  further,  because  they  are  constructed  under  the  supervision  of  our 

inspectors. 

One  familiar  class  of  structures  in  the  United  States  are  the  Ford  Service  Stations.  There  are  hun- 
dreds of  them,  some  large,  but  most  of  them  of  moderate  size.  Barrett  Specification  Roofs  cover  a 
large  number  of  these. 

Illustrating  how  the  owners  feel,  we  quote  from  a  letter  from  the  Ford  Service  Station  at  Providence, 
R.  I  ,  U    S.  A.: 

"  We  wish  to  say  that  your  Barrett  Specification  Roofing  that  you  have  placed  on  our  Service 

Station  at  Aliens  Avenue  has  given  us  entire  satisfaction. 

"  In  these  days  it  is  a  novelty  to  find  a  roofing  material  of  superior  stock  and  workmanship, 

and  we  are  very  glad  to  compliment  you  on  this  work." 
Before    you   order  a  roof  for  any  permanent  building  be  sure  to  look  into  the  merits  and  cost  of 
Barrett  Specification  Roofs.     If  you  do  you  will  have  no  other  kind. 


20 -Year  Guaranty 

We  now  guarantee  Barrett  Specification 
Roofs  to  last  for  twenty  years  without  cost 
for  maintenance.  No  charge  for  the  gua- 
rantee, for  it  gives  us  a  chance  to  protect 
the  good  repute  of  these  roofs.  The 
guarantee  is  a  surety  bond  issued  by  one  of 
the  largest  surety  companies  of  America, 
the  United  States  Fidelity  and  Guaranty 
Company  of  Baltimore.  It  is  offered  on  all 
roofs  of  fifty  squares  and  over  in  all  cities 
of  25,000  population  and  more,  and  in 
smaller  places  also  where  our  Inspection 
Service  is  available. 


A  copy  of  The  Barrett  20-  Year  Specification,  with  roofing  diagrams,  sent  free  on  request 


The  /af|$|2l^  Company 


MONTREAL 


ST.  JOHN,  N.B. 


TORONTO 


LIMITED 
HALIFAX,  N.S. 


WINNIPEG 


SYDNEY,  N.S. 


VANCOUVER 


70 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


#tttcer£  ant)  Jfflember*  of  Council 


PRESIDENT 
H.  H.  VAUGHAN,  Montreal 


VICE  PRESIDENTS 
•T.  H.  WHITE,  Vancouver  *J.  M.  R.  FAIRBAIRN,  Montreal 

tH.  E.  T.  HAULTAIN,  Toronto  fR-  F.  HAYWARD,  Vancouver 


F.  C.  GAMBLE,  Victoria 


PAST  PRESIDENTS 
G.   H.   DUGGAN,   Montreal 


J.  S.  DENNIS,  Montreal 


•J.  R.  W.  AMBROSE,  Toronto 
JN.  E.  BROOKS,  Sherbrooke 
JERNEST  BROWN,  Montreal 
tA.  R.  DECARY,  Quebec 
♦H.  DONKIN,  Halifax 
*A.  E.  DOUCET,  Quebec 
•L.  B.  ELLIOT,  Edmonton 
•WALTER  J.  FRANCIS,  Montreal 
JPETER  GILLESPIE,  Toronto 
fj.  H.  KENNEDY,  Vancouver 

*  For  1918 


COUNCILLORS 
*E.  D.  LAFLEUR,  OTTAWA 
•D.  O.  LEWIS,  Victoria 
tH.  LONGLEY,  Woodman's  Pt.  N.B. 
*G.  D.  MACKIE,  Moose  Jaw,  Sask. 
JM.  H.  MACLEOD,  Winnipeg 
JE.  G.  MATHESON,  Vancouver 
fG.  A.  MCCARTHY,  Toronto 
JD.  H.  McDOUGALL,  New  Glasgow,  N.S. 
JJOHN  MURPHY,  Ottawa 
JWm.  PEARCE,  Calgary 

t  For  1918-19  X  For  1918- 


*F.  H.  PETERS,  Calgary 

JJ.  M.  ROBERTSON,  Montreal 

*D.  A.  ROSS,  Winnipeg 

tR.  A.  ROSS,  Montreal 

*H.  R.  SAFFORD,  Montreal 

tJULIAN  C.  SMITH,  Montreal 

tJ.  G.  SULLIVAN,  Winnipeg 

•ARTHUR  SURVEYER,  Montreal 

XL.  A.  THORNTON,  Regina 

tJAMES  WHITE,  Ottawa 

19-20 


TREASURER 
ERNEST  MARCEAU,  Montreal 


SECRETARY 
FRASER  S.  KEITH,  Montreal 


CALGARY 

Chairman,  S.  W.  CRAIG 
Secretary,  C.  M.  ARNOLD 

513  -  8th  Ave.  West,  Calgary 
Executive,  A.  S.  DAWSON 
F.  H.  PETERS 
Wm.  PEARCE 
B.  L.  THORNE 
A.  S.  CHAPMAN 
EDMONTON 

Chairman,     N.  M.  THORNTON 
Vice-Chair.,  J.  L.  COTE 
Secretary,      R.  J.  GIBB 

c/o  City  Engineer,  Edmonton 
Executive,      R.  CUNNINGHAM 
D.  J.  CARTER 
A.  T.  FRASER 
A.  W.  HADDOW 
R.  P.  GRAVES 
L.  B.  ELLIOT 
HALIFAX 
Chairman,  F.  A.  BOWMAN 
Sec.-Treas.,  K.  H.  SMITH 
197  Hollis  St.,  Halifax 
Executive,  L.  H.  WHEATON 
W.  P.  MORRISON 
P.  A.  FREEMAN 
J.  LORN  ALLAN 
HIRAM  DONKIN 
RODERICK  McCOLL 
HAMILTON 
Chairman,   E.  R.  GRAY 
Sec.-Treas.,  H.  B.  DWIGHT, 
c/o  Canadian  Westinghouse  Co., 
Hamilton 
Executive,    E.  H.  DARLING 
J.  A.  McFARLANE 
KINGSTON 

Activities    discontinued    until    the 
close  of  the  war. 
MANITOBA 

Chairman,    W.  ARCH'D  DUFF 
Sec.-Treas..  GEO.  L.  GUY 

300  Tribune  Bldg.,  Winnipeg 
Executive,    W.  P.  BRERETON 
J.  C.  HOLDEN 
W.  M.  SCOTT 


OFFICERS    OF    BRANCHES 

MONTREAL 

Chairman,  WALTER  J.  FRANCIS 
Vice-Chair,  ARTHUR  SURVEYER 
Sec.Treas..  FREDERICK  B.  BROWN 

260  St.  James  St.,  Montreal 
Executive,  F.  P.  SHEARWOOD 

W.  CHASE  THOMSON 
H.  G.  HUNTER 
L.  G.  PAPINEAU 
O.  O.  LEFEBVRE 
K.  B.  THORNTON 
and  local  councillors. 

OTTAWA 

Chairman,  G.  GORDON  GALE 
Secretary,   J.  B.  CHALLIES 

404  Union  Bank  Bldg.,  Ottawa 
Executive,  S.  J.  FORTIN 

j.  h.  McLaren 

E.  B.  JOST 

C.  N.  MONSARRAT 

A.  F.  MACALLUM 

QUEBEC 

Chairman,  A.  R.  DECARY 
Secretary,  A.  BUTEAU 
P.O.  Box  115,  Quebec 
Executive,  F.  T.  COLE 

J.  E.  GIBAULT 

W.  LEFEBVRE 

A.  E.  DOUCET 

A.AMOS 

S.  S.  OLIVER 

SASKATCHEWAN 

Chairman,   G.  D.  MACKIE 
Vice-Chair., H.  S.  CARPENTER 
Sec.-Treas..  J.  N.  deSTEIN 

2123  Retallack  St.,  Regina,  Sask. 
Executive,     L.  A.  THORNTON 
O.  W.  SMITH 
H.  R.  MACKENZIE 
E.  G.  W. 

MONTGOMERY 
W.  H.  GREENE 
C.  J.  YORATH 
J.  E.  UNDERWOOD 


ST.  JOHN 
Chairman,  C.  C.  KIRBY 
Secretary,  A.  R.  CROOKSHANK 

Box  1393,  St.  John,  N.B. 
Executive,  G.  G.  HARE 
C.  O.  FOSS 
G.  G.  MURDOCH 
A.GRAY 

TORONTO 

Chairman,  A.  H.  HARKNESS 

Secretary,   W.S.HARVEY 
324  Glen  Road,  Toronto 

Executive,  H.  G.  ACRES 
W.  A.  BUCKE 
J.  R.  W.  AMBROSE 
H.  E.  T.  HAULTAIN 
PETER  GILLESPIE 
R.O.  WYNNE-ROBERTS 
WILLIS  CHIPMAN 

VANCOUVER 

Chairman,   E.  G.  MATHESON 
Sec.-Treas.,  A.  G.  DALZELL 

647  -  12  Ave.  E.,  Vancouver,  B.C. 
Acting  Sec.-Treas., 

C.  BRACKENRIDGE 
Executive,  C.  BRACKENRIDGE 

H.  M.  BURWELL 

H.  E.  C.  CARRY 

T.  H.  WHITE 


VICTORIA 

Chairman,    W.YOUNG 
Vice-Chair.,  R.  A.  BAINBRIDGE 
Secretary,      J.  B.  HOLDCROFT 

1485  Fort  St.,  Victoria,  B.C. 
Treasurer,     E.  DAVIS 
Executive,      W.  EVERALL 
D.  O.  LEWIS 
R.  W.  MACINTYRE 
N.  A.  YARROW 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


71 


GATE    VALVES 

Iron  Body  —  Bronze  Fitted 

With   either  Bronze  or 

Hard    White    Metal 

Seats   Renewable 


Established  1834 
Branches  at 

MONTREAL 

T.  McA.   Stewart 
157  St.  James  St. 


T  NTAvity  a  Sons  Ltd 

ST     John.    n.b. 


The  Home  of  "WORLD"  Brand. 

"MCAVITY" 


New  Improved       ri 

FIRE 

HYDRANT 

with 

Removable 

Seat  Valve 

and  Fittings 


*-/ 


CORPORATION 
SPECIALTIES 


Send  for    Illustrated 

Corporation  Catalogue 

No.  1004 


BRASS  AND   IRON  FOUNDERS 

ST.  JOHN,  N.B. 

CANADA 

TORONTO  WINNIPEG 

Harvard  Turnbull  &  Co. 
207  Excelsior   Life  Bldg. 


Incorporated  1907 


VANCOUVER 


72  JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Insulating  Granular  Cork 
Invaluable  for  Refrigeration 


The  lightest  material   known   for   efficient  insulation 
and  consequent  saving  of  deadweight  tonnage 


All    grades    guaranteed    not  to  exceed    6    lbs.    weight 

per  cubic  foot. 


CONTE    HERMANOS 

GIBRALTAR 


FACTORIES     IN     SPAIN 


LONDON  AGENTS  : 

CONTE  BROTHERS 

41,  Crutched  Friars,  E.C.  3. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA  73 


"SCOTIA" 
STEEL  PRODUCTS 


Billets,  Blooms  and  Slabs.  Sheet  Bars  up  to  15  in.  wide. 

Heavy  Forgings.  Square  Twisted  Concrete 

Reinforcing  Bars. 
Car  Axles. 

Locomotive  Axles.  Agricultural  Shapes. 

Sheared  Plates  up  to  LJSht  Rails 

48  in.    wide,  5-8"  thick  r§  P 

Weight  up  to   1060  lbs.  Tie  Plates' 

,         r-,        .     r>  Track  Spikes  and  Bolts. 
Merchant  Bars  in  Hounds, 

Squares,  Flats,  Ovals,  Half  Ovals  Cold  Drawn  Shafting  and 

Tires  and  Sleigh  Shoe.  Machinery  Steel. 


Fluid  Compressed  Steel  Forgings 


NOVA  SCOTIA  STEEL  &  GOAL  CO.,  LTD. 

General  Sales  Office  Head  Office 

WINDSOR  HOTEL,  MONTREAL,  QUE.        NEW     GLASGOW,     NOVA     SCOTIA. 


74  JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


HYDROSTONE 


THE  HALIFAX  RELIEF  COMMISSION  HAVE  ADOPTED  THIS 
STONE  FOR  THE  RE-BUILDING  OF  THE  RESTRICTED  RESIDENTIAL 
PORTION  OF  DEVASTATED  HALIFAX,  MAKING  IT  A  FIRE-PROOF 
DISTRICT. 

THIS  STONE  WAS  ADOPTED  BY  THE  COMMISSION  ON  THE 
ADVICE  OF  THE  ARCHITECT  AFTER  AN  EXTENSIVE  STUDY  OF  NEW 
TOWN  SITES  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

IF  YOUR  PRINCIPALS  ARE  COMTEMPLATING  TOWN  SITE  OR 
FACTORY  CONSTRUCTION  OR  BUILDINGS  OF  A  PERMANENT  NATURE 
LET  US  DISCUSS  THE  PROJECT  WITH  YOU  BEFORE  FINALLY  DECIDING 
YOUR  TYPE  OF  CONSTRUCTION. 


Nova  Scotia  Construction  Co. 

LIMITED 

ENGINEERS  and  CONTRACTORS 
159  UPPER  WATER  STREET,  HALIFAX,    N.  S. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


75 


Nova   Scotia 
Water  Powers 


THE  UNDEVELOPED  WATER-POWER  SITE  PARTLY  SHOWN 
HEREWITH  IS  IN  THE  IMMEDIATE  VICINITY  OF 
EXTENSIVE  AND  WELL  PROVEN  GOLD  AREAS. 

IT  CAN  BE  CHEAPLY  DEVELOPED;  IS  OF  SUFFICIENT 
CAPACITY  TO  CARRY  ON  MINING  OPERATIONS 
COMMENSURATE  WITH  THE  EXTENT  OF  THE  ADJACENT 
AREAS  AND  THE  WHOLE  IS  WITHIN  A  FEW  MILES  OF 
RAILWAY  AND  OCEAN  SHIPPING  FACILITIES.  PARTI- 
CULARS OF  THE  WATER-POWER  SITE  AND  ITS  LOCATION 
ARE  GIVEN  IN  THE  1916  REPORT  OF  THE  NOVA  SCOTIA 
WATER  POWER  COMMISSION. 

WRITE    

Department  of  Public  Worlds  and  Mines,  Halifax. 


Building  No.  1— 400'-0"  x  lOO'-O"  1916.    Building  No.  2— 400'-0"  x  100'-0'  1918. 


IMPERIAL  MUNITION  BOARD  SHIP  "WAR  FUNDY"  1918. 


EXAMPLES  OF  OUR  WORK 

GRANT  &  HORNE      -      ST.  JOHN,  n.b. 

ENGINEERS,     CONTRACTORS     &    SHIPBUILDERS 

P.  O.    BOX    397 


76 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


The  SPRACO  System 
for  Cooling  Condens- 
ing Water  costs  much 
less  to  install  and 
operate  than  cooling 
towers.  This  system 
consists  of  a  special 
grouping  of  Spraco 
Center-Jet  Nozzles 
through  which  the  hot 
water  is  sprayed  over 
a  pond  or  basin. 


Ontario   Representatives 

RUDEL-BELNAP       MCHY 

CO.,  LTD. 

26  Adelaide  St.,  West, 

TORONTO 


SPRACO 


COOLING    SYSTEMS 


SPRAY   ENGINEERING   COMPANY 


93   FEDERAL   ST., 


BOSTON,   MASS.   U.S.A. 


Leading  manufactu- 
rers and  power  com- 
panies throughout 
America  and  foreign 
countries  use  the 
Spraco  System.  They 
prefer  it  to  all  other 
systems  because  of  its 
easily  demonstrable 
superiority.  Our  new 
Bulletin,  "The  Spraco 
System,"  makes  this 
clear.  Write  for  it. 


Quebec  Representatives 

RUDEL-BELNAP       MCHY 

CO.,  LTD. 

95  McGill  Street, 

MONTREAL 


RELIABLE  SERVICE 


IS   SECURED    BY  INSTALLING 

Turnbull  Elevators 


PASSENGER— FREIGHT 


The  Turnbull  Elevator  Mfg.  Co. 


TORONTO  —  CANADA 


MONTREAL  OFFICE— MAPPIN  &  WEBB  BUILDING,  VICTORIA  Si. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


77 


ST  GABRIEL© 


s**%S&ra^ 


DESAAOES 


UEBEC 


Manufacturers  find 
their  power  costs 
much  reduced  when 

Shawinigan  Power 

supplants  steam 
power.      •  .  •      •  .  • 


BROUGHTON 


#SHERBROOKT 


EAST  ANGUS 


THE  SHAWINIGAN  WATER  &  POWER  COMPANY 

POWER  BUILDING,  MONTREAL 


COOK   CONSTRUCTION    CO.   Limited 

&  WHEATON  BROS. 

BUILDERS  OF 

HALIFAX    OCEAN 
TERMINALS    RAILWAY 


OFFICES 


Montreal,  Que. 
St.  Paul,  Minn. 
Sudbury,  Ont. 
Halifax,    N.  S. 


TOWER    ROAD    BRIDGE 
144  foot  span  over  cut  which  is  65  feet  deep.    Suspension  Bridge  also  shown. 


78 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


ACID  AND  BASIC  OPEN  HEARTH 

STEEL    CASTINGS 

FERRO-ALLOY  STEEL  CASTINGS 


MANGANESE  -  STEEL     TRACKWORK 


CANADIAN  STEEL  FOUNDRIES 

LIMITED 
Transportation  Building,  Montreal 


300  H. P.  Silent  Chain  driving  a  No.  9^ 
"ROOTS"  Blower. 

Note  great  economy  of  space  with  Chain  Drive, 
irrespective  of  the  CONTINUOUS  SAVING 
OF  POWER  due  to  the  High  Efficiency— 98.2%. 


JONES  &  GLASSCO 

(Reg'd.) 

ENGINEERS 
MONTREAL  and  TORONTO 

SPECIALISTS    IN 

Power  Transmission  Chains 

Canadian  Agents  for 

"  RENOLD  "  "  MORSE  " 


PATENT  SILENT 

and  BUSH  ROLLER 

CHAINS 


ROCKER  JOINT 
SILENT 

CHAINS 


Chain  Drives  from  %  HP  to  5000  HP  in  successful  operation 

Write  for  particulars  to 


Head  Office 

St.  Nicholas  Building 

MONTREAL 


Branch  Office 

1204   Traders  Bank   Bldg. 

TORONTO 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA  79 


Bedford   Construction  Company 


Limited 


(P.  PAGANO,  Pres. 


(FORMERLY  CAVICCHI  &  PAGANO) 
V.  J.  CAVICCHI,  Vice-Pres.  and  Gen'l.  Mgr.  J.  J.  HERBERT,  Sect.-Treas.) 


RAILROAD     CONTRACTORS 


NOW  OPERATING: 


Construction  of  Dry  Dock  &  Shipyards  at  Halifax,  N.S. 
Construction  of  Dry  Dock,  Shipyards  &  Breakwater  at 
Courtney  Bay,  East  St.  John,  N.B. 


OFFICES    AT 


HALIFAX,     N.S.     &     EAST     ST.     JOHN,     N.B 


STEEL  PLATE 
CONSTRUCTION 

Tanks,  Penstocks  Bins  and 
Hoppers,  Blast  Furnaces, 
Stand-Pipes,  Stacks,  Water 
Towers  etc. 

Heavy  and  Light  Steel  Plate 
Construction  Erected  Anywhere. 


™E  TORONTO    IRON    WORKS,   l..m.ted 


TORONTO 


Head    Office:    ROYAL     BANK    BUILDING 


Works:    CHERRY    STREET 


80 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Time 

Demonstrates 

Ability 


1884 


BRANTFORD  FACTORY 


75  YEARS 


1919 


/T  is  not  the  occasional  success  of  a  machine  that 
makes  an  astonishing  record,  that  demonstrates 
ability.  It  is  the  long  record  of  many  years  of  steady 
reliability — of  building  each  machine  a  little  better  than 
called  for  —  that  has  kept  Waterous  products  in 
the  lead. 

Every  time  Waterous  is  put  on  an  article  it 
increases  Waterous  responsibility;  for  it  represents 
our  recognition  of  the  fact,  that  this  past  record  must 
be  maintained.  It  is  your  assurance  that  your  machine 
is  built  upon  all  the  experience  that  the  past  can 
contribute  to  the  needs  of  the  present. 
Manufacturers  of: 

PULPMILL    MACHINERY 

S  A  WMIL  L     MA  CHINE  R  Y 

ENGINES,   BOILERS  and  TANKS 

aterous 

BRANTFORD,,ONTARIO,CANADA 


Jilanttofaa  jffiJribge 


PRODUCTS 

Backed 

EFFICIENT 

STEEL]  STRUCTURES 

BUILDINGS— Offices, 

Warehouses  and  I  ndustrial 

plants,  etc. 
B  R  I  D  G  E.S1—  Railway, 

Highway,  t;  Swing  ,^  and 

Bascule,  etc. 
CRANES  —  Electric    and 

Hand  Power,  Travelling, 

TOWERS— Transmission    Poles    and 
Towers,  etc. 

Plate  and  Tank  Construction 

PLATE  WORK— All  kinds,  Boilers  and 

Riveted  Pipe. 
STEEL    TANKS  — All    kinds;    Water 
Supply    Tanks    and    Towers,     Steel 
Stand    Pipes,     Smoke    Stacks,    Pen- 
stocks, Bins  and  Hoppers,  etc. 
Forgings 
Elevator    and   Power  Transmission 

Machinery,    Upset    Rods 
Recent   installation  of   Hydraulic   Up- 
setting Equipment  capable  of  Upsetting 
roils  up  to  4  in.  diameter. 
Equipm?nt 
MINING  EQUIPMENT  —  Mine  Cars. 
Buckets,  Melting  Pots,  Screens,  Coal 
and  Coke-handling  equipment,  etc. 
RAILWAY  EQUIPMENT-Turntables, 
Frogs  and  Switches,  Snow  Plows,  etc. 
Reinforcing   Steels 
Plain  Rounds,  Square  and  Twisted,  bent 
to  specifications  for  Beams,  Stirrups,  etc. 


OF 


QUALITY 

by 

SERVICE 

Shipbuilding 

Ships'l    Bolts    and.  Spikes, 
Plain"*  and  '  Galvanized, 
General  Forgings,  Tanks, 
Tail     Shafts,    Propellors, 
Fastenings,  etc. 
Contractors'  [Supplies 
Castings 
Grey   Iron,    Semi -steel  and 
Chiiled  and  Electric  Steel. 


Miscellaneous 

Equipment  for  Rolling  Mills,  Pulp  and 
Paper  Mills,  Oil  Refineries,  Saw  Mills, 
Packing  Houses,  Stables,  Jails.  Tank 
and  Silo  Rods  and  Lugs,  Galvanized 
Pump  Rods,  Survey  Stakes,  etc  ,  etc. 
Ornamental  Iron  Work,  Fire  Escapes, 
etc.  Bolts,  Nuts,  Washers,  Spikes, 
Rivets,  etc.  Pole  Line  Hardware,  Plain 
and  Galvanized.  Pole  Saw  Frames; 
Cordwood  Saw  Frames;  Saw  Mandrel-:; 
Pump  Jacks,  Single  and  Double 
Gear. 

Galvanizing  Plant 

Road  Building  and  Earth 

Handling  Equipment 

Cast  Iron  Culvert  Pipe,  Gravel  Screen- 
ing Plants,  Road  Drags  and  Levellers 
Steel  Drag  Scrapers,  Reinforcing  Steel 
for  Concrete  Work,  Highway  Bridges, 
Catch  Basin,  Covers,  Sewer  Manhole 
Covers,  etc.,  etc. 


-  iron  »orfeS  limiteb 


WINNIPEG 


CANADA 


"Cast  Iron  Pipe  has  the  greatest  resistance  to  corrosion. 
It  is  by  far  the  most  economical  in  results." 


WE  MANUFACTURE 


BELL  and   SPIGOT  and 

FLANGED  CAST  IRON   PIPE, 

SPECIALS  and  CASTINGS 

of  all  kinds 

CAR  WHEELS 


INQUIRIES    SOLICITED 


Canada  Iron  Foundries,  Limited 

Head  Office,  MONTREAL 

Works    at:     Fort    William,    Ont.,    St.    Thomas,  Ont., 
Hamilton,  Ont.,  Three  Rivers,  P.O. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


81 


General  Contractors 

We  design  as  well  as  construct. 

Working  under  severe  tidal   conditions 
our  specialty. 

Difficult  foundations   either  pneumatic 
or  open  caisson. — 

Dams,   Piers,   Docks,   Industrial  Plants. 

We  have  The  Plant  and   Organization. 


Pneumatic  Caisson  68  ft.  by  18  ft.  under  construction. 


ENGINEERS  &  CONTRACTORS,  Limited 


102  Prince  William  St., 

E.  R.  REID,  President. 


ST.  JOHN,  N.B. 

E.  M.  ARCHIBALD,  Chief  Engineer. 


NATIONAL  IRON  CORPORATION,  Limited 

Head  Office,  Works  and  Docks :— TORONTO 


Every  size  for  Water,  Gas,  Culvert  or  Sewer,  Carried  in  Stock  at 
Lake  or  Rail  Shipments  TORONTO,  PORT  ARTHUR  and  MONTREAL 


FETHERSTONHAUGH  &  CO.  patent  solicitors 

The  old  established  firm.    Patents  and  Trade  Marks  Everywhere. 

Head  Office:  Royal  Bank  Bldg.,  Toronto 

Ottawa  Office:  5  Elgin  St. 

Offices  throughout  Canada.  Booklet  free 


JAMES,  LOUDON   &   HERTZBERG,    Ltd. 

CONSULTING  ENGINEERS 


36  Toronto  Street 


TORONTO,  CAN. 


Water  Supply  and  Purification;  Sewerage  Systems;  Municipal  and  Trade  Waste 

Disposal  Plants;  Incinerators;  Pavements;  Bridges  and    Structural  work, 

including  Reinforced  Concrete  and  Architectural  Engineering. 


A.  B. 
SEE 


ELECTRIC 
ELEVATOR 
COMPANY 

OF  CANADA 
LIMITED 


MONTREAL    —    TORONTO 


In   all  countries.   Ask   for   our  INVEN- 
TOR'S ADVISER,which  will  be  sent  free. 
MARION  &  MARION, 
364   University  St.,    Montreal. 


JOHN  S.  METCALF  CO  ,  Limited 

Designing  and  Constructing  Engineers 

GRAIN     ELEVATORS 

Wharves  and  Power  Plants 

54  St.  Francois  Xavier  Street,  Montreal,  Que. 

103  South  La  Salle  Street,  Chicago,  111. 

36  Southampton  St.,  Strand,  London,  W.C.,  Eng. 

395  Collins  St.,  Melbourne,  Australia 


82 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


"MICHIGAN" 
WOOD       STAVE 

PIPE 
for    Waterworks,    etc. 

T.  A.  MORRISON  &  CO. 

(MORRISON  QUARRY  CO.— R.  F.  Dykes.  Supt.) 

204  ST.  JAMES  STREET,     MONTREAL 


YARROWS   LIS 

Associated  with  YARROW  &  Co.,  Glasgow. 

SHIPBUILDERS,  ENGINEERS, 

SHIP  REPAIRERS, 

IRON  &  BRASS  FOUNDERS 

MARINE  RAILWAY,  3000  TONS  D.W.  CAPACITY. 

ESQUIMALT    DRY    DOCK,    480    FT.    X    65    FT. 

Modern  facilities  for  quick  despatch  of  ship  repair  work. 

Address:   P.O.    Box    1595,    VICTORIA,    B.C.,    CANADA. 


MILTON  HERSEY  COMPANY  Ltd. 

INDUSTRIAL  CHEMISTS,  ENGINEERS  &  INSPECTORS 

MONTREAL  WINNIPEG 

Analyses  and  Tests  of  all  Materials  including  Steel,  Brass,  Coal,  Oils, 
Water,  Ores,  Sands  Cement. 

Specialists   for  Industrial  Chemical   Problems,  Cement  and  Asphalt 
Construction  Work,  Steel  Inspection  and  Water  Supply. 

"The  Largest  and  Best  Equipped  Commercial  Laboratories  in  Canada" 
ESTABLISHED  27  YEARS 


LOOK  FOR  THE 

"R  SHIELD" 
WATERMARK 


Like  the  sterling 
mark  in  silver,  the 
Karat  mark  in  gold 
so  the  Watermark 
in  paper. 


Bond,  Writing  and  Ledger   Papers 

containing  the  "R  shield"  watermark  are  backed  by  our 
reputation.  Insist  on  this  Watermark  and  you  get  quality. 


THE  ROLLAND  PAPER  CO.,  Limited 

MONTREAL 


JENKINS  BROS.  LIMITED 


HEAD    OFFICE  AND  WORKS    • 

103  St.  Remi  Street, 
MONTREAL,  P.Q. 

CANADA 


EUROPEAN    BRANCH 

6  Great  Queen  St., 

Kingsway, 
LONDON,  W.C.  2 

ENGLAND 


Manufacturers  of  JENKINS  BROS'  VALVES, 

Packing  and  other  Mechanical  Rubber  Goods 


Robert  W.  Hunt 
President 


Charles  Warnock 
Gen'l  M$>r.  &  Treas, 


Robert  W.  Hunt  &  Co. 

Limited 

CONSULTING  and  INSPECTING  ENGINEERS, 
CHEMISTS  and  METALLURGISTS 

Expert  inspection  and  tests  of  all  structural  materials  and  mechanical 
equipment. 

REPORTS  ON  PROPERTIES  AND  PROCESSES 

Head  Office  and  Laboratories:    McGILL  BUILDING,  MONTREAL 

Branches:  Toronto  Vancouver  London,  England 


Dunfield  &  Co.  Ltd 

EXPORTERS  AND  DEALERS  IN  ALL  KINDS  OF 

LUMBER 

AND   INSURANCE   BROKERS 


Dealers  in  all  kinds  of  rough  and 
dressed  lumber.  Shipments  made  by 
rail  in  carload  lots  from  Nova  Scotia 
and  New  Brunswick.  Special  attention 
given  to  dimension  stock  for  construc- 
tion work. 


OFFICES : 

8  Prince  St.,  Halifax,  N.S. 
8  Market  Square,  St.  John,  N.B. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


83 


STEEL  FRAME   BUILDINGS 


Roof  Trusses, 

Columns, 
Fire  Escapes, 

Stairs, 
Ladders,   etc. 


Plain  Steel 
Shapes,  I-Beams, 

H-Beams, 

Channels,  Angles, 

Tees,  Zees  and 

Bars, 

Plates  and  Sheets 


THE    MARITIME    BRIDGE    COMPANY,    LIMITED 


New  Glasgow      -      Nova  Scotia. 


REINFORCING   STEEL 

Superior  quality  in   all  sizes  in    ROUNDS,    SQUARES    AND     SQUARE    TWISTED 

IMMEDIATE      SHIPMENT      FROM      STOCK 

THE  MANITOBA  ROLLING  MILLS  Limited 

SELKIRK,    MAN. 

THE  MANITOBA  STEEL  AND  IRON  CO.  Limited 


GENERAL  SALES  AGENTS 


WINNIPEG,  MAN. 


GEO.  W.  SADLER 

GEO.  F.  HAWORTII 

WALTER  J.  SADLER 


ESTABLISHED    1876 


Cable  Address"  "  SADLER  " 
Western  Union  and    Private   Codes 


SADLER  &  HA  WORTH 


TANNERS  &  MANUFACTURERS  OF 


OAK    LEATHER    BELTING 

Lace  Leather,  Belt  Dressing,  Belt  Cement,  Belt  Fasteners 


c  < 


LEATHER,  LIKE  GOLD,  HAS  NO  SUBSTITUTE." 


Branches: 


Factories  at  MONTREAL,  TORONTO. 

ST.  JOHN,  N.B.,  CALGARY,  WINNIPEG,  VANCOUVER. 


84 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


INDEX   TO   ADVERTISERS 


PAGE 

A.  B.  See  Electric  Elevator  Co 81 

The  Barrett  Co 69 

DeGaspe  Beaubien 84 

Hanbury  A.  Budden 84 

Bedford  Construction  Company 79 

John  Bertram  &  Sons,  Limited 3 

Canada  Cement  Co.,  Limited 8 

Canada  Iron  Foundries,  Limited 80 

Canadian  Fairbanks-Morse  Co.,  Limited 10 

Canadian  Ingersoll-Rand  Co.,  Limited 7 

Canadian  Steel  Foundries,  Limited 78 

Chipman  &  Power 84 

Conte  Hermanos 72 

Cook  Construction  Co.,  Limited  &  Wheaton  Bros 77 

Dept.  of  Public  Works  &  Mines,  N.S 75 

Dominion  Bridge  Co.,  Limited 4 

Dominion  Copper  Products  Co.,  Limited. .  .(Inside  Back  Cover) 

Dominion  Engineering  and  Inspection  Company 84 

Dominion  Iron  &  Steel  Co.,  Limited (Outside  Back  Cover) 

Dunfield  &  Co 82 

Engineers  &  Contractors,  Limited 81 

Ewing,  Lovelace  &  Tremblay 84 

Fetherstonhaugh  &  Co 81 

Walter  J.  Francis  &  Company 84 

Grant  &  Home 75 

Rudolph  Hering,  D.Sc 84 

Milton  Hersey  Company,  Limited 82 

R.  W.  Hunt  &  Co 82 


PAGE 

Imperial  Oil  Limited 5,  6 

James,  Loudon  &  Hertzberg,  Limited 81 

Jenkins  Bros.  Limited 82 

Jones  &  Glassco  (Inc.) 78 

R.  S.  &  W.  S.  Lea 84 

Manitoba  Bridge  and  Iron  Works  Limited 80 

The  Manitoba  Steel  and  Iron  Co.,  Limited 83 

Marion  &  Marion 81 

The  Maritime  Bridge  Company,  Limited 89 

T.  McAvity  &  Sons,  Limited 71 

Geo.  K.  McDougall,  B.Sc 84 

John  S.  Metcalf  Co.,  Limited 81 

Modern  Printing  Co (Inside  Back  Cover) 

Montreal  Blue  Print  Co 84 

T.  A.  Morrison  &  Co 82 

National  Iron  Corporation 81 

Nova  Scotia  Construction  Co.,  Limited 74 

Nova  Scotia  Steel  &  Coal  Co.,  Ltd 73 

Pratt  &  Whitney  Co.,  Limited (Inside  Front  Cover) 

J.  M.  Robertson  Ltd 84 

Rolland  Paper  Co.,  Limited 82 

Sadler  &  Haworth 83 

The  Shawinigan  Water  &  Power  Company 77 

Spray  Engineering  Co., 76 

Arthur  Surveyer  &  Co 84 

Toronto  Iron  Works 79 

Turnbull  Elevator  Mfg  Co 76 

Waterous  Engine  Works  Co 80 

Yarrows  Limited 82 


209  Beaver  Hall  Hill 
MONTREAL 


Phone 
UPTOWN  5624 


MONTREAL  BLUE  PRINT  CO. 

Photo  reductions  from  Plans,  Blue  Prints, 
Etc.,  Etc. 

BLUE    PRINTING  IN  ALL  ITS  BRANCHES, 
DRAUGHTING,  ETC. 


J.  M.  ROBERTSON 

LIMITED 

Consulting  Mechanical  and 

Electrical  Engineer 


625  Coristine  Building 


MONTREAL 


Arthur  Surveter,  C.E.       R.  DeL.  French,  C.E. 

ARTHUR  SURVEYER  &  CO. 

Consulting  Engineers 
274  Beaver  Hall  Hill  MONTREAL 


A.M.E.I.C.  AB8.  A.I.E.E. 

DeGASPE  BEAUBIEN 

B.Sc. 

Consulting  Engineer 

Tel.  M.  8240 

28  Royal  Insurance  Building,         MONTREAL 


GEO.   K.   MCDOUGALL,    B.Sc, 

CONSULTING  ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEER 

Illuminating    Engineering,    Industrial    Elec- 
trical Installations,  High  Tension 
Power  Transmission,  etc. 


Drummond  Building, 
MONTREAL 


Telephone: 
Uptown  823. 


CHIPMAN  &  POWER 

Civil  Engineers 
TORONTO       WINNIPEG 

WILLIS  CHIPMAN  GEO.  H.  POWER 


DOMINION  ENGINEERING 

AND  INSPECTION  COMPANY 
Testing  Engineers  and  Chemists 

Mill,  shop,  field  inspections  of  bridges  and  structural 

steel  work.  Iron  and  steel  pipe. 

Testing  of  cement  and  metals. 

Industrial  Chemistry.         Metallurgy  a  Specialty. 

320  Lagauchetiere  St.  W.,  Montreal,  Que. 

Branches:  Winnipeg  and  Toronto 


James  Ewino,  E.  S.  M.  Lovelace,  B.A.Sc, 

M.E.I.C.  M.E.I.C. 

Altheod  Tremblat,  A.M.E.I.C. 
Mem.  Board  of  Directors  Q.L.S. 

EWING,  LOVELACE  &  TREMBLAY 

Civil  Engineers  and  Land  Surveyors 

Surveys,  Plans,  Maps,  Estimates  and  Reports,  Rail- 
way Location,  Bd.  of  Ry.  Commission   Plans, 
Power  and  Industrial  Sites,  Municipal  Work, 
Town  Planning,  Subdivisions. 
BIRKS'  BUILDING.     14  PHILLIPS  SQUARE. 
Tel.  Upt.  1100  MONTREAL 


RESEARCH     BUREAU 

REPORTS  BY  EXPERTS  ON  SCIENTIFIC. 

TECHNICAL  AND    INDUSTRIAL 

DEVELOPMENT. 

SPECIAL  RESEARCHES  ARRANGED. 

PATENTS,     TRADE     MARKS,     ETC. 


Hanbury  A.  Budden 

812  Drummond    Bldg 

Montreal 


Cable  Address 
"Brevet" 


Walter  J.  Francis,  C.E. 
M.E.I.C. 
M.Am  Soc.C.E., 
M.Inst. C.E. 


F.  B.  Brown,  M.Sc, 
M.E.I.C. 

Mem.Am.Soc.M.E., 
Mem.A.I.E.E. 


Walter  J,  Francis  &  Company 

Consulting  Engineers 

Head  Office:  260  St.  James  St..  Montreal 

Cable  Address:  "WALrRAN,  Montreal."  W.U.Code 
Long  Distance  Telephone:  Main  5643. 


R.  S.  &  W.  S.  LEA 

Consulting  Engineers 

Water   Supply,    Sewerage   and    Drainage:    Water 
Purification:  Disposal  of  Sewage  and  Refuse; 
Water  Power  Developments  and  Power 
Plants.     Reports,  Designs,  Super- 
vision of  Construction. 
New  Birks  Building,  Telephone, 

MONTREAL,  QUE.  UPTOWN  783. 


.E.I.  C. 


Mem.  Inst.  Civil  Engrs. 


Mem.  Am.  Soc.  C.E. 


RUDOLPH  HERING,  D.Sc. 

Consulting  Engineer 
Water  Supply,  Sewage  and  Refuse  Disposal 

170  Broadway,  New  York,  N.Y. 


Dominion  Copper  Products 
Company,  Limited 

MANUFACTURERS   OF 

COPPER    AND    BRASS 

SEAMLESS  TUBES,   SHEETS   AND   STRIPS  IN   ALL   COMMERCIAL   SIZES 


Office  and  Works:  LACHINE,  P.Q.,  Canada. 
u  P.O.  Address:  MONTREAL,  P.Q.  Cable  Address:  "DOMINION" 


33 -,  .       , . II 

Thia  Journal  is  printed  by  ig*G 

.^MODERN 
PRINTING 

Company 

MONTREAL'S       HlGH       GRADE       PRINTERS 

QUALITY      -       SERVICE       -      SATISFACTION 

ASK  FOR  OUR  PRICES  BEFORE  PLACING  YOUR  ORDERS  FOR  PRINTING 
39  DOWD  STREET  MONTREAL  TEL.  MAIN  112 


DOMINION  IRON  &  STEEL  CO.  Limited 


Head  Offices  and  Works:    SYDNEY,  N.S 


"e50™500"""""^^ 


^MANUFACTURERS     OF 

PIG  IRON,  Basic  and  Foundry  Grades. 

BASIC  OPEN  HEARTH  STEEL, 
BLOOMS, 

BILLETS  and  SLABS. 


STEEL  RAILS — All  sections  up  to  and  including  100  lbs.  per 
Lineal  Yard. 


STEEL  BARS — Rounds,  Flats,  Squares,  Reinforcements  Bars, 
Plain  or  Twisted. 


WIRE  RODS— All  qualities,  in  Gauges  No.  5  to  £" 


WIRE — Plain,    Annealed,     Galvanized,     Coil     Spring,     and 
Barbed  Fence. 


WIRE  NAILS— All  Standard  and  Special  Patterns 


AMMONIUM  SULPHATE 


SULPHURIC      ACID 


BENZOL, 


TOLUOL, 


SOLVENT  NAPHTHA 


yytoocaooac^vaoaQoaaoooanooaacaa^ 


SYDNEY,  N.S. 


SALES    OFFICES 

1 12  St.  James  St.  MONTREAL,  P.Q. 


iooooooooaapoooooooooaaBooonac 


THE  JOURNAL  OF 
THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE 

OFCANADA 


TO  FACILITATE  THE  ACQUIREMENT  AND  INTERCHANGE 
OF  PROFESSIONAL  KNOWLEDGE  AMONG  ITS  MEMBERS. 
TO  PROMOTE  THEIR  PROFESSIONAL  INTERESTS.  TO 
ENCOURAGE  ORIGINAL  RESEARCH.  TO  DEVELOP  AND 
MAINTAIN  HIGH  STANDARDS  IN  THE  ENGINEERING 
PROFESSION  AND  TO  ENHANCE  THE  USEFULNESS 
OF  THE  PROFESSION  TO   THE  PUBLIC." 


ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING  AND  PROFESSIONAL  MEETING 

OTTAWA,  FEBRUARY  11th,  12th,  13th. 


FEBRUARY  1919 


PUBLISHED  MONTHLY  BY  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA, 

AT  176  MANSFIELD  STREET.  MONTREAL 

foL  II  No.  2 


SMALL  TOOLS 


P.  &  W.  Adjustable 
BLADE   REAMERS 


r*&r 


1 


J 


These  reamers  have  eccentric  relief 
and  can  be  set  to  size  without  regrinding. 
They  are  unexcelled  for  design  and 
simplicity  and  ease  of  adjustment. 
The  eccentrically  relieved  blades  are 
stronger  than  others,  do  not  chatter, 
and  produce  a  smoother  hole.  The 
hand,  shell  and  fluted  chucking  reamers 
have  interchangeable  nuts,  screws  and 
wrenches.  The  bottom  of  a  hole  can 
readily  be  faced.  By  a  simple  adjust- 
ment of  the  blades  the  reamers  can 
easily  be  set  to  size  without  regrinding. 


PROMPT  SERVICE 


is  assured  at  our  nearest  store,  where 
P.  &  W.  Small  Tools  are  carried  in  stock. 
Always  order  P.  &  W.  Small  Tools. 


Precision  Machine  Tools  Standard  and  Gauges 


PRATT  &  WHITNEY  CO. 


OF  CANADA,  LIMITED 


Works  :    DUNDAS,     ONTARIO 


MONTREAL 

721  Drummond  Bldg. 


TORONTO 
1002  C.P.R.  BIdg. 


WINNIPEG 
1205  McArthv  BIdg. 


VANCOUVER 
B.C.  Equipment  C* 


JOURNAL   OF   THE   ENGINEERING   INSTITUTE   OF   CANADA      3 


Be^t^am 

Machine  Tools 

EQUIPMENT  FOR 

Locomotive  and  Car  Shops 
Structural  Steel  Shops 


General  Machine  Shops 


WE   MANUFACTURE    A    COMPLETE   LINE   OF    TOOLS    FOR 

FABRICATING  STEEL  PLATE  AND  SHAPES 

FOR    SHIPBUILDING 

LET    US    SEND    YOU    PHOTOS    AND    ESTIMATES 


The  John  Bertram  &  Sons  Co.,  Limited 

Dundas,  Ontario,  Canada 

MONTREAL                       TORONTO                          VANCOUVER  WINNIPEG 

723  Drummond  Bldg.             1002  C.P.R.  Bldg.             609  Bank  of  Ottawa  Bldg.  1205  McArthur  Bldg. 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


BOILERS 


FOR  ALL  PURPOSES 


BOILERS  IN  STOCK 

LOCOMOTIVE 
1-30  HP.     3-40  H.P.     3-6  H.P. 

HORIZONTAL 
2-48"  x  14'       3-54"  x  14' 
4-60"  x  14'       3-72"  x  18' 

VERTICAL 
2  -  15  H.P.       2  - 18  H.P. 


ous 


BRANTFORD,  ONTARIO,  CANADA 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


Picking  the  right  kind  of 
tool  steel  by  the  aid  of  the 
new  LUDLUM  text-book 


Costly  tools  must  be  made  of  the  right  steel  or 
they  are  useless.  We  have  compiled  and  pub- 
lished at  great  expense  a  complete  book  on  this 
subject — 160  pages. 

Do  you  wish  to  know  the  effect  of  alloys  in  steel 
— the  correct  method  of  forging,  hardening,  temper- 
ing, annealing? 

Have  you  use  for  accurate  calculation  tables  and 
much  valuable  information? 

We  will  send  you  a  copy  gratis  on  request,  to  a 
buyer  or  user  of  tool  steel. 


LUDLUM  STEEL 


£il«H,iht<J 


18J+ 


CONSISTENTLY   UNIFORM 


MOHAWK  EXTRA 

HIGH  SPEED  STEEL 

POMPTON 

CARBON  TOOL  STEEL 

ALBANY 

ALLOY  TOOL  STEEL 

ONEIDA 

OIL  HARDENING  TOOL  STEEL 

HURON 

ALLOY  DIE  STEEL 

TETON 

BALL  BEARING  STEEL 

YUMA 

CHROME  MAGNET  STEEL 


LUDLUM  STEEL  COMPANY 


General  Offices  and  Works 

WATERVLIET,  N.  Y. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE]    ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


LET  US  IMPROVE 
OUR  COUNTRY  ROADS  TOO 


"Our  recent  talks  have  been  mostly  regarding 
permanent  pavements,  but  present  country 
and  suburban  highway  maintenance  must  not 
be  overlooked." 

"Every  man  who  rides,  drives  or  hauls  over  our 
country  roads  with  any  frequency,  knows 
the  importance  of  giving  their  upkeep  more 
attention." 

"Poorly  maintained  roads  are  not  satisfactory, 
nor  are  they  cheapest.  Good  roads  are  abso- 
lutely necessary  to  the  prosperity  of  every 
community.  All  recognize  this,  so  let  us  all 
use  our  influence  to  secure  better  maintained 
roads." 

"A  well-graded  dirt  road  properly  maintained 
will  answer  very  well  the  requirements  of  light 
and  moderate  traffic  in  rural  communities, 
but  it  must  be  properly  maintained.  Gravel 
and  macadam  roads  are  too  expensive  to 
permit  of  neglect.  There  is  nothing  of  greater 
importance  in  the  maintenance  of  the  above 
three  types  of  roads  than  Imperial  Liquid 
Asphalts." 


"If  used  only  as  a  substitute  for  water  to  keep  down  the 
dust,  Imperial  Liquid  Asphalt  are  well  worth  while.     One 
application  and   the  work  is  done  and   the  road  dust- 
less  for  the  season.     Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts 
save  the  daily   trips   of   the  sprinkling  cart.        IMPFfQI  F\\  { 

CANADIAN      MADE 

ASPHAliT 


big  points 
"Imperial 


They  are  easy  and  not  expensive  to  apply  and 
once  down,  they  are  there  to  stay." 


"But  Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts  help  in  other 
ways  as  well  as  by  keeping  down  the  dust. 
They  protect  road  surfaces  from  the  wear  of 
steel  tires  and  horse  shoes  ;  from  the  erosion 
of  rains  and,  to  a  great  extent,  from  frost 
damage  by  sealing  surfaces  against  penetration 
by  water.  Properly  applied  Imperial  Liquid 
Asphalts  increase  the  traffic- carrying  capacity 
of  dirt,  gravel  or  macadam  roads,  many, 
many  times." 

"Imperial  LiquidJAsphalts  are  not  like  some 
other  road  oils,  for  Imperial  Liquid  Asphalts 
contain  from  20%  to  60%  of  pure  Asphalt 
(depending  upon  the  specifications)  so  20%  to 
60%  stays  and  adds  to  the  utility  of  the  road, 
permanently. " 

"Repeated  applications  will  form  a  road  sur- 
face which,  while  not  approaching  the  per- 
manent Asphalt  pavement,  is  one  that  does 
very  well  for  light  and  moderate  traffic  in 
rural  communities.  Imperial  Liquid  Asphalt 
do  not  remain  sticky  and  do  not  continue  to 
give  off  objectionable  odors.  Imperial  Liquid 
Asphalts  contain  no  elements  or  compounds 
that  will  injure  rubber  tires.  All  of  these  are 
worth  keeping  in  mind." 

Liquid  Asphalts  are  refined  in  Canada  from 
the  best  Mexican  Asphaltic  crudes.  They  are 
available  in  any  quantities  desired,  in  all 
parts  of  the  Dominion." 


"if  you  are  interested  in  construction  of  roads  or  streets,  or  the  better  maintenance 
of  those  in  your  community*,  we  would  like  to  co-operate  with  you.  Out  Road 
Engineers  -will  gladly  assist  or  advise  without  charge,  in  all  matters  relating 
to  road  construction,  improvement  or  maintenance. 


WRITE  ROAD    ENGINEERING    DEPARTMENT 


IMPERIAL   OIL   LIMITED,     Imperial  Oil  Bidding,     Toronto 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


GUARANTEE 


EHIND  the  Cameron  pump  stands  the  Cameron  guarantee; 
behind  the  Cameron  guarantee  stands  the  thorough  test  of 
every  pump  sold. 

All  pumps  are  tested  under  full  working  conditions. 

Here  are  the  conditions  of  every  test  on  CAMERON  centrifugal  pumps  ;-- 
Power  input  is  measured  by  torsion  dynamometer. 

Discharge  pressure  is  measured  with  accurate  gauges,  frequently  calibrated. 
Quantity  is  measured  by  weir,  and  suction  lift  by  mercury  column. 

No  pump  is  too  small  to  be 
thoroughly  tested. 


Electrically  Driven  Cameron  Centrifugal  Pump  Serving  Beyer  Barometric  Condenser. 


CANADIAN  INGERSOLL  -  RAND  CO.,  Limited 


SYDNEY  SHERBROOKE 

WINNIPEG 


MONTREAL 
NELSON 


TORONTO  COBALT 

VANCOUVER 


8 


JOURNAL     O  FiftT  HE    ENGINEERING!  INS  TtITU  TLE     OF     CANADA 


in  Pounds 


TRACTION  tests  made  in  1917  by 
the  Good  Roads  Bureau  of  the 
California  State  Automobile 
Association  have  done  much  to  show  the 
public  what  power  and  fuel  waste  there 
is  on  some  types  of  roads  and  what  a 
saving  comes  from  driving  on  Concrete. 
These  tests,  which  were  under  the  per- 
sonal direction  of  Prof.  J.  B.  Davidson, 
Divisionj  of  Agricultural  Engineering, 
University  of  California,  are  summarized 
as  follows  : 


wm- 


PULL  IN  POUNDS  PER  TON 

Over  a  level,  unsurfaced  Concrete  road 

Gravel  road,  good  condition,  level 

Earth  road,  fine  dust,   level 

Earth  road,  stiff  mud  on  top,  firm  underneath  level 
Loose  gravel,  not  packed  down,  new  road,  level    .     . 


Concrete  roads  are  well  adapted  both  to  motor  and  horse- 
drawn  traffic.  There  are  no  holes  nor  loose  stones  on  the 
surface.  The  even,  yet  gritty,  surface  always  provides  a 
good  footing,  which  prevents  horses  from  wrenching  their 
knees  and  shoulders.  Only  a  slight  crown  is  needed  on  the 
Concrete  road  to  drain  surface  water  off  quickly.  Motor 
trucks  and  automobiles  find  Concrete  the  ideal  pavement. 
It  is  skidproof  even  in 
wet  weather.  There 
is  no  tire  \  slipping 
forward  oriLsidewise, 
no  waste  fpower  \  in 
traction. 

CANADA  CEMENT 

LIMITED        jflJHttH 

509  Herald  Building         JE?  1(9'!*^%   SMBISE  I 

MONTREAL  •5*fc\  :*T*W    ~*^ 

m  srass  mm  * 


MONTREAL 


Sales  Offices  at 
TORONTO  WINNIPEG  CALGARY 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


The  Journal  of 
The  Engineering  Institute 

of  Canada 


February,   1919 


CONTENTS 


Volume  II,  No.  2 


REPORT  OF  COUNCIL  FOR  1918 59 

PROGRAMME 81 

MEAN  SEA  LEVEL  AS  GENERAL  DATUM  FOR  CANADA 82 

MINING  AND  METALLURGY  OF  COBALT  SILVER-ORES 86 

NATIONAL  HIGHWAYS  AND  GOOD  ROADS 91 

DESIGN  AND  CONSTRUCTION  OF  REINFORCED  CONCRETE  VIADUCTS  AT  TORONTO.  93 

CAN  EARTH  ROADS  BE  MADE  SATISFACTORY 102 

ECONOMY  IN  OCEAN  TRANSPORTATION 104 

MODERN  BOILER  PRACTICE 109 

EDITORIAL 120 

Summary  of  Legislation  Situation 

Government  Considering  Salaries 

No  Railway  Rebates 

Ontario  Provincial  Division. 

Water  Resources  Conference 

CORRESPONDENCE 123 

REPORT  OF  COUNCIL  MEETING 127 

BRANCH  NEWS 129 

Saskatchewan  Branch  Vancouver  Branch 

Manitoba  Branch  Montrael  Branch 

St.  John  Branch  Calgary  Branch 

Sault  Ste.  Marie  Branch 

PERSONALS 134 

OBITUARIES 135 

EMPLOYMENT  BUREAU 135 

PRELIMINARY  NOTICE  OF  APPLICATIONS 136 

ENGINEERING  INDEX 138 

The  Institute  does  not  hold  itself  responsible  for  the  opinions  expressed  by  the  authors 

of  the  papers  published  in  its  records,  or  for  discussions  at    any  of  its   meetings   or  for 
individual  views  transmitted  through  the  medium  of  the  Journal. 


Published  by 

THE    ENGINEERING    INSTITUTE    OF    CANADA 

176  Mansfield  St.,  Montreal 

BRANCHES: 

Halifax.  N.S.;  St.  John,  N.B.;  Quebec,  P.Q.;  Montreal,  P.Q. ;  Ottawa,  Ont;  Toronto,  Ont. ;  Winnipeg,  Man.; 
Hamilton,  Ont.;  Regina,  Sask.;  Calgary,  Alta.;  Edmonton,  Alia.;  Vancouver,  B.C. ;  Victoria,  B.C. 


10 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Fairbanks-Morse 
Road  Machinery 


ROAD  ROLLERS 

TRACTORS 

SCARIFIERS 

ROCK  CRUSHERS 

CRUSHING  OUTFITS 

STONE  SCREENS 

WHEEL  BARROWS 

PLOWS 

SCRAPERS 

WHEELED  SCRAPERS 

MARTIN  DITCHERS 

ROAD  MACHINES 

GRADERS 

ROAD  DRAYS 

DUMP  WAGONS 

STREET  SWEEPERS 

SPRINKLERS 

HEATING    DISTRIBUTORS 

CLIMAX  DISTRIBUTORS 

KETTLES 

CONCRETE  MIXERS 

TOOLS 

1 


Yes,  Fairbanks-Morse  lines  are  very  extensive  and  cover 
twelve  different  departments  including  practically  "Everything 
Mechanical." 

Fairbanks-Morse  Road  Machinery  Department  is  in  charge 
of  a  man  who  is  familiar  with  this  equipment.  The  list  in  the 
margin  gives  an  indication  of  the  very  complete  line  of  Fairbanks - 
Morse  Road  Machinery. 

The  various  machines  listed  were  selected  for  their  mecha- 
nical excellence  of  construction  —  ease  and  economy  of  operation. 


Put  your  Road  Machinery  Problem  up  to- 


The  Canadian  Fairbanks -Morse  Co.,  Limited 

"  CANADA'S   DEPARTMENTAL   HOUSE   FOR   MECHANICAL   GOODS " 

DISTRIBUTORS  FOR  LACO  LAMPS 

HALIFAX,        ST.  JOHN,         QUEBEC,         MONTREAL,         OTTAWA,         TORONTO,         HAMILTON,         WINDSOR, 
WINNIPEG,  SASKATOON,  CALGARY,  VANCOUVER,  VICTORIA. 


THE  JOURNAL  OF 

THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE 

OF  CANADA 


A     MONTHLY     JOURNAL 

Published  By 

THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 

INCORPORATED    IN    1887    AS 
THE    CANADIAN    SOCIETY    OF    CIVIL    ENGINEERS 


Volume  II 


FEBRUARY  1919 


Number  2 


REPORT  OF  COUNCIL  FOR  THE  YEAR  1918 


In  presenting  its  report  for  the  year  Nineteen  Hundred 
and  Eighteen,  the  Council  of  The  Engineering  Institute 
of  Canada  does  so  with  a  sense  of  satisfaction  in  the 
progress  that  has  taken  place  in  Institute  affairs  during 
the  year  just  past,  which,  as  in  the  history  of  the  world, 
also  marks  an  epoch  in  the  affairs  of  the  engineers  of 
Canada. 

It  is  with  a  spirit  of  thankfulness  that  Council  is 
able  to  record  the  termination  of  the  devastating  world 
struggle  and  with  a  conscious  but  permissible  pride  to 
pay  a  tribute  to  the  gallant  men  of  the  engineering  pro- 
fession of  Canada  who  have  taken  such  a  notable  part  in 
the  war  and  who  have  been  a  factor  in  contributing  to 
its  success.  A  large  number  of  our  overseas  members, 
unfortunately,  will  not  return  but  their  memories  will 
always  be  cherished  A  few  are  with  us  again  and  it  is 
hoped  that  all  shall  have  arrived  in  Canada  before  many 
months  have  passed. 

During  the  year  the  new  By-Laws,  proposed  by  the 
Committee  on  Society  Affairs,  were  finally  adopted  and 
have  become  the  official  By-Laws  of  The  Institute. 

The  former  name,  The  Canadian  Society  of  Civil 
Engineers,  has  been  changed  by  Act  of  Parliament  to 
The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada,  and  with  the  change 
has  come  a  broader  outlook  and  wider  possibilities  for  the 
organization. 

The  inauguration  of  professional  meetings  and  the 
successful  convening  of  three  during  the  year,  one  in 
Toronto,  one  in  Saskatoon  and  one  in  Halifax,  has  given 
rise  to  a  stronger  bond  of  fellowship  and  has  afforded  an 
additional  opportunity  of  enabling  the  members  to 
become  acquainted,  so  that  these  meetings,  judging 
from  the  results  of  those  held  during  the  year,  are  bound  to 
knit  more  closely  together  the  fabric  of  The  Institute. 


The  President  has  been  in  attendance  and  has  presided  at 
all  the  professional  meetings,  which  precedent  it  is  hoped 
will  be  continued  by  succeeding  Presidents. 

Four  new  Branches  have  been  established,  all  of  them 
in  a  nourishing  condition,  at  Montreal,  Hamilton,  Halifax 
and  St.  John.  Shortly  after  their  formation,  the  Halifax 
and  St.  John  Branches  co-operated  in  arranging  for  a 
professional  meeting,  which  has  greatly  stimulated 
engineering  activities  in  the  Maritime  Provinces.  In  the 
Montreal  Branch,  mechanical,  electrical,  civil  and  indus- 
trial sections  have  been  created,  thus  increasing  the 
interest  of  the  members  in  every  branch  of  the  profession 
and  enabling  all  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  meetings. 

As  the  result  of  an  earnest  desire  to  place  the 
engineering  profession  on  a  higher  plane  and  to  give  its 
members  the  recognition  to  which  they  are  entitled,  the 
question  of  legislation  has  become  an  active  issue  in  the 
various  Branches  in  the  Dominion.  A  definite  proposal 
to  secure  provincial  legislation,  originated  with  the  western 
provinces  and  is  being  discussed  by  every  Branch. 
Council  has  approved  of  the  principle  of  securing  legis- 
lation for  raising  the  status  of  the  profession  and  has 
encouraged  discussion  of  the  subject  in  order  that  the 
various  Branches  may  come  to  an  agreement  whereby 
similar  legislation  would  be  sought  in  every  province. 
While  giving  every  encouragement,  Council  has  felt  that 
its  great  importance  demands  that  no  precipitate  action 
be  taken. 

With  the  inauguration  of  The  Journal  of  The  En- 
gineering Institute  there  has  been  established  a  medium 
of  intercommunication  which,  from  its  first  issue  has 
received  the  hearty  approval  and  commendation  of  the 
membership.  It  has  been  designed  to  include  the  en- 
gineering literature  of  Canada,  which,  naturally,  largely 


60 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


originates  from  the  membership  of  this  Institute;  the 
papers  read  at  professional  meetings  or  at  Branches  and 
any  discussion  thereon;  all  news  of  Branch  activity; 
correspondence;  monthly  Report  of  Council;  items  of 
personal  interest;  an  employment  bureau  to  bring  to  the 
attention  of  the  members  positions  available  and  an 
engineering  index.  This  latter  feature  comprises  a  review 
of  eleven  hundred  engineering  and  technical  magazines 
every  month  by  a  group  of  experts  on  the  staff  of  the 
American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers,  through  whose 
courtesy  the  index  has  been  made  available  to  our  members 
for  a  nominal  sum.  This  service  also  includes  the  availa- 
bility of  photostat  copies  of  any  of  these  articles  through 
the  Engineering  Societies  Library,  whose  director, 
Dr.  Harrison  W.  Craver,  has  accorded  our  members  the 
privileges  of  their  magnificent  library. 

As  in  1917  a  Tobacco  Fund  was  created  and  over 
five  hundred  members  overseas,  whose  addresses  were 
available,  have  received  Christmas  greetings  and 
cigarettes. 

Of  no  small  importance  to  the  members  is  the  interest 
which  the  Council  has  taken  in  advancing  the  status  of 
the  individual.  A  committee  of  the  Council  interviewed 
the  Civil  Service  Commission  and  was  asked  to  make 
recommendations  regarding  salaries.  This  has  been 
done,  and  if  accepted,  as  has  been  promised,  will  be  a 
powerful  factor  in  raising  the  standard  of  engineers' 
salaries  throughout  the  Dominion. 

A  review  of  the  past  year  would  not  be  complete 
without  recording  the  marked  spirit  of  loyalty  to  The 
Institute,  which  is  in  evidence  in  every  part  of  the 
Dominion,  by  the  individual  members  and  by  our  splendid 
Branch  organizations  and  noting  the  general  willingness 
of  the  members  of  every  grade  to  closely  co-operate  in  all 
matters  relating  to  the  affairs  of  the  Institute  or  designed 
to  promote  the  welfare  of  the  profession. 


December  31st,  1918. 


H.  H.  Vaughan,  President. 
Fraser  S.  Keith,  Secretary. 


Roll  of  the  Institute. 

Elections  during  the  year  resulted  in  the  following 
additions  to  the  Roll:  thirty-eight  Members;  one  hundred 
and  two  Associate  Members;  twenty-five  Juniors;  seven 
Students  and  three  Associates. 

The  following  transfers  were  made:  twenty-four 
Associate  Members  and  one  Associate  to  the  class  of 
Member;  twenty-three  Juniors  and  four  Students  to  the 
class  of  Associate  Member  and  eighteen  Students  to  the 
class  of  Junior. 

There  have  been  removed  from  the  rolls  by  resignation 
or  on  account  of  non-payment  of  dues:  eight  Members; 
ten  Associate  Members;  one  Associate  and  two  Students. 
A  detailed  list  of  resignations  accepted  is  as  follows  :— 

Members: 

Burpee,  Tyler  Coburn.  Maunsell,  George  S. 

Crockard,  F.  H.  Mayer,  Joseph. 

Dupont,  Victor  H.  Parent,  Paul  Etienne. 

Harris,  William  Dale. 
Kimball,  H.  S. 


Associate  Member*: 
Baker,  Mason  H. 
Bankson,  E.E. 
Buell,  W.  E. 
Corman,  W.  E. 
Glassco,  A.  P.  S. 

Associate: 

Grant,  William  H. 

Students: 

Hooper,  Ronald  H. 


Grant,  William  F. 
Jacques,  H.  S. 
Mendelssohn,  Joseph. 
Mulville,  John  C. 
Walker,  N.  de  C. 


Mathews,  J.  E. 


The  following  deaths,  fifty-three  in  number  have  been 
reported,  of  which  number  seventeen  were  killed  in  action. 


Members 


Beullac,  Marcel  C.  J. 
Breen,  Thomas. 
Brophy,  John  Byrne. 
Bruce,  A.  H.  N. 
Carre,  Henry. 
Darey,  Laurence  A. 
Davis,  William  Mahlon. 
Donaldson,  Morley. 
Earle,  William  Zobeski. 
Edwards,  Prof.  William  Muir. 
Hill,  Albert  James. 
MacLeod,  Henry  A.  F. 
Millidge,  Edwin  Gilpin. 
Murray,  T.  Aird. 
Schreiber,  Sir  Collingwood. 
Sidenius,  Harry. 
Smith,  Henry  Badeley. 
Thibaudeau,  W. 


Associate  Members 

Bayfield,  Henry  Arthur. 

Bodwell,  Howard  L. 

Bromley-Smith,  A. 

Clarke,  Leonard  Oswald. 

Cowan,  William  A. 

Cronk,  Francis  Joseph. 

Galbraith,  William  John. 

Greenwood,  Walter  Kendall 

Hyde,  Wm.  Herbert. 

Kemp,  Melville  A. 

O'Donnell,  Hugh. 

Rainboth,  John. 

Wood,  J.  Russell. 

Juniors 

Grenier,  Hector. 

Randall,  Henry  Edward. 

Students 

Boright,  George  K. 

Wilson,  Calvin  P. 

Killed  in  action,  or  died  while  on  Active  Service: 
Members Winslow,  Rainsford-Hannay. 

Associate  Members Booth,  Patrick  D. 

Henderson,  Thomas  D. 
Kent,  Victor  J. 
McQueen,  Howard  R. 
Meade,  Alfred  de  Courcy. 
Richardson,  Francis  A. 
Sailman,  Robert  T.  H.  (L.) 
(1917). 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


61 


Juniors Ferguson,  L.  L. 

Middleton,  James  R.  (1917). 

Milot,  J.  Adelard  (1917). 

Willson,  F.  J.  (1917). 
Students MacLean,  Donald  Gordon. 

O'Riellv,  Richard  H. 

Peck,  H.  M. 

Scott,  George  M. 

Wilson,  William  James  (1917). 

At  present  the  membership  stands  as  follows: 

Honorary  Members 9 

Members 752 

Associate  Members 1,548 

Juniors 373 

Students 488 

Associates 33 


Total 3,203 

The  membership  of  the  Branches  as  at  December 
31st,  1918,  is  as  follows: — 

Mem-    Assoc.  Asso-      Am- 

bers   Members  Juniors  Students  ciates      liates 

Quebec 18        55  17  14  1 

Ottawa 65      124  35  29  2 

Toronto 66      144  34  69  5 

Manitoba 40        93  26  20  1 

Vancouver 47        72  7  4 

Kingston Activities  discontinued  until  the  close  of 

the  war. 


Victoria 

Calgary 

Edmonton .... 
Saskatchewan. 


22 

21 

11 

9 


Montreal,  H.M.  3   136 


Halifax. . . 
St.  John.. 
Hamilton 


25 
13 

4 


30 
37 
31 
67 
250 
30 
21 
18 


3 
5 

7 
3 
71 
5 
8 
7 


8 

5 

168 

3 

8 


2 
1 

1  6 

11 

1 


Meetings. 

(The  Montreal  Branch  took  over  the  meeting*  at  Headquarters 
in  February.) 
There  have  been  nine  meetings  at  which  the  following 
papers  were  read:  — 

"  Quebec  Bridge,"  by  G.  H.  Duggan,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

"  Recent   Advances   in   Canadian   Metallurgy,"    by 
Dr.  A.  Stansfield. 

'  Tests  of  the  Chain  Fenders  in  the  Locks  of  the 
Panama  Canal,"  by  Henry  Goldmark,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

"  Datum  Planes  Related  to  the  Tide,"  by  Dr.  W. 
Bell  Dawson,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

"  Engineering    Activities    in    Connection    with    the 
Navy,"  by  Commander  Skentelbery. 

"  Nicu  Steel,"  by  Col.  R.  W.  Leonard,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

"  Kettle  Rapids  Bridge,"  by  W.  Chase  Thomson, 
M.  E.  I.C. 

"  Varnish  Manufacture,"  by  Norman  Holland. 

"  Champlain  Dry  Dock  for  Quebec  Harbour,"   bv 
U.  Valiquet,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

■   Address  on  Military  matters  by  Lieut.  Ashworth. 


Institute  Committees  for  1918. 

Executive  Committee  of  Council  : 

Vaughan,  H.  H.,  Chairman. 
Fairbairn,  J.  M.  R.  Francis,  Walter  J. 

Safford,  H.  R.  Surveyer,  Arthur. 

Ross,  R.  A.  Brown,  Ernest. 

Finance  : 

Ross,  R.  A.,  Chairman. 
Duggan,  G.  H.  Monsarrat,  C.  N. 

Marceau,  Ernest.  Robertson,  J.  M. 

Library  and  House  : 

Safford,  H.  R.,  Chairman. 
Surveyer,  Arthur.  Shearwood,  F.  P. 

Frigon.A.  McGuigan,  F.  H.,  Jr. 

By-Laws  : 

Safford,  H.  R.,  Chairman. 
Francis,  Walter  J.  Brown,  Ernest. 

Papers  (June  1918-19)  : 

Francis,  Walter  J.,  Chairman. 
Matheson,  E.  G.  Doucet,  A.  E. 

Duff,  W.  Arch'd.  Macintyre,  R.  W. 

Gillespie,  Peter.  Elliot,  L.  B. 

Gale,  G.  Gordon.  Mackie,  G.  D. 

Publications  : 

Brown,  Ernest,  Chairman. 
Robertson,  J.  M.  French,  R.  deL. 

Thomson,  W.  Chase.  DeCew,  J.  A. 


E  n  g  i  n  eer  i  n  g  Sla  n  da  rds 
Duggan,  G.  H. 


Herdt,  L.  A. 


Electro-Technical  : 

Herdt,  L.  A.,  Chairman. 
Gill,  L.  W.  Lambe,  A.  B. 

Barnes,  H.  T.  Rosebrugh,  T.  R. 

Higman,  O.  Murphy,  J. 

Kynoch,  J. 

Board  of  Examiners  and  Education  : 

MacKay,  H.  M.,  Chairman. 
Surveyer,  A.,  Secretary.        French,  R.  deL. 
Brown,  Ernest.  Lea,  R.  S. 

Robertson,  J.  M.  Roberts,  A.  R. 

Board  of  Examiners — Quebec  Act  : 

Surveyer,  Arthur,  Chairman. 
Fairbairn,  J.  M.  R.  Brown,  Frederick.  B. 

MacKay,  H.  M.,  McGill  University  representative. 
Surveyer,  Arthur,  Laval  University  representative. 

Committee  on  Gzowski  Medal  and  Students'  Prizes  : 

Duggan,  G.  H.,  Chairman. 
Ambrose,  J.  R.  W.  St.  Laurent,  A. 

Lewis,  D.  O.  Wilson,  R.  M. 


Honor  Roll  : 

Monsarrat,  C.  N. 


Keith,  Fraser  S. 


62 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Nominating  : 

Saskatchewan MacKenzie,  H.  R. 

Victoria Marriott,  E.  G. 

Manitoba Chace,  W.  G. 

Toronto Harkness,  A.  H. 

Quebec Oliver,  S.  S. 

Ottawa Dion,  A.  A. 

Montreal Tye,  W.  F. 

Lefebvre,  O. 

Vancouver Ker,  Newton  J. 

Calgary Porter,.Sam.  G. 

Edmonton Gibb,  R.  J. 

Fuel  Power: 

Murphy,  John,  Chairman. 
Ross,  R.  A.  Dick,  W.  J. 

Francis,  Walter  J.  Surveyer,  Arthur. 

Challies,  J.  B. 

Steel  Bridge  Specifications  : 

Motley,  P.  B.,  Chairman. 

Monsarrat,  C.  N.  Thomson,  W.  Chase. 

Stuart,  H.  B.  Bowden,  W.  A. 

Boden,  H.  P.  LeGrand,  J.  G. 

Shearwood,  F.  P.  Craig,  George  W. 

Duggan,  G.  H.  Cole,  F.  T. 

Johnson,  Allan  E.  Lyons,  M.  A. 

Montgomery,  E.  G.  W.  Harkness,  A.  H. 
Icke,  H.  A. 

Steam  Boiler  Specifications  : 

Arkley,  L.  M.,  Chairman. 
Chace,  W.  G.  Robb,  D.  W. 

Clark,  F.  G.  Vaughan,  H.  H. 

Durley,  R.  J.  Waterous,  Logan  M. 

Roads  and  Pavements:  : 

McLean,  W.  A.,  Chairman. 

Brereton,  W.  P.  MacPherson,  A.  J. 

Duchastel,  J.  Mercier,  P.  E. 

Griffith,  J.  E.  Near,  W.  P. 

Henry,  G.  Powell,  G.  G. 

James,  E.  A.  Rust,  C.  H. 

MaCallum,  A.  F.  ■    Doane,  F.  W.  W. 

Legislation  Committee 

Representing  Council  : 

Surveyer,  Arthur,  Chairman. 
Robertson,  J.  M.  Francis,  Walter  J. 

Representing  Branches : 

Toronto Haultain,  H.  E.  T. 

Kerry,  J.  G.  G. 

Oliver,  E.  W. 
Calgary Dawson,  A.  S. 

Peters,  F.  H. 

Porter,  S.  G. 
Victoria Maclntyre,  R.  W. 

Lewis,  D.  O. 

Davis,  E. 
Ottawa Dion,  A.  A. 

MaCallum,  A.  B. 

McRae,  J.  B. 


Manitoba Duff,  W.  Arch'd. 

Henry,  M.  G. 

Sauer,  M.  V. 
Saskatchewan Thornton,  L.  A. 

Makie,  G.  D. 

Stein,  J.  N.  de. 
Quebec Decary,  A.  R. 

Doucet,  A.  E. 

Gibault,  J.  E. 
Edmonton Cote,  J.  L. 

Fraser,  A.  T. 

Thornton,  N.  M. 
Vancouver Kennedy,  J.  H. 

Ker.  Newton,  J. 

White,  T.  H. 

The  following  is  a  detailed  statement  of  elections 
and  tranfers  which  have  taken  place  during  the  year. 
These  are  not  included  in  the  official  membership  roll 
until  acceptances  have  been  received. 

January  29th,  1918 
Members: 

Gore,  Wm. 

Associate  Members: 

Cooke,  E.  F.  Murphy,  T.  R.  H. 

Hamilton,  G.  M.  Newhall,  V.  A. 

Meindl,  J.  A.  Todd,  E.  D. 

Morris,  D.  Wilkinson,  J.  B. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 
Goodspeed,  F.  G.  Winslow,  R.  H. 

Powell,  W.  H. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Junior: 
Flett,  F.  P. 

March  19th,  1918 

Associate  Members: 

Gray,  A.  W.  Lowden,  N. 

Greene,  J.  F.  Swain,  R.  J. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 
Atkinson,  M.  B.  Jones,  L.  M. 

Brereton,  W.  P.  Meyers,  A.  J. 

Foreman,  A.  E. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Junior  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 
Cowley,  F.  P.  V. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Junior: 
Easton,  L.  I.  Ross-Ross,  D.  deC. 

April  23rd,  1918 
Members: 

Bell,  F.  J.  Johnson,  C. 

Guy,  G.  L.  Rindal,  H. 

Haanel,  B.  F.  C. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


63 


Associate  Members: 
Campbell,  W.  G. 
Gillies,  W.  C. 
Meade,  J,  C. 
Prevost,  R.  deM. 


Smith,  F.  G. 
Townsend,  F.  W. 
Wotherspoon,  W. 


May  21st,  1918 


Jacobson,  E.  A. 
Smaill,  W. 
Stansfield,  E. 


Pratt,  G.  R. 
Puntin,  J.  H. 
Rannie,  J.  L. 
Reilly,  F.  B. 
Smith,  W.  R. 
Warren,  W.  R. 


Collins,  L.  E. 
Kendall,  R. 
Wright,  W.  G. 


Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 
Dick,  W.  J.  Waddell,  N.  E. 

Miles,  E.  L. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Sudent  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 

Erskine,  J. 

Members: 

Collins,  C.  D. 
Crockard,  F.  H. 
Faibairn,  R.  P. 

Associate  Members: 
Adamson,  E.  K. 
Brown,  D.  M. 
Cummings,  A. 
Hanson,  E.  C.  A. 
King,  J.  A.  S. 
Marshall,  J. 

Juniors: 

Allen,  R.  W. 
Bothwell,  R.  S.  C. 
Bridges,  F.  J. 
Cassidy,  J.  F. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 
Hogarth,  Geo. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Junior  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 
Somers,  N.  L. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 
McKenzie,  J.  E. 

Transferred  from  the  class  of  Student  to  (hat  of  Junior: 
Bishop,  J.  M. 

June  25th,  1918 
Members: 

Alexander,  K.  Colvocoresses,  G.  M. 

Brown,  J.  E.  Hamilton,  C.  B. 

Associate  Members: 

Button,  S.  A.  Markham,  E.  A. 

Kester,  F.  H.  Walker,  C.  M. 

Longley,  E.  H. 

Junior: 

Mooney,  J.  P. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 
Corriveau,  R.  deB.  Stewart,  R.  B. 


Transferred  front   the  Class  of  Jim/or  lo  Uiat  of  Associate 
Member: 
Bonn,  W.  E.  Brickenden,  F.  M. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  l<>  that  of  Junior: 
Neilson,  S.  A. 

July  23rd,  1918 
Members: 

Ayars,  W.  S.  Halford,  A. 

Charlesworth,  L.  C.  Wright,  C.  H. 


Associate  Members: 
Brunton,  R. 
Corbett,  A.  H. 
Davis,  W.  E. 
Dyer,  A.  F. 
Hackner,  J.  W. 
Horsfall,  H. 
Hay  ward,  C. 

Juniors: 

Dickinson,  J.  A. 
Gordon,  J.  M. 


MacKay,  R. 
Mackenzie,  C.  G. 
McHugh,  J. 
O'Kelly,  E.  G. 
Rogers,  G.  W. 
Wilshaw,  J.  H. 


Scott,  C.  R. 


Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Junior  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 
Ross,  R.  W. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Junior: 
Bertrand,  H.  Greatrex,  W.  K. 

Browne,  E.  F.  McCully,  R.  C. 


August  28th,  1918 
Members: 

Chambers,  C. 
Faulkner,  F.  R. 
MacNab,  I.  P. 


McArthur,  J.  J. 
Stockton,  R.  S. 


Associate  Members: 
Ayer,  K.  R. 
Ireland,  W.  J. 

Juniors: 

Ells,  J.  C. 


McKean,  H.  S. 
Yarrow,  N.  A. 


Penrose,  J.  M. 


Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Manlier  In  that  of 
Member: 
Porter,  J.  W.  Wilson,  J.  M. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Junior  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 
Grove,  H.  S. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Junior: 
Slinn,  W.  H. 

October  22nd,  1918 
Members  : 

Hart,  P.  E.  Ross,  Sir  Charles,  Bart. 

Hays,  D.  W.  Waters,  W.  L. 

Kipp,  T.  Jr.  Winfield,  J.  H. 

Robb,  A.  G. 


64 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Macdonald,  G.  C. 
Mackenzie,  W.  D. 
McColough,  R.  W. 
Peden,  F. 
Rome,  R. 
Rowlands,  J.  F. 
Smith,  F.  R. 
Wakefield,  J.  A. 
Wvand,  D. 


Morrison,  J.  H.  T. 
Nehin,  F.  O'B. 
Smith,  W.  W. 


Associate  Members: 
Armstrong,  H.  W. 
Bateman,  E.  F. 
Belliveau,  J.  E. 
Chown,  R.  C.  F. 
Davies,  G.  V. 
DeWolf,  A.  H. 
Hein,  O.  J. 
Jack,  R.  T.  G. 
Joyce,  W.  E. 
Lamarque,  E.  C.  W. 

J  uniors: 

Calvert,  D.  G. 
Crossing,  W.  B. 
McKenzie,  R.  J. 
Mifflen,  S.  C. 

Transferred  f row  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 
Burnett,  A.  Dalziel,  N.  P. 

Freeman,  J.  R.  French,  R.  deL. 

Transferred  from  the.  Class  of  Associate  to  that  of  Member: 
Stansfield,  A. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Junior  to  that  of  AssociaU 
Member: 

Bernier,  J.  A.  Jette,  J.  C.  H. 

Cox,  O.  S.  Kendall,  L.  E. 

Dawson,  S.  G.  Lamont,  A.  W. 

Fredette,  J.  F.  Lavigne,  E.  J.  T. 

Goldman,  H.  A.  Wall,  A.  F. 

Jamieson,  W.  T.  Young,  R.  B. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 

Hemmerick,  G. 
Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Junior: 

Cimon,  J.  M.  H.  Snider,  A.  M. 

Lake,  N.  J.  Weldon,  R.  L. 

Milne,  A.  H. 

November  26th,  1918 
Members: 

Barnes,  J.  W.  Roland,  J.  W. 

Misener,  J.  S. 

Associate  Members: 

Booker,  G.  E.  MacNab,  S.  D. 

Boyle,  A.  J.  McDougall,  J.  J. 

Chisholm,  K.  G.  Montague,  J.  R. 

Johnson,  K.  P.  Rochetti,  J. 

Kent,  E.  S.  Warren,  H.  de  laG. 
Leaver,  C.  B. 

Junior: 

Bowman,  C.  M. 
Student: 

Comeau,  J. 

Associate: 

Carmichael,  T. 
Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 

Doncaster,  P.  E. 


Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Associate 
Member : 
Massue,  Huet. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Junior: 

King,  W.  W. 

December  17th,  1918 
Members: 

Campbell,  A.  D.  Moodie,  W.  T. 

Jeffrey,  G.  J.  Russell,  H.  A. 

McLaren,  W.  F.  Stairs,  J.  A. 

Associate  Members: 

Berney,  K.  C.  Lewis,  D. 

Cameron,  J.  G.  Markham,  E. 

Cosser,  W.  F.  J.  Morse,  E.  H. 

Galletly,  J.  S.  Newton,  C.  A. 

Harris,  H.  W.  Palmer,  R.  F. 

Ker,  F.  I.  Scholefield,  F.  W.  B. 

Kerr,  A.  E.  Stuart,  W.  J. 

Levvy,  A.  Tait,  I.  J. 

Juniors: 

Holland,  H.  D.  Smart,  H. 

Sissons,  T.  E.  G.  Swan,  A.  W. 
Students: 

Brown,  W.  J.  Henderson,  C.  R.  D. 

Donaldson,  A.  Kennedy,  C.  L. 

Fortin,  G.  L.  Salamis,  B.  K. 
Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Member  to  that  of 
Member: 

Carson,  W.  H.  Mackie,  G.  D. 

Johnson,  C.  V. 
Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Junior  to  that  of  Associate 
Member: 

Crowell,  S.  W.  McEwen,  A.  B. 

Mahon,  H.  W.  Scott,  P. 

Smith,  B.  O. 

Transferred  from  the  Class  of  Student  to  that  of  Junior: 
Harkom,  J.  F.  Rolland,  J.  O. 

List  of  Members  on  Honour  Roll. 

The  following  is  a  statement  in  regard  to  the  members 
of  The  Institute  who  have  so  far,  as  information  has  been 
received,  enlisted  for  overseas  service  during  the  period 
of  the  war: — 

Honorary  members 1 

Members 90 

Associate  Members 379 

Juniors 167 

Students 231 

Associates 3 

Making  a  total  of 871 

Of  these  there  have  been  killed  in  action  or  died  of 
wounds: — 

Members 1 

Associate  Members 6 

Juniors 4 

Students 5 

In  all 16 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF   CANADA 


65 


Report  of  the  Library  and  House  Committee 

Safford,  H.  R.,  Chairman. 
Surveyer,  Arthur.  Frigon,  A. 

Shearwood,  F.  P.  McGuigan,  F.  H.  Jr. 

To  the  Council 

of  the  Engineering  Institute 
of  Canada: 

I  beg  leave  to  present  on  behalf  of  the  Committee 
on  Library  and  House,  our  report  for  the  year  just  ended. 

The  following  additions  in  the  way  of  publications 
were  received  by  the  Secretary  during  the  current  year:— 

By  H.  H.  Vaughan,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

Photographic  Volume,  Victoria  Bridge  (1860). 
By  E.D.Gray,  A.  M.  E.  I.  C. 

Petroleum  in  Canada,  bv  Victor  Ross. 
By  John  W.  LeB.  Ross,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

Statistical  Report  of  Lake  Commerce. 
By  F.  W.  Cowie,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

Annual    Reports,    Harbour    Commissioners    of 
Montreal,  1916-17. 
By  Fraser  S.  Keith,  A.  M.  E.  I.  C. 

The  Honourable  Peter  White. 
By  Charles  F.  Bristol,  A.  M.  E.  I.  C. 

Electric    Furnaces    in    the     Iron    and    Steel 

Industry,     by     Rodenhauser,     Shoenawa    and 

Von  Baur. 
By  F.  A.  Bowman,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

The  Monthly  Bulletin  of  the  Maritime  Telephone 
and  Telegraph  Company  Limited. 
By  Walter  J.  Francis  &  Company. 

1    vol.    Annual    Report,    1915,    Public   Service 
Commission,  Massachusetts. 

1  vol.  Annual  Report,    1916,   Public  Service 
Commission,  Maryland. 

2  vols.    Annual    Report,    1914,    1915,    Public 
Service  Commission,  Indiana. 

1    vol.    Annual    Report,    1915,    Public    Service 
Commission,  New  Hampshire. 

3  vols.   Annual   Report,    1914,    Public   Service 
Commission,  New  York,  1st  District. 

1    vol.    Annual    Report,    1915,    Public    Service 
Commission,  New  York,  2nd  District. 

3  vols.  Annual  Report,  1915-1916,  Public  Utilities 
Commission,  District  of  Columbia. 

1   vol.   Annual   Report,    1916,   Public   Utilities 
Commission,  Connecticut. 

1   vol.   Annual   Report,    1916,    Public   Utilities 
Commission,  Ohio. 

1  vol.  Annual  Report,  1914-1915,  Public  Utilities 
Commission,  Idaho. 

1   vol.   Annual   Report,    1915,    Public   Utilities 
Commission,  New  Jersey. 

1   vol.   Annual   Report,    1916,    Public   Utilities 
Commission,  Maine. 

1  vol.   Annual   Report,    1914,    Public   Utilities 
Commission,  Illinois. 

2  vols.  Annual   Report,    1915,   Railroad  Com- 
mission, Wisconsin. 

1   vol.   Annual    Report,    1915,    Railroad   Com- 
mission, Iowa. 


1  vol.  Annual  Report,  1916,  Railroad  Com- 
mission, Nebraska. 

1  vol.  Annual  Report,  1915,  Railroad  Com- 
mission, Michigan. 

1  vol.  Annual  Report,  1915-1916,  Railroad  Com- 
mission, California. 

1  vol.  Statistics  of  Railways  in  the  United  States, 
1914,  Interstate  Commerce  Commission. 

1  vol.  Statistics  of  Common  Barriers,  1916, 
Interstate  Commerce  Commission. 

1  vol.  Central  Electric  Light  and  Power  Stations 
and   Street    and    Electric    Railways,  United  States, 
Department  of  Commerce,  1912. 
By  Wm.  Pearce,  M.  E.  I.  C.  . 

Blueprint  Giving  Coal  Statistics  on  the  Colon- 
ization and  Development  Branch  for  the  Canadian 
Pacific  Railway. 
By  J.  J.  Salmond,  A.  E.  I.  C. 

Bound  Volume  of  Canadian  Engineer  Vol.  34. 
By  A.  E.  Doucet,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

Voyages    en    Egypte,    Volume    1    and    2,    and 
Planches    de    Voyages   dans    la  Basse  et  la  Haute 
Egypte,  by  V.  Denon. 
By  McGraw-Hill  Book  Company. 

Mechanical     and     Electrical    Cost    Data,    by 
Gilette  and  Dana. 
By  Noel  Olgivie,  M.  E.  I.  C. 

Publication  Number  One  of  the  Geodetic  Survey 
of  Canada,  Precise  Levelling. 

By  Lawrence  Burpee,  Secretary  International  Joint 
Commission. 

The  Application  of  the  St.  Lawrence  River  Power 
Company. 

Interim  Order  and  Opinion,  and  Opinion, 
by  Mr.  Powell. 

The  works  which  have  been  purchased  are : 

Proceedings  of  the  Twenty-ninth  Convention, 
National  Association  of  Railway  Commissioners  held 
at  Washington,  October,  1917. 

The  Engineering  Index  Annual,  1917. 
The  following  additions  were  made  in  exchange  of 
transactions: 

"  Chimie  &  Industrie,"  Paris,  France. 

"  Le  Genie  Civil,"  Paris,  France. 

"  La  Houille  Blanche,"  Lyon,  France. 

During  the  year  the  Committee  undertook  the  pre- 
paration of  an  Engineering  Index  for  the  Library,  and 
after  consulting  with  the  Librarian  of  the  American 
Society  of  Civil  Engineers  in  New  York,  the  Librarian 
of  the  United  Engineering  Societies  of  New  York,  the 
index  used  by  the  American  Railway  Engineering  Associa- 
tion, and  others,  decided  to  adopt  a  system  quite  similar 
in  character  to  that  used  in  the  American  Society  Library, 
in  New  York. 

In  reaching  this  conclusion  the  Committee  was  guided 
by  two  primary  considerations : 

First,  the  application  of  a  system  which  had  been  well 
developed  after  an  intensive  study  in  connection  with 
conditions  which  were  not  dissimilar  to  our  problem; 


66 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Second,  the  convenience  which  will  result  from  a 
membership  of  so  many  engineers  in  both  The  Engineering 
Institute  of  Canada  and  the  United  Engineering  Societies  in 
the  United  States;  and 

Third,  the  moderate  expense  which  would  accompany 
the  installation  of  this  system  in  The  Engineering  Isntitute 
of  Canadei. 

Arrangements  were  made  with  the  Librarian  of  McGill 
University  for  assistance  to  carry  out  this  work,  which 
was  done  here,  the  books  being  all  indexed  in  accordance 
with  the  system  adopted  by  the  Committee. 

During  the  year  an  arrangement  was  made  for  pub- 
lishing from  month  to  month,  the  titles  of  current  en- 
gineering papers  with  name  of  author,  source,  and  a  brief 
extract  of  the  more  important,  which  is  designed  to  give 
the  members  of  The  Institute  a  survey  of  all  important 
articles  relating  to  the  profession. 

This  arrangement,  we  are  glad  to  say,  was  made  in 
co-operation  with  the  United  Engineering  Societies,  and 
it  is  felt  it  will  be  extremely  helpful  to  its  members. 

Respectfully  submitted, 

H.  R.  Safford, 

Chairman. 

Report  of  Publications  Committee 

Brown,  Ernest,  Chairman. 
Robertson,  J.  M.  French,  R.  deL. 

Thomson,  W.  Chase.  De  Cew,  J.  A. 

The  past  year  has  been  one  of  transition  in  regard  to 
publications.  The  publication  of  volumes  of  Transactions 
has  been  suspended  temporarily  by  the  Council,  and 
attention  focussed  upon  the  monthly  Journal,  the  first 
number  of  which  appeared  in  May  last.  Some  papers 
read  at  Montreal,  and  accepted  for  publication  in  the 
Transactions  of  the  Canadian  Society  of  Civil  Engineers 
before  the  re-organization  of  the  Society  took  place,  still 
await  publication  in  final  form.  It  is  expected  that  the 
series  of  papers  on  the  Quebec  Bridge  will  be  issued  as  a 
separate  volume  of  Transactions. 

With  the  return  of  our  membership  from  overseas' 
and  the  establishment  of  The  Monthly  Journal  on  a  paying 
basis,  the  finances  of  The  Institute  will  enable  the  publi- 
cation of  Transactions  to  be  resumed  and  brought  up  to 
date.  Meanwhile,  The  Journal  has  been  the  medium 
through  which  papers  have  been  issued  to  the  membership, 
and  the  Publications  Committee  has  assisted  the  Secretary 
in  passing  upon  papers  submitted  for  publication.  The 
normal  function  of  the  Publications  Committee  in  future 
will  be  to  select  from  the  large  number  of  papers 
published  in  The  Journal,  such  papers  and  discussions 
thereon  as  are  worthy  of  being  embodied  in  permanent 
form  in  the  Transactions  of  The  Engineering  Institute  of 
Canada. 

E.  Brown, 


Report  of  Board  of  Examiners  and  Education. 

MacKay,  H.  M.,  Chairman. 
Surveyer,  Arthur,  Secretary.       French,  R.  de  L. 
Brown,  Ernest.  Lea,  R.  S. 

Robertson,  J.  M.  Roberts,  A.  R. 

The  Board  of  Examiners  and  Education  has  as  usual 
examined  the  educational  qualifications  of  a  large  number 
of  candidates  for  admission,  and  has  transmitted  its 
findings  to  Council.  The  number  of  candidates  presenting 
themselves  for  the  semi-annual  examinations  during  the 
year  was  as  follows: — 

Examined    Passed 
Theory  and  Practice  of  Engineering        4  3 

Hydraulic  Engineering 1  1 

Mechanical  Engineering 1  1 

Railway  Engineering 1  1 

Total 7  6 

With  the  approval  of  Council,  examiners  will  in 
future  be  authorized  to  set  two  papers  in  the  professional 
subjects  embraced  in  schedule  C.  One  of  these  is  to  be  a 
paper  on  the  underlying  principles,  the  examination  in 
which  is  to  be  conducted  under  the  ordinary  rules.  For 
the  second  paper  the  candidate  may  avail  himself  of 
handbooks  or  other  appropriate  data.  It  is  hoped  that 
the  proposed  scheme  will  afford  a  fairer  test  of  the  capacity 
of  applicants,  particularly  in  the  case  of  those  who  have 
been  engaged  in  practice  for  some  time,  and  at  the  same 
time  make  a  higher  standard  of  attainment  practicable. 

The  Board  is  also  considering  the  question  of  recom- 
mending that  the  examination  under  Schedule  B 
(Mechanics,  Physics,  Strength  of  Materials,  etc.)  should 
be  set  for  candidates  seeking  Junior  Membership,  instead 
of  reserving  the  test  as  a  qualification  for  Associate 
Membership.  While  the  necessity  of  a  good  grounding  in 
these  fundamentals  will  be  universally  admitted,  sub- 
mission to  examination  in  them  becomes,  in  many  cases, 
more  irksome  the  longer  it  is  deferred,  and  it  is  believed 
that  a  more  satisfactory  standard  could  be  maintained  by 
making  the  change  suggested. 

Arthur  Surveyer,  H.  M.  Mackay, 

Secretary.  Chairman. 

Report  of  International  Electrotechnical  Committee 


Gill,  L.  W. 
Higman,  O. 
Lambe,  A.  B. 


Herdt,  Dr.  L.  A. 


Murphy,  J. 


,  Chairman. 
Barnes,  H.  T. 
Kynoch,  J. 
Roseburgh,  T.  R. 


Jan.  2nd,  1919. 


Chairman. 


This  Committee  begs  to  report  that,  due  to  war 
conditions,  the  work  of  the  Commission  during  1918  has 
of  necessity  been  very  greatly  limited.  Nevertheless, 
the  central  office  in  London  has  succeeded  in  making 
considerable  progress  with  several  subjects,  more  parti- 
cularly the  question  of  the  Rating  of  Electrical  Machinery. 
As  previously  reported,  several  conferences  on  this  matter 
have  been  held  in  London  between  English,  United  States, 
and  Canadian  representatives,  and  it  is  expected  that  a 
report  summarizing  their  deliberations  and  recommen- 
dations will  be  issued  shortly.     In  the  meantime  the 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


67 


French  Committee  has  issued  a  memorandum  on  Alumin- 
ium Tests,  in  an  effort  to  formulate  standards  governing 
its  use  in  electrical  work,  and  the  central  office  has  in 
hand  among  other  things  the  questions  of  Graphical 
Symbols,  Nomenclature  for  Automatic  Telephone  Appara- 
tus, and  Specifications  for  Instrument  transformers. 

The  central  office  has  expressed  to  the  Canadian 
Committee  its  great  thanks  for  the  continued  financial 
support  received  from  Canada,  for  which  your  Committee 
is  in  turn  much  indebted  to  the  Dominion  Government. 

All  of  which  is  respectfully  submitted. 


A.  B.  Lambe, 

Secretary. 


L.  A.  Herdt, 

Chairman. 


Report  of  Roads  and  Pavements  Committee 

McLean,  W.  A.,  Chairman. 

Brereton,  W.  P.  MacPherson,  A.  J. 

Duchastel,  J.  Mercier,  P.  E. 

Griffith,  J.  E.  Near,  W.  P. 

Henry,  G.  Powell,  G.  G. 

James,  E.  A.  Rust,  C.  H. 

Macallum,  A.  F.  Doane,  F.  W.  W. 

A  portion  of  the  work  undertaken  by  the  Committee 
on  its  formation  consisted  in  the  preparation  of  specifi- 
cations for  road  building  materials.  During  1916,  speci- 
fication for  crushed  stone,  sand  and  gravel  were  prepared 
and  tentative  specifications  for  asphaltic  road  oils  were 
presented. 

During  the  past  year  the  attention  of  the  Committee 
has  been  confined  to  specifications  for  bituminous 
materials.  Draft  specifications  were  prepared  and  pre- 
sented to  the  members  of  the  Committee  for  criticism  or 
suggestion.  The  specifications  were  revised  with  con- 
sideration for  the  replies  received  and  are  presented  here- 
with. Those  for  three  grades  of  asphaltic  road  oils, 
which  were  previously  presented  to  The  Institute,  have 
been  revised  and  specifications  for  asphalt  binder,  pene- 
tration method,  and  for  three  grades  of  refined  coal  tar 
have  been  added. 

Light  asphaltic  road  oil  can  be  used  where  a  dust 
preventative  of  more  lasting  character  than  the  non- 
asphaltic  road  oils  is  desired.  It  can  be  applied  without 
heating,  in  small  quantities,  and  the  application  repeated 
if  necessary.     Medium  asphaltic  road   oil   is   a   heavier 

rade.  It  not  only  acts  as  a  dust  palliative  but  also  as  a 
surface  preservative.  Owing  to  the  heavier  body  it  is 
more  lasting  in  effect  and  is  adopted  for  use  where  the 
traffic  on  a  macadam  road  causes  a  rapid  destruction  of  the 
binding  material.  Under  favourable  circumstances  it 
may  be  applied  cold,  but  better  results  are  invariably 
obtained  from  a  hot  application.  Heavy  asphaltic  road 
)il  has  been  extensively  used  for  carpet  coats  or  bituminous 

lats.  Where  material  of  this  grade  is  used  it  has  been 
found  best  to  apply  it  in  very  small  quantities  with  a  view 
to  obtaining  a  penetration  of  the  surface  of  the  macadam 
and  a  thin,  tough  coating  of  the  stone,  rather  than  to 
securing  a  thick  layer  which  has  a  tendency  to  roll  and 
wave  under  traffic.  Asphalt  binder  in  general,  is  used 
where  a  bituminous  surface  penetrated  to  a  depth  of  from 
two  to  four  inches  is  desired.     While  the  asphaltic  oils 


can  be  used  on  old  macadam  surfaces,  the  binder  is  used 
where  a  new  surface  is  constructed.  It  is  applied  hot, 
and  under  pressure  from  a  tank  wagon. 

The  refined  coal  tars  are  used  for  the  same  purposes 
as  the  asphaltic  oils.  Light  refined  coal  tar  is  for  cold 
surface  treatment.  It  acts  as  a  dust  preventative  and 
when  carefully  applied  penetrates  the  surface  to  some 
depth.  As  with  the  light  asphaltic  road  oil,  it  is  a  more 
or  less  temporary  treatment  and  the  application  should  be 
repeated  annually  or  more  frequently  as  occasion  may 
demand.  Heavy  refined  coal  tar,  if  applied  in  large 
quantities  forms  a  bituminous  mat,  which  is  not  desirable 
where  mixed  motor  and  horse-drawn  traffic  is  to  be  served. 
If  sparingly  applied,  however,  it  forms  a  thin  surface 
dressing  which  is  more  lasting  in  character  than  the 
lighter  grades  of  tar  or  oil.  Refined  coal  tar  binder  is  in 
general  for  use  in  the  construction  of  bituminous  surfaces 
by  the  penetration  method. 

The  tentative  specifications  for  asphaltic  road  oils 
presented  to  The  Institute  and  published  in  the  Annual 
Report  for  1916,  have  been  used  by  a  number  of  municipal 
engineers  throughout  the  Dominion.  When  commencing 
work  the  Committee  felt  the  need  for  such  specifications 
and  while  these  were  presented  in  the  nature  of  a  progress 
report  the  extent  to  which  they  have  been  used  strongly 
indicates  the  desire  for  such  specifications  on  the  part  of 
municipal  engineers.  It  is  hoped  by  the  Committee  that 
the  accompanying  specifications  will  more  completely  fill 
this  need  and  that  they  will  be  of  assistance  to  engineers 
throughout  the  Dominion  who  are  engaged  in  road  and 
pavement  construction.  The  specifications  are  presented 
herewith  as  an  appendix  to  this  report. 

W.  A.  McLean, 

Chairman. 

Appendix 
Light  Asphaltic  Road  Oil. 

Light  oil  shall  have  the  following  characteristics:— 

1.  It  shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F.) 
of  not  less  than  0.92. 

2.  It  shall  have  an  open  flash  point  of  not  less  than 
55°C.     (130°F.) 

3.  It  shall  have  a  specific  viscosity  at  25°C.  (77°F.) 
of  not  more  than  70: 

4.  When  fifty  grams  of  the  oil  are  heated  in  an  open 
vessel  at  a  temperature  between  250°C.  (480°F.)  and 
260°C.  (500°F.)  until  the  residue  has  a  penetration  (100 
grams,  5  seconds,  25°C.)  of  100°  the  said  residue  shall 
amount  to  not  less  than  50  percent  nor  more  than  60 
percent  by  weight  of  the  original  oil. 

5.  Fifty  grams  of  the  oil  when  maintained  for  five 
hours  at  a  temperature  of  163°C.  (325°F)  in  an  open  vessel 
5.5  millimetres  in  diameter  and  3.5  millimetres  deep  shall 
lose  not  less  than  10  percent  nor  more  than  25  percent  by 
weight. 

6.  It  shall  be  soluble  in  chemically  pure  carbon 
disulphide  at  room  temperature  to  the  extent  of  not  less 
than  99  percent  by  weight. 

7.  It  shall  contain  not  less  than  6  percent  by  weight 
of  material  insoluble  in  76°  Baume  paraffine  petroleum 
naphtha  at  room  temperature. 


68 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


8.  It  shall  show  not  less  than  4  percent  nor  more 
than  8  percent  by  weight  of  fixed  carbon  on  ignition. 

Medium  Asphaltic  Road  Oil. 

Medium  oil  shall  have  the  following  characteristics: 

1.  It  shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F.)  of 
not  less  than  0.94. 

2.  It  shall  have  an  open  flash  point  of  not  less  than 
70°C.  (158°F.) 

3.  It  shall  have  a  specific  viscosity  at  65°C.  (150°F.) 
of  not  more  than  50. 

4.  When  fifty  grams  of  the  oil  are  heated  in  an  open 
vessel  at  a  temperature  between  250°C.  (480°F.)  and 
260°C.  (500°F.)  until  the  residue  has  a  penetration  (100 
grams,  5  seconds,  25°C.)  of  100°  the  said  residue  shall 
amount  to  not  less  than  60  percent  nor  more  than  70 
percent  by  weight  of  the  original  oil. 

5.  Fifty  grams  of  the  oil  when  heated  for  five  hours 
at  a  temperature  of  163°C.  (325°F.)  in  an  open  vessel 
5.5  millimetres  in  diameter  and  3.5  millimetres  deep  shall 
not  lose  less  than  8  percent  nor  more  than  20  percent  by 
weight. 

6.  It  shall  be  soluble  in  chemically  pure  carbon 
disulphide  at  room  temperature  to  the  extent  of  not  less 
than  99  percent  by  weight. 

7.  It  shall  contain  not  less  than  10  percent  nor  more 
than  17  percent  by  weight  of  material  insoluble  in  76° 
Baume  paraffine  petroleum  naphtha  at  room  temperature. 

8.  It  shall  show  not  less  than  7  percent  nor  more  than 
12  percent  by  weight  of  fixed  carbon  on  ignition. 

Heavy  Asphaltic  lioad  Oil. 

Heavy  oil  shall  have  the  following  characteristics: — .  . 

1.  It  shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F.) 
of  not  less  than  0.96. 

2.  It  shall  have  an  open  flash  point  of  not  less  than 
160°C.  (320°F.). 

3.  It  shall  have  a  specific  viscosity  at  100°C. 
(212°F.)  of  not  more  than  50. 

4.  When  fifty  grams  of  the  oil  are  heated  in  an  open 
vessel  at  a  temperature  between  250°C.  (480°F.)  and 
260°C.  (500°F.)  until  the  residue  has  a  penetration  (100 
grams,  5  seconds,  25°C.)  of  100°,  the  said  residue  shall 
amount  to  not  less  than  80  percent  nor  more  than  90 
percent  by  weight  of  the  original  oil. 

5.  Fifty  grams  of  the  oil  when  heated  for  five  hours 
at  a  temperature  of  163°C.  (325°F.)  in  an  open  vessel 
5.5  millimetres  in  diameter  and  3.5  millimetres  deep  shall 
lost  not  less  than  2  percent  nor  more  than  8  percent  by 
weight. 

6.  It  shall  be  soluble  in  chemically  pure  carbon 
disulphide  at  room  temperature  to  the  extent  of  not  less 
than  99  percent  by  weight. 

7.  It  shall  contain  not  less  than  12  percent  nor  more 
than  20  percent  by  weight  of  material  insoluble  in  76° 
Baume  paraffine  petroleum  naphtha  at  room  tempera- 
ture. 

8.  It  shall  show  not  less  than  8  percent  nor  more  than 
15  percent  by  weight  of  fixed  carbon  on  ignition. 


Specification  for  Asphalt  Binder. 
Penetration  Method. 

1.  It  shall  be  homogeneous  and  free  from  water,  and 
shall  not  foam  when  heated  to  a  temperature  of  150°C. 
(302°F.). 

2.  It  shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F.)  of 
not  less  than  0.98. 

3.  It  shall  have  an  open  flash  point  of  not  less  than 
190°C.  (375°F.). 

4.  It  shall  have  a  penetration  (No.  2  needle,  100 
grams,  5  sees.,  25°C.)  of  not  less  than  130°  nor  more  than 
180°. 

5.  It  shall  have  a  ductility  at  25°C.  (77°F.)  of  not 
less  than  75  centimetres. 

6.  It  shall  be  soluble  at  room  temperature  in 
chemically  pure  carbon  disulphide  to  the  extent  of  not 
less  than  99.5  percent  by  weight  in  the  case  of  oil  asphalt, 
and  native  asphalts  shall  show  a  percentage  of  the 
products  of  the  fields  from  which  they  come. 

7.  Of  the  material  soluble  in  carbon  disulphide  not 
less  than  14  percent  nor  more  than  30  percent  by  weight 
shall  be  insoluble  at  room  temperature  in  76°  Baume 
paraffine  petroleum  naphtha  distilling  between  60°C.  and 
88°C.  (140°F.  and  190°F.). 

8.  It  shall  show  not  less  than  10  percent  nor  more 
than  18  percent  by  weight  of  fixed  carbon  on  ignition. 

9.  When  fifty  grams  of  the  material  are  heated  in 
a  cylindrical  vessel  5.5  centimetres  in  diameter  and  3.5 
centimetres  deep,  for  5  hours  at  a  temperature  of  163°C. 
(325°F.)  the  loss  in  weight  shall  not  exceed  5  percent,  nor 
shall  the  penetration  of  the  residue  (No.  2  needle,  100 
grams,  5  sees.,  25°C.)  be  less  than  50  percent  of  the  original 
penetration. 

Specification  for  Refined  and  Blended  Coal  Tar 

Cold  Application. 

1.  It  shall  be  homogeneous  and  free  from  water. 

2.  It  shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F.) 
of  not  less  than  1.14  nor  more  than  1.18. 

3.  It  shall  have  a  specific  viscosity  for  50  cubic 
centimetres  at  40°  C.  (104°F.)  of  not  less  than  20  nor  more 
than  30. 

4.  On  distillation  the  percentages  by  weight  of 
distillate  at  the  following  temperatures  shall  be:— 


To  170°C.  (338°F.) 
"  235°C.  (455°F.) 
"  270°C.  (518°F.) 
"  300°C.  (572°F.) 


not  more  than    5  percent. 
"     "        "    18 
"     "         "    25 

"     "         "    32 


(a)  The  residue  from  the  foregoing  distillation  shall 
have  a  melting  point  of  not  more  than  70°C.  (158°F.). 

(b)  The  distillate  from  the  foregoing  distillation 
shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°C.)  of  not  less 
than  1.01. 

5.  It  shall  be  insoluble  in  chemically  pure  carbon 
disulphide  at  room  temperature  to  the  extent  of  not  more 
than  15  percent  weight. 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


69 


Hot  Application. 

1.  It  shall  be  homogeneous  and  free  from  water. 

2.  It  shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F. )  of 
not  less  than  1.20  nor  more  than  1.27. 

3.  It  shall  show  a  float  test  at  50°C.  (122°F.)  of  not 
less  than  65  seconds  and  not  more  than  85  seconds. 

4.  On  distillation  the  percentages  by  weight  of 
distillate  at  the  following  temperatures  shall  be  :— 

To  170°C.  (338°F.)  not  more  than  0.0  percent. 
"  235°C.  (435°F.)        "     "        "    10      . " 
"  270°C.  (518°F.)        "     "        "    17 
"  300°C.  (572°F.)        "     "        "    22 

(a)  The  residue  from  the  foregoing  distillation  shall 
have  a  melting  point  of  not  more  than  75°C.  (167°F.). 

(b)  The  distillate  from  the  foregoing  distillation 
shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F.)  of  not  less  than 
1.03. 

5.  It  shall  be  insoluble  in  chemically  pure  carbon 
disulphide  at  room  temperature  to  the  extent  of  not  more 
than  20  percent. 

Binder. 

Penetration   Method. 

1.  It  shall  be  homogeneous  and  free  from  water. 

2.  It  shall  have  a  specific  gravity  at  25°C.  (77°F.) 
of  not  less  than  1.20. 

3.  It  shall  have  a  melting  point  of  not  less  than 
28°C.  (83°F.)  nor  more  than  35°C.  (95°F.). 

4.  On  distillation  the   percentages  by  weight   of 
distillate  at  the  following  temperatures  shall  be- 
To  170°C.  (338°F.)  not  more  than     0  percent. 

"  235°C.  (455°F.)        '     3 

"  270°C.  (518°F.)        "     "        "11 
"  300°C.  (572°F.)         15 

(a)  The  residue  from  the  foregoing  distillation  shall 
have  a  melting  point  of  not  more  than  75°C.  (167°F.). 

(b)  The  distillate  from  the  foregoing  distillation 
shall  have  a  specific  gravity  of  25°C.  (77°F.)  of  not  less 
than  1.03. 

5.  It  shall  be  insoluble  in  chemically  pure  carbon 
disulphide  at  room  temperature  to  the  extent  of  not  more 
than  22  percent  by  weight. 

'Instructions  for  Taking  and  Shipping  Samples 

1.  Sampling. — Since  tests,  on  a  small  sample  of 
material,  reveal  the  properties  of  the  material  in  the  sample 
only,  it  is  necessary  that  the  samples  be  procured  in  such 
a  manner  that  they  are  representative  of  the  whole  ship- 
ment. Samples  containing  material  taken  from  the  top 
or  bottom  only  of  a  tank  car  or  drum,  must  be  avoided. 

2.  Size  of  Samples. — In  order  that  sufficient  material 
may  be  received  at  the  laboratory  for  all  the  tests  to  be 
made  it  is  necessary  that  all  samples  contain  at  least  one 
imperial  pint. 


3.  Containers. — Vessels  containing  samples  should 
be  absolutely  clean.  Those  which  have  been  used  to 
hold  oils  or  greases  should  not  be  used.  Glass  jars  should 
not  be  used  except  when  there  is  nothing  else  available, 
an  they  should  then  be  tightly  packed  with  sawdust  in 
stout  wooden  boxes.  Samples  which  have  become 
contaminated  with  packing  material  can  not  be  tested. 

For  fluid  and  viscous  materials  new  oil  tins  with  screw 
caps  are  suitable  and  for  semi-solid  and  solid  materials 
new  paint  tins  with  tightly  fitting  pry  covers  should  be 
used.  All  containers  should  be  packed  in  wooden  boxes 
for  shipment. 

4.  Identification. — All  samples  should  bear  proper 
identification  tags  containing  the  following  information: 

1.  Date  that  sample  was  taken. 

2.  Name  of  person,  corporation,  or  municipality 
sending  sample. 

3.  Class  of  work  for  which  material  is  to  be  used. 

4.  A  copy  of  the  specification  under  which  the 
sample  has  been  submitted. 

5.  Quantity  of  material  represented  by  sample. 

6.  Number  of  tank  or  car  from  which  the  sample 
was  taken. 

7.  If  the  shipment  is  being  held  pending  the 
results  of  the  tests. 

8.  The  name  of  the  manufacturer. 

Report  of  Finance  Committee 

Supplementing  the  Annual  Statement  of  the  Audi- 
tors, the  Finance  Committee  submits  a  table  showing 
receipts  and  expenditures  for  the  last  ten  years,  upon  which 
the  following  comments  are  pertinent: — 

1st. — Arrears  Collected:  There  is  a  large  falling  off 
in  the  arrears  collected,  due  to  the  fact,  that  in  the  three 
previous  years  the  cream  has  been  extracted. 

2nd. — Current  Fees  Collected:  This  item  now  shows 
that  the  current  fees  collected  are  qual  to  those  of  the 
pre-war  period,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  so  many  members 
are  at  the  front. 

3rd. — Entrance  Fees:  These  have  again  increased  in  a 
satisfactory  way. 

4th  Salaries  and  Wages:  These  have  increased, 
due  to  expansion  of  the  activities  of  The  Institute. 

5th. — Branch  Societies:  There  is  a  large  decrease  in 
the  amount  paid  to  Branches,  under  the  new  by-laws. 

6th. — Journal  Expenses:  In  Item  No.  7,  "  Miscel- 
laneous Receipts,"  is  included  revenue  from  advertisements 
in  The  Journal,  and  List  of  Members,  amounting  to  $6,008. 
To  offset  this  in  item  No.  10,  "  Printing  and  Stationery," 
the  cost  of  The  Journal  is  included  at  $6,032. 

7th. — General  Results:  General  results  indicate  a 
live  Institute  rapidly  expanding,  and  going  through  its 
most  serious  period  as  regards  expenses,  with  the  new 
Journal  established,  a  new  staff  in  control,  and  with  960 
members  at  the  front  who  pay  no  fees. 

R.  A.  Ross, 

Chairman  of  Finance  Committee. 

Montreal,  January  27th,  1919. 


70 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


00 

1— I 
a> 

H 

fa" 

w 

fa 

S 
w 
o 

w 

Q 

H 
CO. 
•— t 

co 

H 
< 

< 

fa 

»— i 

-1 
i— i 

pq 

< 

fa 

Q 

H 

fa 
(X) 

< 

fa 

O 

H 

W 

S 
w 

H 

C/3 


to 


o 

d 
00 
CV3- 


z 

8 

o 

< 

H 

a 

w 

a. 
o 

K 
fa 


CO 

co 

CO 

o 
co" 


CO 
CO 


O 
O 


o 
o 


LD      LO 


CD 
00 

© 

ID 


ID 


LD 
CM 

Cm" 


CD 

O 

LD 

cm" 


CD 

d 

LD 
CM 


.2 

CD 
U 

a 

cu 

•a 

u 

.o 


»    * 


O) 


co 


g 

cu 


££ 


u 
a 
5 

H 

z 

D 
fa 


05  o    O 

CU  *_l    '-M 

O  6, 

C  oo 

fa 


« 

w 

cu 

o 

OS 

CU 

z 

o 

w 
a 
< 
o 

o 


c 

cu 

S 

cu 
o 

G 
03 

> 

< 

cu 
Xi 

-t-> 

i-, 

g    • 

O  bo 

X!  c 

•M    03 
CO    O) 

I— I  " 


03   O 

>. 

O 


t> 

LD 

CM 


O 
O 


O 
CO 
CO 
i— "  CD 

CD 

cvs- 


o  o- 

O  CD 

8  S 

O  CM 

©" 
CM 


CU 

g 

00 


-a 


t3  ;   +j 

"cu  g 

cG  O 

co  „     cu 


G 

O 


cu 


*  2 


cj 

CJ 

03 

CO 

cu 
»-< 

cu 


73  "o    S 


o 
o 

d 

00 
i— I 

60- 


CD     CD     CD 
CD 


CM      ■— i 

©"   co" 

CM 


w 
►j 

CQ 
< 

fa 

CO 
H 

z 

p 

o 

CJ 

o 


CA) 
W 

X 
o 
Z 

< 

o 

H 

W 
D 

Q 

c/) 

w 

< 

CQ 
W 


< 

a, 
w 
2 

Ph 
C/) 

W 

w 

fa 

Z 

o 

< 

z 


Q 
Z 


H 
Z 

8 

o 
u 

< 

c/) 

cu 
5 


o    o 

LD     O 

8  8 

00    o 

LD* 


o 

LD 

O 
CM 


O 

o 

d 
o 

LD 


03    cu 

fa   3 

O  -^ 

rv   03 

c 

3 

geCor 
Par  V 

fa 

m 

03 

Mortga 
shares 

^1 
O 

o 

cu 

O 

PQ 

O 

CU 
3 

-a 
c/T 

G      -  -G 

73 
> 

cu 

Perma 
i  Stock 
00  eac 

-4-> 

03 

g 

H 

z 

w 

ada 
tior 
$10 

>* 

-t-> 

s 

G 

w 

C/3 

H 

03 

< 

fa 

CO 

W 

u 

ca 

> 

6g    : 
^§    : 

o 
.3  ee    : 

u 

II   : 

"O    03      • 

^>    : 
°<J  fa    : 

4->      <U 

G    s-1 

<u    o3 

C  -C       • 
C    co 

•4-1 

to  CD       • 
cu      „      • 

»— '    O    cj 

-'-'     03 

o  CAl    cu 


u 


CM 

CJJ 


CO 

-o 

G 
O 

pq 


G    G 

J  > 

^     >-• 


G 

03 

o 


T3 
cu 

■+-> 
03 

| 

co 
fa 


W 


1  A 

l—J  >— I 


fa 

o 

< 

w 


o 

w 

fa 
z 

D 

o 

CJ 

< 


05 

o 


00 


00 


CO 
i— I 

>— i 

LD 

CD" 
00 
6fc 


o 

ID 

CO 
CO 

cm" 


C5 


u 

cu 


cu 
o 
cu 


r—t  CD 

"^  LD 

CD  LD 

O*  oo" 

CO  CM 


00 
LD 

cm" 


CD 

d 

LD 
CM 


to  J3 
»— '  cu 
co      >, 


03 
CU 


01 
CO 

«2 

«£ 

03 

cu 

CJ 

G 

OS 

cu 

CO 

G 

cu 

cu 
G 
G 
cu 

CO 
CO 

IX 

> 

•*^ 

03 

X 

cu 

%> 

cq 

fa 

fa 

^ 

G 
cu 


u 
c    fa 

.2  5 

03    g 

o  3 

£fa 
a 

cu 

Q 


o 

Oi 

co 


e^- 


oo 


o 
o 


00  LD  LD 
O  ^*  t> 
t> 

co" 


CO 

oo 
oo 

CO 

00 

co" 


00 


o 
o 


00     o 

LD      LD 

LD      i—l 

CO" 

cys- 


00      LD 
LD      CM 


i— I 

co" 


CM 


O 
05 

CO 
Oi 

o 


&S- 


co 

CU 
XJ 
CJ 

G 


5   S 


tuO      03 
^     fa 


z 


« 

> 

Q 
< 

Z 

o 
z 

O 
c/3 

CO 


cu 
u 

c 

> 


CO 

cu 

CJ 

G 
03 
> 

< 


s 
o 

u 


< 

Q 
W 

s  a 
s  ^ 

O    fa 


z 

< 
pq 


Q 

z 

< 

Q 
Z 

< 

z 

o 

K 
co 
< 


Q 
Z 

< 

z 

o 

X 
co 
■< 

u 

H 

W 
fa 


Oco 

z"5 

co  s 

cj^ 

H 

D 

X 

s 

< 

< 
cm 

O 
q" 

<d 
W 
H 
C/) 

hi 
■J 

a 

Q 
Q 

fa 

•cf 

cu 

s 

cu 

> 


1— ( 


>» 

>-, 

03 
G 
G 
03 


CM 

cu 

1-r 
-f-> 

G 
O 


JOURNAL     OF    THE    ENGINEERING    INSTITUTE    OF     CANADA 


71 


C^000000t>LOCOOlO00i 
COCMCOCOt>-OrHt>t^CO< 


lOOtDNOOOOOOtOOOiflM^O^WOOOlflOtDi 

>OCMC^L^CT3lOLOLOCOCOCM"<tfCOrHCO^[^OLOCr>t>lOCO< 


cot^coLOLOcocMcoooLOLOLOt>CMooLooorHCMi^cccMLocMCMCMM^^cO'-"CMt^LO< 

COCMOi^OOCOOOCOrHOiCMCO^LOCMCT,  CCCOOOCMCjiai^COCM        CM  -^  LO  CO  CO  <-H  00 
CM  CO  rH  O  C>  t>  CM  CM  rH  CM  CM  rH         CM  LO  O)         <5         00  O 


I— I  I— 1 1— 


LO 


c£> 


CO 

o 


ai 


CO 

o 

00 


oo 

rH 

<T> 
I— I 

w 
pa 

s 

w 
o 

w 

Q 

H 
t/3 

1—1 
CO 

Q 

w 

Q 

w 

w 
w 

X 
H 

Oh 

o 

w 

w 

Ph 

H 

H 

Q 

w 

Ph 

X 

w 

Q 

w 

w 
> 
w 

Ph 

w 
o 


w 

s 

w 
< 

H 

CO 


73 

e 

H 


H   1 


ft. 
ft. 

< 

H 
CO 

w 
o  > 

05 
Q  W 


[A 


^Sn 


CoS 

b.  o 
ft,  o 


Q 
S  >.  Z 

<  05  < 

05  <  „ 

O  H  ft 

ft)  u  " 

•J  05  S3 

co^ 

$  O  05 
2  W  H  c/3 

£  <  w  w 

in  j  05  f^ 
o  <  <  < 
PhC/)OH 


a 

ft, 
ft, 

w 

w 

c 

Q 
2 


bib 

■  bC.S 
bo  c  -3 
C.S  cu 
.3  +->  cu 


fcuO-t_>  <u  *h 
C  cu  <u>     • 


:S73g§W 


c  c  <£  co  **? 

.3   a   co   cu   O  (V 

£ffl  s£ °i% 


mh    tin      |-i  c/3 


?5§ 


o  g 


C/3 

C/3   Q5 
05  05  g 

a  <  o 

&XX 


££<£rSH$g 

^111 


05 

C 
Ph 

Q 
Z 

<  o 

O  O 


Mt/)C/3C/3C/3C/3C/3C/3*3 
OjHWfclWWWS 

(_uZZZZZo 

~Qft)ft)ft)ft)fc)5 


3c^ 


0  o  _ 

Z  «  05 

<  05  O 

Oi  H  ft, 

K  w  S2 
<xWWWUW^^WOCJH 


z 

o 

#— ( 

trt 

»-H 

§  w 

O  eg 
^§ 
Z^ 
en  tfl  W 

o  o  z 
<  5  ft 

Z(/io 


w 

a  2 
z  w 

aft 


^CQ 


R  Q  < 

u  z  5 

^        Q 

hOK 
i«520 

S£  S  < 
ts  g  05 

O  «  H 

N  05   X 

OPhW 


w  u 

C/3   C/3 

2  Z 

ft)  ft) 
0,  cu 
X  X 
WW 

o: 
2j 
J  <, 
■■J  2 

5:  ^ 
<  o 

05  •— 5 


5!  05  S  O 


> 

20 

w[S 

05  « 

ft)  w 

22 

0 


WO 


2  < 
2  X 

<w 


10 

CO 

CO 
03 

o> 
W 

CM 


O 
CM 

CO 

o 

o 

CO 


CO 
O 


CO 

•— i 

in 


^OWCOONOOOOOO 
r-iC0C>Tti'^tlc73OCMC0C0-^|CM 

COO  CM  C3  CO  "^t1  00  r*02003  00 
LO-rt,CO^t>-OOIOI>-CT3'^,CMCO 
CO  >— 1  CM  COrH 


w 

H 
W 

O 
CD 

O 
2 

< 
05 

o 

C/3 

ft) 
ft) 
w 

ft, 

O 

W 
H 
•< 

m 
ft) 


2  n  00 

O  00  -^ 

CO !  N  LO 

Tj<  CO  CO 

CM  LO  rH 

co"  10" 

€«■  rH 


O 

o 
t> 

o 

CO* 


8 

0 

CM 

CO 

CM 
CM 

CM 

00 

CM 

CO 

LO 
IO 


CO  C73 
CO  -* 
€/3-     CM  rH 


03 
03 


ft. 


05 


cu 


0     - 

03 


o 

O 
C/3 

IS 


cu 

(n 

C/3 

2 

W 

■— 
O 

03 
CU 
W 

O 

H 

co 

C 
cu 

U, 

cu 

fc 

05 

i-i 

3 

(/) 

< 

u 

ft) 

& 

y> 

V) 

cu 

W 
<U 

C 

> 


en 

cu 
cu 
W 
cu 

CJ 

C 
C3 
»-. 

C 

W 


{2 
2 

u 


C/3 

H 
05 
ft) 
> 

a 
< 
s 

O 
05 
ft. 

ft) 


ft) 
> 

ft) 
Ph 


00 

rH 

Oi 


2 

cu 

rQ         00 

S  2 


e 

s 
o 


ftl 

05 
ft) 
H 

2 


C/3 

T3 

C 

O 

X3 

03 

m 

■»-> 
0 

cu 

0 

"o 

w 

O 

>» 

C/3 

1-1 

03 

0 

w 

c 

cu 

3 

> 

c 

c 

■R 

^ 

-r 

cu 

0 

r 

5 

LO 

c 

X 

K 

1    c 

c 

^ 

0 

0 

Y 

)       -M 

b 

C 

3       CO 
P      03 
!       Ih 

> 

2 

"■ 

CI 

;     c 

'> 

)   — 

8     8. 

00  tJ» 

rH  CM 


C/3 

Q 
2 

ft) 

a 


y 

! 

bO 
CO 
bO 

4-> 
1- 

o 


a 

03 
C 

rt    ^5 

c    o 
a>     co 

Ph 

CO     •>-> 

c 

CO 

O 


o 
U 

•c 

CO 

3 


o3 


C 
cu 

i 

CO 

cu 

O    CO 

> 


3a 


bfi 
cu 

aco 

'S  ^ 
c  5 


->      CO   .rH  "O      CO      frt 

Ha^O>>WUcocy5i 


8 

CM 


CO 

ai 

LO 
LO 

OO" 
CM 
<=/3- 


00 
LO 

■^* 
00 
O 

cm" 


U    4-> 
CU     CO 

>  •-1 

o  CO 

cu 
C    bO 

3  c 

11 

C    cu 
cu 

W    cu 

>*H      r^ 
O 

CO     03 

<u   +->  00 

«  c32 
C  «i 

*°  &  £ 

ft)  cu  cu 
CJ  o  0 
5    cu    cu 

§PhQ 

rJ 

<i 


<:  co 

US 
2| 

C£3< 

s 

o 

H 
D 

< 

05 
O 

Q 
< 
ft) 
H 
t/) 

rH 

ft) 

Q 
Q 

73 

CU 

CC! 

I 


03 


CO 

o" 

CO 


w 


72 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


RECEIPTS  AND  EXPENDITURES— THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 

Receipts. 

1909  1910            1911  1912  1913  1914  1915  1916  1917  1918 

(1)  Arrears  Collected $2,023  $4,031       2,092  $2,887  $1,994  $3,298  $6,733  $6,512  $6,215  $3,243 

(2)  Current  Fees 7,963  9,491      11,893  13,897  15,037  15,616  12,438  13,176  15,359  15,538 

(3)  Advance  Fees 376  134          288  158  186  270  139  153  220  165 

(4)  Entrance  Fees 2,190  2,124       2,779  4,077  4,169  2,895  2,233  2,485  3,235  3,047 

(5)  TOTAL $12,552  $15,780  $17,052  $21,019  $21,386  $22,079  $21,543  $22,326  $25,029  $21,993 

(6)  Interest  Received 211  252           187  1,393  894  315-        450  429  556  516 

(7)  Miscellaneous  Receipts .  .           188  79           174  341  225  172  87  972  113  6,050 

(8)  TOTAL $12,951  $16,111    $17,413  $22,753  $22,505  $22,566  $22,080  $23,727  $25,698  $28,559 

Expenditures. 

(9)  Interest  Paid $854  $1,695  $1,201  $1,200  $1,200  $1,200  $1,267 

(10)  Printing  and  Stationery. .      $4,092  $6,268     $3,757  6,865  6,416  10,551  5,970  6,691  6,807  12,480 

(11)  Salaries  and  Wages 4,042  3,845       4,714  5,195  4,906  5,652  4,909  5,180  7,873  8,519 

(12)  Taxes  and  Water 244  244          247  848  1,466  1,448  1,280  1,300  1,025  1,406 

(13)  General  Expense 2,760  2,670       4,198  4,307  5,257  4,812  4,151  3,260  4,612  5,265 

(14)  Branch  Societies 374  648        1,118  2,810  2,121  2,296  2,266  2,454  3,693  1,707 

(15)  TOTAL $12,322  $13,675   $14,034  $20,879  $21,861  $25,960  $19,776  $20,085  $25,210  $30,644 

(16)  Excess  Receipts 629  2,436       3,378  1,874  646  2,304  3,642  488 

(17)  Excess  Expenditures 3,394  2,085 


Reports  of  Branches 


Calgary  Branch 


During  the  year  1918  there  have  been  held  three 
general  meetings  and  ten  Executive  Committee  Meetings. 

The  following  were  the  speakers  at  the  general 
meeting: — 

January  30th,  A.  Ingraham,  M.A.,  Soc.  M.  E. 
"  Flour  Mill  Engineering." 

March  18th,  Mr.  Pearce,  M.E.I.C.  and  Mr.  Peters, 
"  General  Matters." 

May  8th,    Lewis  Stockett,   M.E.I.C,    "Coal." 
May  29th,    Mr.    G.    F.    Porter,    M.E.I.C,    "  The 
Quebec  Bridge." 

Lecture,  illustrated  by  lantern  slides,  given  in  the 
Public  Library  Auditorium  to  which  the  public  were 
invited,  the  hall  proving  much  too  small  to  hold  the 
number  who  wished  to  attend. 

The  most  important  meeting  of  the  year  to  the 
Western  Branches  was  the  Second  Professional  Meeting 
of  The  Institute  held  at  the  Saskatchewan  University  at 
Saskatoon,  August  8,  9  and  10,  1918. 

This  was  attended  by  about  65  members  and  was  a 
great  success  both  from  the  standpoint  of  the  success  of 
the  meetings  from  a  professional  point  of  view  and  from 
the  quality  of  the  entertainment  provided. 

During  the  year  the  new  membership  joining  the 
Branch  is  as  follows: — ■ 


And  applications  received  and  recommended  by  Committee 
on  Applications  as  follows: — 


Associate  Member . . . 
Associates  of  Branch . 


A  total  of  thirteen  new  members. 

Transfers  have  been  made  as  follows: 


From  Associate  Member  to  Member 1 

From  Student  to  Associate  Member 1 

Old  members  joining  or  rejoining  the  Branchy- 
Members 2 

Associate  Member 1 

The  present  membership  of  the  Branch  Totals  72, 
divided  as  follows: — 

Members 20 

Associate  Members 34 

Junior  Members 5 

Affiliates 1 

Affiliates  of  the  Branch 12 


Members 

Associate  Members . . 
Associates  of  Branch 


72 

With  3  Associate  Members  and  1  Associate  of  Branch  to 
be  voted  upon  to-day  makes  a  total  membership  at 
present  of  76. 

This  includes  17  members  with  the  Allied  Armies. 

As  you  are  all  aware,  good  progress  has  been  made  in 
the  matter  of  proposed  Legislation  and  Committees  from 
the  Calgary  and  Edmonton  Branches  are  preparing  to 
submit  an  Act  to  the  coming  session  of  the  Alberta  Legis- 
lature. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


73 


Financial  Statement  for  the  Year  Ending,  November  30,  1917. 

Receipts 

Balance  in  Bank,  December  1,  1917 $426.31 

Fees  from  Members 21 .  75 

Rebates  from  parent  Institute 135.80 

Interest/on  Bank  Account 5 .  14 

Interest  on  Victory  Bond  ($300) 16  50 


$605 . 50 


Expenditure 

Stationery,  Printing  and  General  Expense ....  $75 .  09 

Books  and  Magazines 6 .  35 

Balance  payment  on  ($300)  Victory  Bond ....  267 .  33 

Miscellaneous 56  10 

Balance  in  Bank,  November  30,  1918 200.63 


Montreal  Branch 


$605.50 


To  the  Members  of  Council, 

The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada, 
176  Mansfield  Street, 
Montreal. 
Gentlemen: — 

We  have  the  honour  to  present  herewith  the  first 
annual  report  of  the  Montreal  Branch  of  The  Engineering 
Institute  of  Canada. 

On  January  23rd,  1918,  a  petition  was  presented  to 
Council  asking  for  the  formation  of  a  Montreal  Branch  of 
the  Canadian  Society  of  Civil  Engineers.  This  appli- 
cation was  as  follows : — 

'  To  the  President  and  Members  of  the  Council  of 
the  Canadian  Society  of  Civil  Engineers. 
We,  the  undersigned  Corporate  Members  of  ihe 
Canadian  Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  resident  within 
twenty-five   miles  of  headquarters,  respectfully  re- 
quest  that   the   Council   may   grant   permission   to 
establish  "  The  Montreal  Branch  of  the  Canadian 
Society  of  Civil  Engineers." 
Montreal,  January  23rd,  1918." 
(Signed) : 


R.  M.  Hannaford. 
R.  S.  Lea. 

Frederick  B.  Brown. 
J.  A.  Burnett. 
Geo.  K.  McDougall. 
Onisphore  H.  Cote. 
A.  W.  K.  Massey. 
A.  J.  Matheson. 


Alex.  Bertram. 
Ls.  G.'Papineau. 
J.  A.  Duchastel. 
W.  Chase  Thomson. 
H.  P.  Borden. 
M.  Brodie  Atkinson. 
R.  deL.  French. 
H.  G.  Hunter. 


To  the  Members  of  Council  E.  I.  C. 

At  a  meeting  of  Council  held  on  the  same  day  this 
application  was  presented  and  permission  by  Council  was 
granted  for  the  formation  of  the  Branch,  and  residents 
of  District  No.  1  were  authorized  to  proceed  with  arrange- 
ments for  organizing  into  a  Montreal  Branch. 

On  February  7th,  1918,  the  signers  of  the  original 
petition  of  January  23rd  sent  out  a  circular  to  all  members 
resident  in  District  No.  1,  calling  a  meeting  for  the  14th  of 
February  to  discuss  details  in  connection  with  the  form- 
ation of  the  Branch. 


On  February  14th  a  largely  attended  meeting  took 
place  at  the  headquarters  of  the  Society,  176  Mansfield 
Street.  A  committee  was  named  for  the  purpose  of 
nominating  candidates  to  fill  the  executive  offices  of  the 
new  Branch  and  the  election  by  letter  ballot  was  arranged 
to  be  declared  on  March  14th.  The  Executive  of  the 
Branch  was  discussed  and  it  was  decided  to  have  it  com- 
posed of  a  Chairman,  a  Vice-Chairman,  a  Secretary- 
Treasurer,  these  to  be  elected  for  one  year,  and  six 
Committee  men,  the  three  receiving  the  greatest  number 
of  votes  to  serve  for  two  years  and  the  three  others  for  one 
year,  thereafter  the  Committee  men  to  be  elected  for  two 
years,  three  at  each  election. 

A  Nominating  Committee  was  selected  composed 
of  R.  M.  Hannaford,  Frederick  B.  Brown,  L.  G. 
Papineau,  J.  A.  Duchastel,  W.  Chase  Thomson,  M.  Brodie 
Atkinson  and  H.  G.  Hunter,  and,  according  to  the 
instructions  they  received  by  resolution  of  the  meeting, 
they  were  to  nominate  at  least  two  candidates  for  each 
executive  office  and  to  add  other  candidates  to  the  list  of 
nominees  provided  they  had  received  the  certified  support 
of  five  Corporate  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  Nominating  Committee  proceeded  to  carry  out 
their  work  and  on  March  14th  the  following  gentlemen 
were  elected  to  office:— 

Chairman Walter  J.  Francis. 

Vice  Chairman Arthur  Surveyer. 

Secretary-Treasurer Frederick  B.  Brown. 

Members  of  the  Executive  Committe. 

F.  P.  Shearwood,  W.  Chase  Thomson,  H.  G. 
Hunter,  for  two  years;  and  L.  G.  Papineau,  O.  O.  Lefebvre, 
K.  B.  Thornton,  for  one  year. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  newly  elected  Executive  took 
place  at  the  rooms  of  the  Society  on  March  21st,  1918, 
and  the  organization  of  the  Branch  was  commenced. 
A  Committee  consisting  of  Messrs.  Francis,  Safford, 
Ernest  Brown,  Surveyer,  Lefebvre  (<  and  Hunter  was 
constituted  the  Committee  on  Branch  By-Laws  to  draw 
up  suitable  by-laws,  working  in  co-operation  with  the 
general  By-laws  Committee  of  the  Society,  namely, 
Messrs.  Francis,  Safford  and  Ernest  Brown. 

A  Papers  and  Meetings  Committee  was  appointed 
consisting  of  R.  M.  Hannaford,  Chairman,  together 
with  the  Chairmen  and  Vice-Chairmen  of  such  sections 
of  the  Branch  as  may  hereafter  be  formed.  Four  sug- 
gested Sections  of  the  Branch  were  named  as  follows:— 


Civil . 


J.  A.  Duchastel,  Chairman. 
H.  M.  Lamb,..  .Vice-Chairman. 


Mechanical. . .  J.  A.  Burnett,... Chairman. 

J.  T.  Farmer,... Vice-Chairman. 

Electrical J.  A.  Shaw, Chairman. 

A.  Frigon, Vice-Chairman. 

Industrial  or 

Manufacturing.S.  F.  Rutherford.. Chairman. 

H.  G.  Hunter.  ...Vice-Chairman. 


74 


JOURNAL     OF    THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Following  this  meeting  the  work  of  organization  was 
continued  and  the  four  Sections  of  the  Branch  were  duly 
constituted  under  the  leadership  of  the  members  of  the 
Papers  and  Meetings  Committee  already  outlined. 

The  programme  for  the  balance  of  the  spring  season  of 
1918  being  already  arranged  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Society  as  a  whole,  it  was  decided  to  continue  these  as 
found  best  from  to  time  until  the  close  of  the  spring  pro- 
gramme, and  this  arrangement  was  accordingly  carried  out. 

On  May  29th,  the  Executive  of  the  Branch  had  the 
honour  of  holding  the  first  meeting  under  the  official  new 
name  of  the  Society,  the  signature  of  the  Governor-General 
having  just  been  attached  to  the  papers  authorizing  the 
change  of  name  to  The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

During  the  summer  considerable  progress  was  made 
in  the  drafting  of  by-laws,  discussions  on  legislation,  and 
suggested  formation  of  a  Provincial  Division  in  Quebec. 
This  work  was  carried  on  by  members  of  the  Committee, 
and  regular  meetings  of  the  Committee  were  resumed  early 
in  September.  The  programme  for  the  fall  session  was 
drawn  up,  and  it  was  decided  to  hold  a  discussion  on 
legislation  at  the  first  regular  meeting  of  the  Branch 
during  the  autumn  season,  commencing  on  October  10th. 
The  epidemic  of  influenza,  which  was  at  that  time  com- 
mencing to  be  very  severe,  caused  the  Board  of  Health  to 
issue  an  order  prohibiting  all  public  gatherings  in  Montreal. 
This  necessitated  the  postponement  of  the  discussion  on 
legislation  until  November  28th. 

On  November  28th  the  Branch  met  and  commenced 
the  discussion  on  legislation,  about  seventy-five  members 
being  present.  The  discussion  proved  so  interesting  that 
it  was  decided  to  continue  the  discussion  on  legislation, 
and  further  meetings  were  held  on  December  12th  and 
December  19th.  At  the  meeting  on  December  19th, 
following  a  great  deal  of  discussion,  two  resolutions  were 
passed  by  the  Branch,  one  asking  Council  to  appoint  a 
committee  to  consider  the  question  of  legislation  through- 
out Canada,  and  the  other  instructing  the  officers  of  the 
Branch  to  co-operate  with  the  officers  of  the  Quebec 
Branch  in  obtaining  information  regarding  legislation 
from  members  resident  in  the  Province  of  Quebec.  The 
text  of  the  two  resolutions  is  as  follows:— 

Moved  by  Mr.  Tye,  Seconded  by  Mr.  Duggan, 
and  carried,  that 

Whereas  it  seems  advisable  that  legislation 
should  be  sought  defining  the  status  of  engineers 
throughout  Canada,  And 

Whereas  the  widespread  activities  of  the 
Engineering  profession,  the  great  difference  in  the 
interests  and  occupations  of  the  individuals,  the  neces- 
sity of  getting  satisfactory  legislation  in  the  different 
Provinces,  the  unsatisfactory  result  of  such  legislation 
as  has  already  been  obtained  and  the  dangers  and 
difficulties  certain  to  be  encountered  by  The  Institute 
as  a  whole  during  the  time  period  of  passing  of 
Canadian  engineering  from  an  open  to  a  closed  or  a 
partially  closed  profession,  make  it  inadvisable  and 
inexpedient  to  ask  for  any  further  legislation  in  any 
Province  until  the  whole  question  has  been  thoroughly 
studied,  reported  upon  and  submitted  in  concrete 
form  to  the  full  corporate  membership  of  The  Institute. 


Be  It  Resolved: 

That  the  Executive  of  the  Montreal  Branch  be 
instructed  to  ask  the  Council  to  arrange  for  the 
appointment  of  a  Committee  representing  all  pro- 
vinces and  all  branches  of  the  profession  to  inquire 
into,  study  and  report  upon  the  whole  question  of 
legislation,  including  a  report  upon  the  best  method 
of  getting  such  legislation  as  will  insure  a  satisfactory 
and  uniform  status  of  engineers  throughout  Canada, 
also  to  draw  up  such  sample  legislation  as  it  may 
deem  necessary  and  advisable  in  order  that  the 
members  of  The  Institute  in  the  different  provinces 
may  seek  legislation  on  some  uniform  basis. 

That  before  the  final  adoption  of  any  proposed 

act  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Committee  to  co-operate 
as  far  as  possible  with  similar  incorporated  technical 
bodies  with  a  view  to  harmonizing  clauses  which 
might  contain  points  of  contention. 

That  the  Secretary  of  the  Montreal  Branch  be 
instructed  to  forward  a  copy  of  this  Resolution  to 
the  Secretary  of  The  Institute  and  to  the  Secretaries 
of  the  Provincial  Divisions  and  the  Branches,  and  to 
request  the  Executive  of  the  Provincial  Divisions  and 
the  Branches  to  assist  the  Council  in  securing  the 
appointment  of  a  strong  and  representative  com- 
mittee." 

Proposed  by  Mr.  Surveyer,  seconded  by  Mr. 
Brown,  and  carried, 

That  the  Executive  of  the  Montreal  Branch 
take  immediate  steps  to  obtain,  in  co-operation  with 
the  Quebec  Branch,  and  by  letter  ballot,  the  views  of 
the  members  of  The  Institute,  residing  in  the  Pro- 
vince of  Quebec,  on  the  question  of  licensing  engineers. 

And  that  the  following  questions  for  this  letter 
ballot  be  suggested  to  the  Executives  of  the  Montreal 
and  Quebec  Branches  for  their  consideration : 

Question  1. — Are  you  in  favour  of  a  closed  cor- 
poration for  engineers  having  responsible  charge  of 
engineering  works  ? 

Question  2. — If  so,  do  you  favour  legislation 
embracing  all  engineering  works,  or  only  public 
works  ? 

Question  3. — In  the  event  of  the  majority  of 
the  members  of  The  Institute  residing  in  Quebec, 
declaring  in  favour  of  a  closed  corporation,  what  are 
your  opinions  on  the  following  questions  ? 

(a)  Do  you  consider  that  the  only  method  of 
entrance  into  the  engineering  profession  should  be 
through  the  engineering  colleges  ? 

(b)  If  not,  do  you  think  that  candidates  who  do 
not  follow  college  engineering  courses  should  be 
obliged  to  pass  an  examination  for  admission  to  study 
somewhat  along  the  lines  of  the  matriculation  exam- 
ination required  for  university  entrance  ? 

(c)  Do  you  think  that  candidates  should  be 
required  to  pass  an  examination  for  admission  to 
practise,  similar  to  the  examinations  required  by  the 
Bar  and  Medical  Associations  ? 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


75 


(d)  Should  candidates  be  obliged  to  serve  a 
period  of  apprenticeship  or  employment  under  an 
engineer,  before  being  allowed  to  take  the  final 
examinations  for  admission  to  practise  ?  (The  word 
practise  is  understood  to  mean  taking  responsible 
charge  of  engineering  works). 

(e)  If  in  favour  of  examination,  do  you  consider 
that  these  should  be  held  by  the  corporation  only  or 
by  a  joint  board  of  the  members  of  the  corporation 
and  representatives  of  the  McGill  and  Laval  faculties 
of  applied  science  ? 

(f)  Do  you  consider  that  graduates  of  engineering 
schools  should  be  exempted  from  any  or  all  the 
examinations  ? 

(g)  If  so,  from  what  examinations  should  they 
be  exempted  ? 

(h)  Do  you  think  that  graduates  of  engineering 
schools  should  be  required  to  prove  that  they  have 
had  experience  under  some  engineer  before  being 
admitted  to  take  charge  of  engineering  work  ? 

And  that  the  results  of  this  letter  ballot  be 
passed  on  to  the  committee  appointed  under  Mr. 
Tye's  motion  for  their  information  irrespective  of  any 
action  the  members  of  The  Institute  in  Quebec  may 
wish  to  take." 
The  whole  subject  of  legislation  is  apparently  very 

much  alive  throughout  The  Institute  and  the  Montreal 

Branch  is  taking  a  keen  interest  in  it. 

A  programme  for  the  winter  and  spring  season  of  1919 

has  been  drawn  up  by  the  Branch  in  accordance  with  the 

attached  printed  list. 

Branch  Officers,  1918-1919:  Walter  J.  Francis,  Chair- 
man; Arthur  Surveyer,  Vice-Chairman;  Frederick  B. 
Brown,  Secretary-Treasurer. 

Executive  Committee:  F.  P.  Shearwood,  H.  G. 
Hunter,  O.  O.  Lefebvre,  W.  Chase  Thomson,  L.  G. 
Papineau  and  K.  B.  Thornton. 

Papers  and  Meetings  Committee:  R.  M.  Hannaford, 
Chairman. 

S.  F.  Rutherford,  H.  G.  Hunter,  Industrial  Section; 
J.  A.  Shaw,  A.  Frigon,  Electrical  Section;  J.  T.  Farmer, 
J.  A.  Burnett,  Mechanical  Section;  J.  Duchastel,  H.  M. 
Lamb,  Civil  Section. 

Programme  of  Meetings,  January  to  April,  1919. 

Always  at  8.15  p.m.  sharp. 

Always  on  Thursday  evening,  with  the  exception 
of  February  13th,  which  is  the  date  of  the  Annual-Pro- 
fessional Meeting  in  Ottawa. 


Jan.  9 — Fire  Prevention.  Inspection  as  a  Means  of 
Fire  Prevention,  by  George  H.  Greenfield.  Chairman — ■ 
Mr.     Francis. 

Jan.  16 — Design  and  Construction  of  Reinforced 
Concrete  Viaducts  at  Mileages  0.9  and  1.8,  North  Toronto 
Sub-division,  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  by  B.  O.  Eriksen, 
A.M.E.I.C,  and  S.  H.  Deubelbeiss,  A.M.E.I.C.  Some 
Problems  of  National  Reconstruction,  by.  W.  F.  Chipman, 
K.C.     Chairman — Mr.  Surveyer. 


Jan.  23 — Coaling  Plant  for  Locomotives,  by  J.  A. 
Burnett,  A.M.E.I.C.  Industrial  Illumination,  by  George 
K.  McDougall,  A.M.E.I.C.     Chairman— Mr.  Hannaford. 

Jan.  30 — Modern  Boiler  Practice,  by  F.  A.  Combe, 
A.M.E.I.C.  Coal  is  King  (A  motion  picture),  by  R.  E. 
Cleaton  Company.     Chairman — Mr.  Rutherford. 

Feb.  6 — Some  Problems  in  Ocean  Transportation,  by 
A.  W.  Robinson,  M.E.I.C.  Manufacture  of  Nitro-Benzol 
and  Aniline  Oils,  by  G.  J.  Caron,  J.E.I.C.  Chairman 
— Mr.  Fanner. 

Feb.  20 — Construction  of  Canadian  Northern  Railway 
Tunnel,  Montreal,  by  J.  L.  Busfield,  A.M.E.I.C.  Chair- 
man —Mr.  Duchastel. 

Feb.  27 — The  Effect  of  Ice  on  Hydro-Electric  Plants, 
by  R.  M.  Wilson,  M.E.I.C.     Chairman^Mr.  Francis. 

March  6 —Air  Drills,  by  N.  M.  Campbell,  A.M.E.I.C. 
The  Halifax  Explosion  from  a  Chemist's  and  Physicist's 
Viewpoint,  by  Dr.  Howard  Bronson,  F.  R.  S.  C.  Burroughs 
Adding  Machines  (A  motion  picture),  by  Burroughs 
Adding  Machine  Company.     Chairman — Mr.  Hunter. 

March  13 -Electrical  Welding,  by  C.  V.  Holslag. 
Patents  and  Engineering,  by  Hanbury  A  Budden, 
A.E.I.C.     Chairman — Mr.  Shaw. 

March  20— Ball  Bearing  Jacks,  by  W.  H.  C.  Mussen, 
A.E.I.C.  Peat,  by  Ernest  V.  Moore,  A.M.E.I.C.  Chair- 
man   -Mr.  Rutherford. 

March  27 — Some  Notes  on  the  Design  and  Construc- 
tion of  Reinforced  Concrete  Covered  Reservoirs,  by  R. 
deL.  French,  M.E.I.C.     Chairman — Mr.  Surveyer. 

April  3—  The  Operation  of  Railways  as  an  Engineering 
Problem,  by  V.  I.  Smart,  M.E.I.C.  Chairman— Mr. 
Frigon. 

April  10  Waterproof  Paper  Productions  and  their 
Industrial  Possibilities,  by  J.  A.  DeCew,  A.M.E.I.C. 
Chairman — Mr.  Lamb. 

April  17 — Quebec  Bridge,  by  Phelps  Johnson, 
M.E.I.C,  G.  H.  Duggan,  M.E.I.C,  George  F.  Porter, 
M.E.I.C.     Chairman      Mr.  Francis. 

April  24 — Continuation  of  Paper  of  April  17th. 
( 'hairman — Mr.  Francis. 

The  meetings  so  far  held  have  been  very  successful 
and  much  appreciated  by  those  present. 

The  Executive  Committee  of  the  Montreal  Branch 
feels  that  a  great  advance  has  been  made  by  forming  the 
members  resident  within  twenty-five  miles  of  Head- 
quarters into  a  separate  entity  having  a  Branch  standing. 
In  this  connection,  however,  it  is  felt  that  certain  amend- 
ments to  the  By-laws  of  The  Institute  are  desirable  in  order 
to  improve  certain  of  the  operating  conditions  of  the 
Montreal  Branch  and  to  place  the  Branch  on  a  footing 
corresponding  to  that  of  the  other  Branches.  At  the 
present  time  the  Montreal  Branch  members  pay  much 
larger  fees  to  The  Institute  than  any  of  the  other  members 
of  The  Institute,  but  the  regulations  make  no  provisions 
for  financing  the  Branch.  Being  without  the  funds 
derived  from  rebates  which  constitute  the  principal  revenue 
of  the  other  Branches,  it  has  been  necessary  to  accept 
favours  of  the  private  members,  or  to  appeal  to  Head- 
quarters for  assistance  that  does  not  appear  to  be  provided 
for  in  the  By-laws  of  The  Institute.  Up  to  the  present  the 
Council  of  The  Institute  has  kindly  undertaken  to  pay  the 


76 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


principal  expenses  of  the  Branch,  but  the  Executive 
Committee  of  the  Branch  feels  that  the  Branch  should  be 
placed  in  a  position  to  finance  its  own  expenditures  and  to 
make  provision  for  its  programme  and  activities.  The 
Secretary  of  The  Institute  has  also  rendered  valuable  and 
much  appreciated  services  to  the  Branch,  but  the  Executive 
considers  that  it  has  no  right  to  thus  impose  on  the  Head- 
quarters staff. 

The  whole  question  is  one  of  some  difficulty  and 
committees  are  now  working  in  order  to  prepare  amend- 
ments to  the  existing  By-laws  of  The  Institute,  which 
amendments  it  is  proposed  to  present  at  the  next  annual 
meeting  in  order  to  produce  the  desired  result. 

The  whole  respectfully  submitted  on  behalf  of  the 
Montreal   Branch. 

Walter  J.  Francis, 

Chairman. 

Frederick  B.  Brown, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

Quebec  Branch 

Quebec,  January  12th,  1919. 

To  the  President  and  Council  and  Members, 
of  the  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

Gentlemen: — 

On  behalf  of  the  Quebec  Branch  of  The  Engineering 
Institute  of  Canada,  we  herewith  submit  our  Annual  Report 
for  the  year  1918. 

At  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Branch  held  on  the 
fourteenth  of  December  last,  the  following  officers  were 
elected  by  ballot  for  the  ensuing  year  :  A.  R.  Decary, 
Chairman;  J.  A.  Buteau,  Secretary-Treasurer;  F.  T.  Cole, 
J.  E.  Gibault,   W.  Lefebvre,    members   of  Committee. 

At  this  meeting  the  Secretary-Treasurer's  report 
for  the  Branch  year  was  read  and  approved. 

The  Branch  had  only  five  meetings  which  were  fairly 
well  attended.    There  were  no  lectures  during  the  season. 

During  the  last  Provincial  Session,  our  Legislation 
Committee  took  great  pains  in  watching  all  bills  pre- 
sented to  the  Legislative  Assembly  for  sanction,  so  that 
there  would  be  no  infringement  on  our  rights,  and  have 
succeeded,  together  with  the  influence  brought  by  some 
of  our  prominent  members,  in  blocking  and  having 
amended  certain  bills,  which  formerly  had  clauses  detri- 
mental to  the  Institute  by-laws  and  regulations. 

One  of  the  most  important  subjects  at  the  meetings 
was  the  discussion  on  ways  and  means  of  obtaining 
Provincial  Legislation  with  clear  and  well  defined  charters. 
Resolution  to  that  effect  was  sent  to  the  central  com- 
mittee and  all  the  other  Branches  of  The  Institute  for 
action. 

The  Branch  takes  this  opportunity  of  drawing  the 
attention  of  the  central  Council  to  the  resolution  for- 
warded to  them  on  the  seventh  of  December  last,  to  the 
effect  that  our  profession  was  not  having  proper  repre- 
sentation on  various  Commissions  which  have  been 
established  to  undertake  work  or  problems  connected  with 
engineering,  earnestly  requests  that  the  Executive 
Council  will  take  immediate  action  and  bring  its  influence 


to  bear  on  the  Government  or  Commissions,  for  the  exclu- 
sive appointment  of  corporate  members  of  The  En- 
gineering Institute,  or  graduates  from  recognized  engineer- 
ing universities  to  fill  all  engineering  positions,  thus 
protecting  the  public  and  raising  the  standing  of  The 
Institute  and  the  profession. 

The  financial  standing  of  the  Branch  is  satisfactory, 
the  report  showing  a  balance  in  bank  of  $613.93  dollars. 

The  kindness  of  the  Mayor  of  Quebec  in  providing 
the  Branch  with  free  quarters  in  the  City  Hall,  has  largely 
contributed  to  this  satisfactory  financial  standing. 

The  membership  of  the  Branch  is  as  follows: — 

Members 18 

Associate  Members 55 

Juniors 17 

Students 14 

Branch  Associate 1 

Respectfully  submitted, 

A.  E.  Doucet, 
Chairman. 

W.  Lefebvre, 
Secretary. 

Hamilton  Branch 

In  response  to  a  request  from  a  number  of  engineers  in 
Hamilton,  Fraser  S.  Keith,  Secretary  of  The 
Engineering  Institute  of  Canada,  came  to  the  city  on  June 
14th,  1918,  to  discuss  the  question  of  forming  a  Branch. 
Over  forty  engineers  attended  the  meeting  to  meet  Mr. 
Keith,  and  after  a  discussion  it  was  decided  to  start  a 
Branch  of  The  Engineering  Institute  ofCanadain  Hamilton. 
The  necessary  application  was  signed  and  sent  in  to 
Council.    The  meeting  adjourned  to  an  informal  dinner. 

On  July  26th  a  meeting  was  held  at  which  Nominating, 
By-Laws,  and  Membership  Committees  were  appointed. 
According  to  their  instructions  the  Nominating  Committee 
sent  out  a  letter  ballot  by  which  the  following  executive 
were  elected:  E.  R.  Gray,  Chairman;  H.  B.  Dwight, 
Secretary-Treasurer;  E.  H.  Darling  and  J.  A.  McFarlane. 

The  first  regular  meeting  of  the  Branch  was  held  in 
the  Royal  Connaught  Hotel  on  Sept.  21st,  1918, 
P.  M.  Lincoln,  Past-President  of  the  American  Institute 
of  Electrical  Engineers,  gave  a  comprehensive  and  enjoy- 
able lecture  on  "  The  Development  of  Electric  Power 
Transmission."  This  was  followed  by  a  good  discussion 
of  the  subject  by  the  engineers  present. 

On  Sept.  30th,  a  meeting  was  held  in  the  Royal  Con- 
naught  Hotel.  E.  R.  Gray,  the  Chairman  of  the 
Branch,  gave  an  address  on  the  duties  and  opportunities 
of  engineers  in  connection  with  their  professional  organi- 
zation. A  set  of  by-laws  for  the  Branch  was  then  pre- 
sented by  the  By-laws  Committee,  and  was  amended  in 
some  particulars  and  then  forwarded  to  the  Council  of  The 
Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

Further  meetings  for  the  autumn  of  1918  were  pre- 
vented by  the  influenza  epidemic,  although  complete 
arrangements  had  been  made  for  a  joint  meeting  to  be  held 
in  Hamilton  with  the  Toronto  Section  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,   to  be  addressed  by 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


77 


G.  E.  Stoltz  of  Pittsburgh,  on  "Steel  Mill  Electrifi- 
cation." Another  lecture  which  had  to  be  postponed,  was 
the  illustrated  lecture  by  Geo.  F.  Porter  on  "  The 
Quebec  Bridge,"  which  has  been  given  with  much  success 
before  several  other  branches. 

A  meeting  of  the  Branch  was  held  on  Jan.  17th,  1919, 
to  discuss  the  subject  of  legislation.  A  Legislation  Com- 
mittee of  five  members  was  appointed  and  it  was  decided 
to  continue  the  discussion  at  a  future  meeting. 

It  is  planned  to  hold  several  meetings  this  winter,  one 
to  be  addressed  by  E.  L.  Cousins,  chief  engineer  of 
the  Toronto  Harbor  Commission,  on  "  Harbor  Improve- 
ments," and  one  to  be  addressed  by  Dr.  F.  B.  Jewett, 
chief  engineer  of  the  Western  Electric  Co.,  on  "Research." 

Since  the  Hamilton  Branch  was  organized,  at  least 
twelve  applications  have  been  sent  in  for  corporate 
membership,  and  fifteen  affiliates  have  joined  the  Branch. 
A  financial  statement  is  attached. 

H.  B.  D WIGHT, 

Secretary-Treasu  rer . 


1918 

Receipts. 

Aug.     23 

Advance  Rebate  from  The 
Engineering    Institute    of 

Canada 

$50.00 

Oct.       10 

Fees  from  Affiliates 

9.00 

17 

tt           it                  tt 

9.00 

Nov.       5 

a           tt                  tt 

9.00 

21 

tt            tt                   tt 

15.00 

26 

tt           tt                  tt 

3.00 

1919 

Jan.       14 

Rebate  from  The  Engineer- 
ing   Institute   of   Canada 

for  1918 

29.40 

Total 

1918 


Sept. 

30 

44 

30 

Oct. 

9 

" 

9 

" 

9 

" 

9 

Nov. 

14 

*4 

14 

a 

14 

Dec. 

17 

" 

17 

191£ 

> 

Jan. 

3 

*4 

14 

t  t 

14 

$124.40 


Expenses. 

Postage 1 .  44 

Typewriting  Letter  Ballot..  3 . 70 

Paper  and  Envelopes 3 .  50 

Philip  Davis  Printing  Co .  .  2 .  50 

Connaught  Hotel  Co 10 .  00 

Post  Cards 3 .  15 

Moore  Printery 5 .  10 

Flowers    for     Funeral     of 

M.  A.  Kemp 5.00 

PostCards 2.80 

The  Moore  Printery 2 .  50 

PostCards 3.00 

Expenses  of  Geo.  F.  Porter  3 .  45 

Total 46.14 

Balance  in  Bank 78 .  26 


$124.40 


Victoria  Branch 

To  the  President  and  Council,  Montreal: — 

We  have  pleasure  in  submitting  the  following  annual 
report  of  this  Branch  for  the  year  1918: — ■ 

One  of  the  main  characteristics  of  the  past  year  has 
been  the  demand  for  the  services  of  engineers,  which  has 
prevented  as  good  attendances  at  headquarters  as  possible, 
but  the  average  has  been  a  considerable  improvement  on 
the  previous  year,  and  altogether  there  has  been  a  much 
greater  interest  taken  in  the  affairs  of  both  the  Branch  and 
The  Institute;  the  question  of  obtaining  proper  recognition 
for  the  profession  is  occupying  chief  place  at  the  present 
time. 

Our  Legislation  Committee  deserves  special  thanks 
for  the  time  and  labour  spent  in  opposing  a  charter  sought 
from  the  Provincial  House  by  a  number  of  men  (including 
a  few  members  of  our  Institute)  who  wished  to  become 
certified  engineers  by  Provincial  Legislation.  They  were, 
however,  unable  to  prove  their  case  or  substantiate  their 
claim  to  legal  recognition,  and  the  bill  failed  to  pass  through 
committee.  Our  thanks  are  tendered  to  the  parent 
Council  for  their  advice  and  financial  assistance  in  con- 
nection with  this  matter. 

Ten  general  meetings  were  held  during  the  year,  the 
influenza  ban  preventing  all  meetings  for  several  weeks 
in  the  fall. 

Papers  were  given  by  D.  O.  Lewis  on  the  History  and 
Development  of  Railways,  and  by  A.  E.  Foreman,  on 
the  Dewey  Decimal  System  of  Filing;  and  discussions 
were  held  as  follows: — 

Two  on  W.  F.  Tye's  paper  Canada's  Railway 
Problem  and  its  Solution." 

One  on  Dr.  Haanel's  paper  Fuels  of  Canada. 

One  on  The  Sooke  Lake  Water  supply  system. 

One  on  Proposed  Saskatchewan  Legislation. 

One  on  Reclaiming  and  Developing  Land  Areas 
for  Returned  Soldiers. 

G.  F.  Porter  gave  his  illustrated  lecture  on  the 
Quebec  Bridge  on  June  12th. 

Several  volumes  have  been  donated  by  members  to 
the  Branch  library  the  greater  part  of  the  library  being 
loaned  by  F.  C.  Gamble,  Past  President  of  the  Society. 

During  the  year  W.  K.  Gwyer  was  transferred  to  the 
Okanagan  and  his  place  on  the  executive  was  filled  by  the 
election  of  W.  Young. 

The  membership  resident  within  Branch  limits  at  the 
close  of  the  year  was: — 

Members 22 

Associate  Members 30 

Juniors 3 

Branch  Associates 2 

Total 57 

The  return  of  those  who  are  overseas  is  expected  to 
bring  increased  numbers  and  greater  activity  in  the  near 
future. 


78 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Our  Annual  Branch  meeting  was  held  on  December 
11th,  and  the  following  officers  were  elected  for  1919: 
W.  Young,  Chairman;  R.  A.  Bainbridge,  Vice-Chairman ; 
E.  Davis,  Treasurer;  J.  B.  Holdcroft,  Secretary;  The 
above  with  W.  Everall  and  A.  Yarrow,  Executive; 
D.  O.  Lewis  and  R.  W.  Maclntyre,  Past  Chairmen,  are 
ex  officio  members  of  the  Executive;  A.  F.  Mitchell  and 
W.  M.  Stokes,  Auditors. 

The  financial  statement  for  1918  is  attached. 


E.  G.  Marriott, 

Secretary. 


Respectfully  submitted, 

R.  W.  Macintye, 

Chairman. 


Bala  nee  Sheet  1st  December,   1917, 
to  1st  December,   19 IS. 

Balance  in  Bank  1st  Dec,  1917  $269 .  75 
Cash  in  Hand 18.32 


$288.07 


Receipts. 

Fees  due  prior  to  31st  Dec, 

1917 $32.00 

Fees  due  for  1918 138.50 

Entrance  Fees 4 .  00 

Rebates  from  Engineering  Ins- 
titute, Montreal 1 13 .  40 

Sale  of  Table 25.00 

Sale  of  Keys  of  Room .75 

Interest  on  War  Bond 5 .  50 

Stamp  on  Cheque .02 


$319.17 


Disbursements. 

Rent  of  Club  Room,  1st  Dec, 

1917,  to  30th  Nov.,  1918.  .  .   $180.00 

Telephone 33.40 

Telegrams 4 .  07 

Postage  Stamps,  Sec.  and  Treas.  1 1 .  36 

Typewriting 12.91 

Stationery 30 .  50 

Binding  Books 5 .  20 

Technical  Papers 14 .  32 

Quebec  Bridge  Lecture: 

Car  hire $  5.00 

Room  Hire...     3.00 
Advertising. .  .   14 .  28 

—  22.28 

Altering  Sign  on  Room  Door .  .  1 .  75 

Keys 1.75 


$317.54 

$    1.63 
Excess  of  Receipts  over  Disbursements $  1 .  63 


Liquid  Assets. 

Victory  Bond $  99. 11 

Bank  Balance 181.61 

Cash  Balance 8.98 


$289.70 

The  books,  vouchers  and  balance  sheet  have  been 
examined  and  found  correct. 


E.  Davis, 


Treasurer. 


Clarence  Hoard, 
F.  C.  Green, 

Auditors. 


$289.70 


Saskatchewan  Branch 

The  second  Annual  Report  of  the  Saskatchewan 
Branch  of  The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada,  is  hereby 
respectfully  submitted:  — 

At  the  outset  we  would  like  to  mention  the  fact,  that 
it  is  only  four  years  now,  that  eight  members  of  the 
Canadian  Society  of  Civil  Engineers  gathered  in  the  house 
of  one  of  the  local  members  and  decided  to  request  the 
approval  of  the  Parent  Institute  for  the  formation  of  a 
Regina  Branch.  At  present  after  four  years,  we  have  a 
membership  of  ninety-one  members,  sixteen  of  whom 
are  overseas.  The  membership  is  composed  as  follows: 
9  Members,  67  Associate  Members,  3  Juniors,  5  Students, 
1  Associate  and  6  Affiliates  and  means  an  increase  of 
twenty-two  over  last  report. 

As  there  are  at  present  seven  applications  from  our 
Province  in  the  hands  of  the  Council  of  the  Parent  Institute 
we  are  certain  to  arrive  at  a  membership  of  one  hundred 
early  during  the  coming  year. 

The  past  year  has  been  one  of  considerable  activity 
in  the  Branch.  The  dividing  of  the  entire  membership 
into  two  groups,  one  on  "  Power,"  the  other  one  on 
"  Good  Roads,"  with  two  Main  Committees  in  charge  of 
proceedings  and  papers,  bore  good  results  and  all  the 
meetings  during  last  winter  were  taken  up  by  papers 
dealing  with  some  of  the  phases  of  the  two  subjects. 
Especially  the  question  of  "  Good  Roads "  has  been 
thoroughly  discussed  and  our  Committee  hopes  shortly  to 
submit  a  resume  in  form  of  a  Progress  Report. 

Then  came  our  First  Western  Professional  Meeting  at 
Saskatoon  under  the  auspices  of  our  Branch,  with  its 
three  days  deliberations  on  technical  and  professional 
matters,  and  the  first  "  getting  together  "  on  the  subject  of 
"  legislation,"  which  we  hope  sincerely  will  materialize 
during  this  year.  Another  tangible  result  of  our  Western 
Meeting  is  a  permanent  "  Concrete  "  and  "  Good  Roads 
Committee." 

We  do  not  want  to  overlook  to  mention  the  visit  of 
G.  F.  Porter  with  his  interesting  paper  on  the  "Quebec 
Bridge." 

After  the  Professional  Meeting  all  our  sessions  were 
devoted  nearly  exclusively  to  "  legislation,"  and  a  fairly 
good  draft  of  a  proposed  Act  had  been  prepared.    We 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


79 


intended  to  submit  the  same  at  the  present  session  of  our 
Legislative  Assembly  here,  but  decided  to  withold  action 
in  deference  to  a  request  of  the  parent  Council. 

Altogether  6  Executive,  10  regular  and  6  special 
Meetings  were  held  in  addition  to  a  considerable  number  of 
Committee  Meetings. 

The  following  papers  have  been  read: 

R.  W.  E.  Loucks,  A.M.E.I.C.— "  General  Prin- 
ciples affecting  the  Location  of  Good  Roads." 

E.  W.  Murray,  A.M.E.I.C.  "  Construction  and 
Maintenance  of  Earth  Roads." 

H.  R.  Mackenzie,  A.M.E.I.C.—"  The  Necessity 
of  Engineering  Supervision  on  Construction  and 
Maintenance  of  Earth  Roads." 

J.  D.  Peters,  Electrical  Superintendent,  City  of 
Moose  Jaw. — "  Load  Factor  and  Diversity  Factor 
and  their  Effect  on  the  Cost  of  Production  of  Power." 

W.  T.  Thompson,  M.E.I.C.— "  Notes  on  Loca- 
tion and  Construction  of  Trunk  and  Feeder  Roads 
with  Special  Reference  to  their  Grades  and  Width 
in  Relation  to  Traffic." 

A.  A.  Murphy,  A.M.E.I.C.—"  Relative  Merits 
of  Various  Types  of  Prime  Movers  Producing 
Electrical  Energy." 

E.  H.  Phillips,  A.M.E.I.C— "A  Consideration 
Affecting  the  Location  of  Roads  with  Respect  to 
Population,  Existing  Railroads  and  Road  Building 
Materials." 

C.  P.  Richards,  A.M.E.I.C.—"  Legal  Inter- 
pretation of  the  Quebec  Act." 

J.  N.  deStein,  M.E.I.C—  "  Remarks  Regarding 
Rural  Roads. 

The  financial  situation  has  been  rendered  rather 
difficult  through  the  new  By-Laws  of  The  Institute, 
cutting  the  Branch  revenue  practically  in  two.  A  special 
levy  had  to  be  made  upon  our  members,  which  brought  our 
income  of  only  $132.40  from  the  parent  Institute  up  to 
$359.97,  with  an  expenditure  of  $340.07.  It  will  be 
necessary  again  to  make  a  special  assessment  amongst  our 
Branch   Members. 

At  the  Annual  Meeting  of  our  Branch  held  on  January 
9th,  the  following  were  elected  officers  for  the  ensuing  year: 
H.  S.  Carpenter,  Regina,  Chairman;  C.  J.  Yorath,  Saska- 
toon, Vice-Chairman ;  J.  N.  deStein,  Sec. -Treasurer; 
H.  R.  Mackenzie,  Regina,  W.  R.  Warren,  Regina,  J.  R. 
C.  Macredie,  Moose  Jaw,  Prof.  A.  R.  Greig,  Saskatoon, 
H.  Mclvor  Weir,  Saskatoon,  Executive  Committee; 
L.  A.  Thornton,  Regina,  G.  D.  Mackie,  Moose  Jaw, 
ex-officio. 

For  the  Saskatchewan  Branch,  The  Engineering 
Institute  of  Canada, 


J.N.  deStein, 

Sec-Treasurer. 


H.  S.  Carpenter, 

Acting  Chairman. 


St.  John  Branch 

Fraser  S.  Keith,  Secretary  of  The  Engineering 
Institute  of  Canada,  addressed  a  meeting  in  the  Royal 
Hotel,  on  March  17th,  last,  on  the  advisability  of  forming 
a  local  Branch  of  The  Institute.  The  twelve  members 
present  agreed  to  this  proposal,  elected  A.  Gray, 
temporary  chairman,  and  A.  R.  Crookshank,  temporary 
secretary,  and  make  formal  application  to  the  Council  of 
The  Institute  for  permission  to  establish  the  St.  John 
Branch  of  The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

The  Council  authorized  this  on  March  19th,  and  at  a 
meeting  of  the  members  of  The  Institute,  called  by  the 
temporary  chairman,  on  April  4th,  the  Branch  was  estab- 
lished, by-laws  adopted,  officers  nominated,  and  general 
plans  for  the  ensuing  season  made. 

On  May  7th,  the  officers  for  the  year  were  elected  and 
the  by-laws  amended.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  on 
May  13th,  A.  Gray  was  appointed  Chairman  of  Member- 
ship Committee,  with  the  rest  of  the  Executive  as  mem- 
bers. 

J.  A.  Grant  was  appointed  chairman  of  Publicity 
Committee  and  was  authorized  to  appoint  two  Branch 
members,  outside  of  the  Executive,  to  act  with  him. 
G.  G.  Murdoch,  was  appointed  Chairman  of  the  Proceed- 
ings Committee,  with  J.  A.  Grant  and  C.  C.  Kirby 
as  members  of  Committee.  Lots  were  drawn  by  the 
three  elected  Committee  men,  as  called  for  by  the  by-laws, 
and  the  lot  fell  to  J.  A.  Grant  to  serve  the  one  year 
term ;  the  other  two  men  to  serve  for  two  years. 

During  the  year,  there  was  one  preliminary  and  five 
regular  meetings,  held  with  an  average  attendance  of  ten 
members  and  two  visitors,  one  of  these  was  a  joint  meeting 
with  the  Board  of  Trade,  on  Oct.  7th,  at  which  Mr.  Gray 
read  his  paper  on  St.  John  Harbor. 

A  general  professional  meeting  was  held  in  Halifax, 
Sept.  11,  12  and  13,  under  the  joint  auspices  of  the  St. 
John  and  Halifax  Branches.  Attendance  of  St.  John 
Branch  members  was  ten  with  seven  other  New  Brunswick 
visitors.  The  report  of  this  meeting  is  contained  in  the 
October  number  of  The  Journal. 

One  trip  was  made  to  points  of  interest,  when  on 
May  18th,  eight  members  and  ten  visitors  visited 
Grant  &  Home's  shipyard  and  saw  the  "  War  Fundy  " 
under  process  of  construction. 

The  Executive  Committee  met  nine  times  with  an 
average  attendance  of  five  and  transacted  a  large  amount 
of  business. 

The  plans  for  a  programme  of  interesting  meetings 
last  fall  were  upset  and  the  work  disorganized  by  the 
Influenza  epidemic  with  its  consequent  ban  on  public 
meetings. 

Subscriptions  were  asked  for  The  Institute's  overseas 
tobacco  fund,  and  $22.00  was  forwarded  to  the  General 
Secretary  on  Nov.  1st  by  the  Secretary,  as  contribu- 
tions from  twenty-two  Branch  members. 

Considerable  corresponding  has  been  carried  on  during 
the  year,  as  is  shown  by  the  attached  statement.    The 
financial  and  membership  reports  are  also  attached. 
Respectfully  submitted, 

A.  R.  Crookshank, 

Secretary-treasurer. 


80 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Financial  Statement. 

1918 

Receipts. 

Advance  on  account  of  20%  rebate  of  1918  dues  of 
Branch    members    from    The    Engineering 

Institute  of  Canada $50.00 

Tobacco  Fund  for  Members  Over-seas 22.00 

Affiliates'  Fee  for  Season  1919 4 .00 

$76.00 
Expenditures. 

The    Engineering    Institute    of   Canada 

Overseas  Tobacco  Fund $22 .  00 

Postage  on  Notices  and  Correspondence 

and  Exchange 11.18 

Stationery  and  Printing 6 .  55 

Stenography 10 .  00 

One  half  of  Halifax  General  Professional 

Meeting — General  Expenses 12.50 

Halifax  Photo  Group 1 .00 

Balance  in  Royal  Bank  of  Canada 12 .  77 

$76.00    $76.00 

Statement  of  Membership. 

Resi-      Non-        Over-      Total 
dent     Resident      seas 

Members 10  2              1  13 

Associate  Members...  14  3             4  21 

Juniors 3  5  8 

Students 

Branch  Affiliate ....  1  -  1 

Total 28  5  10  43 

Membership  in  Province,  outside  of  Branch  —  52 

Total  membership  in  Province 95 

Applications  pending  election: 

Associate 
Members     Members      Juniors      Affiliates       Total 

2  1115 


Change  in  Membership  during  the  year  1918. 

Decrease — Killed    on     "  Field    of    Honour."     Associate 
Member,  1. 

Increase  Newly         New  Non- 

elected     residents     residents 

Member 1  1              2 

Associate  Member. . .  1  1                  3              5 

Junior 1  1 

Affiliate 1  1 

Totals 3  2  4  9 

Net  increase  for  vear 8 


t  'orresponde 

nee. 

Re- 

Sent 

Membership 

ceived 

out 

Elections 

Total        I 

5 

3 

- 

8 

18 

13 
11 

— 

31 
23 

..       12 

5 

1 

- 

6 

C.       43 

30 

4 

77 

3 

1 

- 

4 

86 

59 

4 

149 

Non-members . . 

Members 

Halifax  Branch 
Other  Branches 
Headquarters,  E.I.C 
Letters  re  forms 


Notice  of  meetings  (only)  6  sets,  about  50  sent  out. 

Circulars  and  notices  of  meetings,  including  circulars, 
11  sets,  about  410  sent  out. 

Ballots,  4  sets,  about  110  sent  out. 

Total,  570  sent  out. 

Grand  total  of  pieces  of  mail  matter  handled,  719. 

Meetings. 

General  Professional 1 

Preliminary  to  Organization 1 

Regular 5 

Industrial  Trip 1 

Total 8 

Executive  Meetings 9 

Total  Meetings 17 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


81 


Programme  of   Ottawa   Meetings 


Arrangements  have  been  completed  for  the  Annual 
General  Meeting  and  the  General  Professional  Meeting 
at  the  Chateau  Laurier  in  Ottawa  on  Tuesday,  Wednesday 
and  Thursday,  February  11th,  12th  and  13th.  The 
programme  is  as  follows: 


Morning, 
10.00  A.M. 

Luncheon, 
1.00  P.M. 


Afternoon, 
4.00  P.M. 

Evening, 
7.30  P.M. 


Morning 


Luncheon, 
1.00  P.M. 


Afternoon 
2.15  P.M. 


Tuesday. 

Business  Session. 

Followed  by, 

Short  Address,  by  His  Excellency  the 
Governor-General. 

Short  Address,  by  C.  A.  Adams,  Presi- 
dent, A.  I.  E.  E. 

Address — International  Affiliation  of  En- 
gineers, by  A.  D.  Flinn,  Secretary  of  the 
United  Engineering  Council. 

Business  Session. 

President's  Address  (invitations). 

Informal  Dinner  and  Smoker. 

Wednesday. 

Unfinished        Business    of      Annual 

Meeting. 

Standards  in  Engineering,   by  Capt. 

R.  J.  Durley,  M.E.I.C,  Chief  of  Division 

of    Gauges    and    Standards,     Imperial 

Ministry  of  Munitions. 

Soldiers'1  Re-establishment,  by  Major 

Anthes,  of  the  Department  of  Soldiers' 

Civil  Re-establishment.    . 

The    Development    and    Future    of 

Aviation  in  Canada,  by  M.  R.  Riddell, 

Chief  Engineer  of  Canadian  Aeroplanes 

Ltd. 

Followed  by, 

Short  Address,  by  Dr.  Ira  Hollis,  Dean, 

Worcester  Polvtechnic,  representing 
A.S.M.E. 

National  Highways  and  Good  Roads, 

by  J.  Duchastel,  M.E.I.C,  Hon.  Presi- 
dent, Good  Roads  Association. 
Frazil,    by    R.    M.    Wilson,    M.E.I.C, 
Chief  Engineer,  Montreal  Light,  Heat  & 
Power,  Ltd. 

Mean  Sea  Level  Datum  for  Canada, 
by  W.  Bell  Dawson,  M.E.I.C,  Supt.  of 


Tidal    Survey,    Department    of    Naval 
Service. 

The  Montreal  Tunnel,  by  J.  L.  Busfield, 
A.M.E.I.C  (Illustrated). 
Evening 

9.00  P.M.      Formal   Gathering. 

Reception  by  President :  Ladies,  Music, 
Refreshments,  Dancing. 


Morning 


Luncheon, 
1.00  P.M. 


Afternoon, 
4.30  P.M. 


Thursday. 
Topical  Discussion  on  the  Economics 
of  Railway  Electrification,  opened  by 
John  Murphy,  M.E.I.C,  Department  of 
Railways  and  Canals,  and  Railway  Com- 
mission; followed  by  discussions  by  F.  H. 
Shepard,  A.A.I.E.E.  New  York,  Director 
of  Heavy  Traction,  Westinghouse  Electric 
&Mfg.  Co. ;  and  W.  G.  Gordon,  F.A.I.E.E. 
Toronto,  Transportation  Engineer,  Can- 
adian General  Electric  Co.,  Ltd. 
Mining  and  Metallurgy  of  Cobalt 
Silver-Ores,  by  Lt.-Col.  R.  W.  Leonard, 
M.E.I.C,  President,  Coniagas  Mines. 

Followed  by, 

Short  Address,  by  Hon.  F.  B.  Carvell, 
Minister  of  Public  Works,  to  be  followed 
by  a  visit  to  the  New  Parliament  Build- 
ings, Ladies. 

Motion  Pictures. 


Luncheon  —  Tuesday,   11.00  to  1.00  p.m.,  at    Chateau 
Laurier. 

Complimentary  tickets  to  visiting  members. 
Informal  Dinner  and  Smoker  — 

Tickets  $2.50,  to  be  obtained  on  registering. 
Luncheon  —  Wednesday  and  Thursday,  February  12th  and 
13th,  1.00  p.m.,  at  Chateau  Laurier.    Tickets  $1.00 
to  be  obtained  on  registering. 

Since  the  last  Annual  Meeting  many  changes  have 
taken  place  in  the  organization  indicative  of  progressive 
development  and  the  new  spirit  that  has  been  aroused  in 
the  affairs  of  the  engineering  profession.  It  is  already 
indicated  that  this  will  be  one  of  the  most  largely  attended 
Annual  Meetings  ever  held.  Members  of  the  Ottawa 
Reception  Committee,  wearing  badges,  will  meet  incoming 
trains  and  will  furnish  information  regarding  accommoda- 
tion and  registration.  The  registration  will  take  place 
on  the  ground  floor  in  the  assembly  room  at  the  rear  of 
the  rotunda. 


82 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Mean  Sea  Level  As  A  General  Datum  for  Canada* 

By  W.  Bell  Dawson,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  M.E.I. C,  M.Inst.C.E.,  F.R.S.C. 


In  regard  to  a  general  datum  for  levels  in  Canada, 
there  can  scarcely  be  a  question  that  the  right  datum  to 
adopt  is  Mean  Sea  level;  since  this  is  used  in  all  civilized 
countries  as  the  general  plane  of  reference  for  levels.  There 
are  some  important  purposes  however,  for  which  other 
zero  levels  are  preferred;  notably  the  Low-water  datum 
for  navigation  and  harbour  works.  Another  plane  of 
reference  that  may  have  some  possible  claim  for  con- 
sideration, is  the  level  of  High  water,  which  some  railway 
companies  and  some  coast  cities  have  adopted.  In  some 
cases  also,  this  is  made  the  reference  level  for  the  height  of 
mountains.  But  apart  from  these,  a  great  number  of 
independent  and  discordant  datums  are  in  use  for  reference 
on  railways  or  in  our  different  cities,  which  are  indefensible 
in  the  sense  that  they  do  not  correctly  represent  any 
physical  plane  of  reference. 

The  object  of  the  present  Paper  is  to  outline  briefly 
the  situation  in  Canada  at  the  present  time;  as  it  is  now 
possible  to  aim  at  the  use  of  one  general  datum,  and 
gradually  to  do  away  with  all  the  undesirable  ones.  The 
Railway  Commission  views  favorably  the  adoption  of  a 
general  datum  of  this  character,  wherever  it  is  practicable 
to  connect  with  it.  The  Superintendent  of  the  U.  S.  Coast 
and  Geodetic  Survey,  in  a  Paper  entitled  "  The  use  of 
Mean  Sea  level,"  published  in  1917,  gives  the  opinions  of 
a  number  of  Engineers  and  others  throughout  the  United 
States  on  the  datum  to  which  elevations  should  be  referred. 
All  are  agreed  that  Mean  Sea  level  should  be  chosen,  and 
that  it  should  be  adopted  without  further  delay.  The 
Engineering  Institute  should  therefore  discourage  the 
reprehensible  practice  of  Engineers  in  beginning  almost 
every  new  undertaking  with  a  fresh  and  independent 
datum,  without  even  inquiring  what  is  already  in  use  in 
the  locality.  This  practice  appears  to  continue  to  the 
present  time. 

In  explaining  the  advantages  of  Mean  Sea  level  as 
a  datum,  we  will  avoid  technicalities;  but  the  way  it  is 
arrived  at  and  its  degree  of  accuracy  are  matters  of 
interest  from  an  engineering  standpoint. 

On  all  shores  of  the  Ocean  there  is  a  tide  which  rises 
and  falls  twice  a  day;  and  the  determination  of  the  mean, 
or  true  level  of  the  sea,  is  necessarily  a  tidal  problem. 
When  this  has  to  be  done  from  the  beginning,  there  are 
several  successive  steps  required ;  as  a  zero  level  from  which 
heights  are  to  be  measured  must  be  established;  and  also 
a  local  Bench-mark  for  reference,  to  maintain  the  levels 
at  a  uniform  elevation  from  year  to  year.  The  best  zero 
level  to  adopt,  is  a  Low- water  datum,  which  can  be  decided 
upon  definitely  as  soon  as  the  first  few  months  of  tidal 
observations  are  obtained. 

This  Low-water  datum  differs  essentially  from  Mean 
Sea  level  in  not  representing  a  constant  or  absolute  eleva- 
tion. It  is  a  plane  of  reference  at  half  the  range  of  the  tide 
below  the  mean  level  of  the  sea;  and  the  range  of  the  tide 
varies  from  4  feet  to  50  feet  in  different  regions.  The  only 
justification  for  the  Low-water  datum  is  its  great  conven- 
ience to  the  mariner,  in  showing  the  least  amount  of  water 
available  in  bays  and  channels  under  the  influence  of  the 

*To  be  read  at  the  General  Professional  Meeting,   Ottawa, 
February  12th. 


tide.  It  is  therefore  universally  used  in  Hydrographic 
Surveys  as  the  datum  for  marine  charts ;  and  by  using  the 
same  datum  as  the  zero  level  in  tide  tables,  the  extra 
depth  due  to  the  rise  of  the  tide  is  made  evident.  To 
this  practice,  Holland  may  be  mentioned  as  an  exception ; 
for  although  a  Low-water  datum  is  used  for  their  charts, 
it  is  not  accepted  for  the  tide  tables,  which  are  everywhere 
referred  to  Mean  Sea  Level  at  Amsterdam.  This  gives 
all  High  waters  a  plus  value  and  all  Low  waters  a  minus 
value ;  which  carries  the  use  of  this  datum  to  its  theoretical 
limit. 

At  a  fully  equipped  tidal  station  the  tide  is  obtained 
by  a  recording  instrument,  as  a  continuous  curve  day  and 
night,  summer  and  winter.  The  equipment  necessary 
to  secure  such  observations,  especially  in  our  climate, 
need  not  be  detailed;  but  it  is  evident  that  the  levels  at 
the  tidal  station  must  be  maintained  accurately  from 
year  to  year  with  reference  to  the  Bench-mark;  the 
individual  observations  being  to  the  nearest  hundreth  of 
a  foot. 

The  ordinates  of  the  tide  curve  above  the  Low-water 
datum  are  then  measured  at  each  hour  throughout  the 
year,  and  the  average  of  these  is  accepted  as  the  best 
value  for  Mean  Sea  level.  It  is  necessary  to  deal  with  a 
complete  year  at  a  time,  to  allow  for  all  the  astronomical 
variations  in  the  tide  itself.  The  resulting  value  being 
thus  the  average  of  8,760  individual  heights,  is  already 
reliable  when  derived  from  one  year.  It  is  clear  that  from 
the  tidal  point  of  view,  the  value  of  Mean  Sea  level  is 
the  final  outcome  of  the  observations. 

This  method,  geometrically  speaking,  makes  Mean 
Sea  level  the  axis  line  of  the  tide  curve,  which  bisects  its 
area  horizontally.  The  only  other  method  is  to  take 
"  Half  tide  "  as  the  mean  level  of  the  sea;  that  is,  half  the 
difference  in  height  between  the  average  levels  of  High 
water  and  Low  water.  This  is  less  accurate,  chiefly 
because  Mean  Sea  level  may  not  be  truly  midway  between 
High  water  and  Low  water,  unless  the  tide  curve  itself  is 
perfectly  symmetrical;  there  being  regions  in  which 
there  is  an  inequality  that  interferes  seriously  with  its 
symmetry. 

The  value  of  Mean  Sea  level  from  the  hourly  ordinates 
of  the  tide  on  an  open  coast,  at  a  point  unaffected  by  river 
outflow,  is  reliable  to  the  third  decimal  of  a  foot  in  any  one 
year.  There  is  a  slight  variation  from  one  year  to  another 
of  perhaps  an  inch  or  two  from  the  mean  value;  for  some 
reason  which  is  not  well  understood.  For  example  in  a 
series  of  15  years  at  St.  Paul  Island  the  extreme  values  in 
individual  years  are  from  0.17  to  0.14  of  a  foot  above  or 
below  the  average  value.  The  average  of  the  determina- 
tions in  three  or  four  complete  years  however,  must  be 
regarded  as  correct  in  the  absolute;  because  the  probable 
error  in  about  100  miles  of  land  levelling  is  greater  than 
the  residual  error  in  the  determination  of  Mean  Sea  level. 
When  a  long  land  line  connects  two  well-situated  tidal 
stations,  any  outstanding  error  must  therefore  be  adjusted 
to  correspond  with  Mean  Sea  level  at  its  two  ends.  This 
is  recognized  in  the  extended  levelling  operations  through- 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


83 


out  India  and  the  United  States.  In  Great  Britain,  special 
tidal  stations  on  the  open  coast  have  been  established  in 
recent  years,  to  avoid  river  influence;  as  all  the  more 
important  harbors  are  in  the  estuaries  of  rivers. 

In  Canada  our  determinations  of  Mean  Sea  level  have 
been  kept  well  ahead  of  levelling  requirements.  The 
Survey  of  Tides  and  Currents  was  organized  in  1893;  its 
primary  purpose  being  for  the  benefit  of  navigation  in 
obtaining  data  for  tide  tables,  and  in  the  investigation  of 
marine  currents,  and  it  was  thus  made  a  branch  of  the 
Marine  department.  It  soon  became  evident  that  tide 
levels  were  valuable  for  construction  purposes  or  dredging, 
even  if  only  locally  determined  in  individual  harbours; 
and  also  that  Mean  Sea  level  would  be  of  importance  at 
some  future  time,  as  a  basis  for  extended  levelling.  The 
extra  work  necessary  to  maintain  accurate  levels  was, 
therefore,  undertaken  from  the  outset  by  the  Tidal  Survey; 
as  it  is  obviously  a  very  different  matter  to  keep  the  levels 
correct  to  the  nearest  0.01  of  a  foot,  as  compared  with 
working  to  the  nearest  half  or  quarter  foot  as  required  for 
chart  soundings  and  navigation  generally. 

By  1903,  reliable  results  became  available ;  and  values 
for  Mean  Sea  level  were  given,  with  other  tide  levels,  in 
a  Paper  by  the  Superintendent,  published  by  the  Canadian 
Society  of  Civil  Engineers.  These  values  were  based  on 
4  to  6  complete  years  of  observation.  Similar  data  for 
harbors  on  the  Pacific  coast  were  published  in  1905. 
About  that  time  also  (in  the  year  1904)  the  Academy  of 
Sciences  of  France  offered  one  of  its  prizes  for  the  best 
determinations  of  Mean  Sea  level  in  any  country  bordering 
on  the  North  Atlantic  ocean;  the  special  object  being 
physical,  in  establishing  a  basis  for  detecting  any 
depression  or  elevation  of  the  coast  relatively  to  the  Ocean 
level.  Somewhat  to  their  surprise,  Canada  took  the  first 
place  in  the  competition;  as  the  Tidal  Survey  had  deter- 
minations of  Mean  Sea  level  covering  eight  degrees  of 
latitude  from  southern  Nova  Scotia  to  Labrador,  and  in 
longitude  from  Cape  Breton  to  the  lower  St.  Lawrence. 
Notwithstanding  this  recognition  from  France,  it  was  not 
until  five  or  six  years  later  that  our  systems  of  Geodetic 
or  precise  levelling  were  connected  with  the  Canadian 
tidal  stations,  at  which  the  determinations  of  Mean  Sea 
level  available  in  1903,  had  been  made  known  by  publi- 
cation to  Engineers. 

The  first  accurate  levelling  which  began  in  the  region 
of  Montreal,  along  the  St.  Lawrence,  the  Richelieu  and  the 
Ottawa,  was  based  on  Bench-marks  on  the  frontier  of  the 
United  States,  connected  with  sea  level  at  New  York  by 
the  United  States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey.  The  most 
noteworthy  of  these  Bench-marks  is  at  Rouses  Point  at 
the  north  end  of  Lake  Champlain.  It  appears  to  be  at 
the  end  of  a  line  of  secondary  importance  in  the  United 
States  system;  as  its  original  altitude  was  diminished  in 
1900  by  1.08  feet,  and  its  elevation  was  finally  revised  in 
1903  from  110.06  to  107.95,  an  alteration  of  2.11  feet;  with 
possibly  a  further  small  correction  in  1907.  This  shows  the 
disadvantage  of  having  to  rely  on  United  States  levels; 
when  a  line  of  levels  from  Montreal  to  a  satisfactory  tidal 
station  of  our  own  (at  Father  Point  on  the  Lower  St. 
Lawrence)  is  no  longer  than  the  line  connecting  Montreal 
with  New  York. 


The  first  precise  levelling  in  the  Maritime  Provinces , 
was  also  started  from  a  frontier  Bench-mark  in  the  State 
of  Maine,  which  is  nearly  twice  as  far  from  New  York  as 
from  our  tidal  station  at  Halifax. 

These  points  are  mentioned  to  show  that  there  is  no 
need  to  make  Canada  a  mere  adjunct  of  the  United  States, 
when  our  Canadian  work  may  be  quite  as  good;  and  it 
would  be  equally  unfortunate  at  the  present  juncture  to 
miss  the  opportunity  of  correlating  all  existing  levels,  to 
place  them  on  a  satisfactory  basis. 

What  has  already  been  accomplished  in  accurate 
levelling  may  be  mentioned  in  the  briefest  way  to  indicate 
the  present  situation ;  with  the  endeavor  also  to  state  fairly 
the  amount  accomplished  by  each  Survey  or  Department 
engaged.  There  was  indeed  some  excellent  levelling  along 
our  railways,  especially  in  the  early  days;  no  such  work 
being  better  done  than  on  the  old  European  and  North 
American  Railway  from  St.  John  to  Shediac  in  1859. 
We  may  also  recall  the  careful  instructions  on  levelling 
for  the  Intercolonial  Railway  given  by  Sir  Sanford  Fleming 
about  1870.  But  all  this  is  now  lost,  because  unrecorded 
by  Bench-marks;  and  this  often  happened  on  our  railways 
built  later,  through  the  hurry  during  construction.  Some 
early  levels  have  been  preserved  however,  on  various  canal 
surveys,  though  more  limited  in  extent. 

The  first  work  done  under  the  name  of  Geodetic 
levelling,  was  in  1883  to  1888,  from  Quebec  to  Cornwall 
and  southward  to  connect  with  Rouses  Point;  under  the 
direction  of  Mr.  R.  Steckel  of  the  Public  Works  depart- 
ment; the  St.  Lawrence  section  from  Quebec  to  Montreal 
being  published  in  1891.  In  1904  to  1907  these  levels  were 
carried  through  to  Lake  Huron  by  the  Georgian  Bay 
Canal  Survey.  In  1906,  precise  levelling  was  begun  by 
the  Dominion  Observatory,  their  first  results  being  pub- 
lished in  the  report  of  the  Chief  Astronomer  for  1910. 
The  lines  run  in  the  first  years  were  in  western  and  southern 
New  Brunswick;  and  from  Sherbrooke  to  Colborne, 
Ontario.  The  whole  of  the  work  in  these  regions  was 
based  upon  Bench-marks  on  the  frontiers  of  the  United 
States,  and  chiefly  upon  Rouses  Point ;  but  most  of  it  had 
the  advantage  of  the  revised  elevation  of  1903  for  that 
Bench-mark;  which  was  carefully  correlated  with  others 
in  the  State  of  New  York  by  the  Georgian  Bay  Canal 
Survey  before  the  final  reduction  of  their  levels  in  1907. 

It  was  not  until  1910,  that  the  Geodetic  levelling  in 
the  Public  Works  department  was  continued  eastward 
beyond  Father  Point,  and  through  New  Brunswick  and 
Nova  Scotia  to  Halifax.  It  thus  makes  connection  with 
two  of  the  tidal  stations  at  which  Mean  Sea  level  is 
accurately  determined;  and  the  final  revision,  based  on 
both  stations,  was  made  in  1914.  The  precise  levelling  of 
the  Dominion  Observatory  was  also  connected  with  the 
Halifax  tidal  station  in  1913.  This  precise  levelling  has 
recently  been  organized  as  the  Geodetic  Survey  of  Canada, 
in  the  Interior  Department.  This  then  brings  us  to 
the  date  at  which  the  determinations  of  Mean  Sea  level 
made  by  the  Tidal  Survey,  were  first  utilized  as  a  basis  for 
extended  levelling.  When  required  for  levelling  opera- 
tions, determinations  were  thus  found  ready  to  hand,  which 
had  gradually  been  perfected  during  a  series  of  previous 
years.  The  same  advantage  was  obtained  afterwards 
in  the  two  additional  provinces  of  Prince  Edward  Island 
and  British  Columbia. 


84 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


At  this  juncture  we  may  indicate  concisely  the 
system  of  principal  stations  which  were  established  to 
command  all  Canadian  waters,  as  reference  stations  for 
tides  and  currents;  but  most  of  which  are  also  well  situated 
for  the  purpose  under  consideration.  There  are  eight 
principal  tidal  stations  in  Eastern  Canada  which  are 
maintained  summer  and  winter;  but  at  two  of  these  the 
value  of  Mean  Sea  level  is  not  satisfactory.  At  Quebec 
there  is  still  some  river  slope,  and  Mean  Sea  level,  deter- 
mined locally  by  the  method  described,  is  nearly  iy2  feet 
above  the  true  level  in  the  Ocean.  Even  at  St.  John, 
N.B.,  the  influence  of  the  St.  John  river  appears  to  be 
appreciable.  The  station  at  St.  Paul  Island  in  Cabot 
Strait,  though  invaluable  for  general  tidal  purposes,  is 
inaccessible  for  connection  with  land  levels.  This  leaves 
five,  which  are  well  distributed  on  our  Eastern  coasts: 
namely,  Father  Point,  Halifax,  Yarmouth,  Charlottetown 
and  a  station  in  Belle  Isle  Strait  at  the  extreme  northeast 
of  the  country.  At  all  these  stations,  the  results  are  now 
highly  accurate ;  and  they  are  referred  to  local  Bench- 
marks. 

The  determination  of  Mean  Sea  level  at  Halifax  is 
derived  from  nine  complete  years  of  tidal  observation. 
The  other  determinations  utilized  in  levelling  are  derived 
from  ten  complete  years  at  Father  Point,  five  years  at 
Charlottetown,  and  one  year  at  Yarmouth.  The  value 
of  Mean  Sea  level  at  Charlottetown  has  been  made  the 
basis  for  levelling  over  the  whole  of  the  Railway  system 
of  the  island,  which  was  begun  in  1915  by  the  Department 
of  Railways.  This  will  place  the  levels  throughout  this 
Province  in  a  very  satisfactory  position. 

The  principal  line  of  Geodetic  levelling  of  the  Public 
Works  department  runs  near  to  the  Eastern  coast  of  New 
Brunswick,  and  connects  Halifax  with  Father  Point.  It 
thus  constitutes  a  line  running  north  and  south  for  400 
miles  across  three  provinces,  which  is  connected  at  both 
ends  with  sea  level.  The  lines  of  the  Geodetic  Survey, 
running  from  Halifax  to  the  St.  Lawrence,  lie  further  in  the 
interior  of  New  Brunswick;  and  another  line  extends  from 
Halifax  to  Yarmouth,  being  thus  checked  at  both  ends. 
The  two  systems  of  level  lines  have  been  laid  out  with  care 
to  avoid  duplication,  as  far  as  this  is  practicable.  By 
means  of  these  lines  the  early  levelling  along  the  St. 
Lawrence  and  in  the  Montreal  region,  and  the  system  of 
lines  in  the  Maritime  Provinces,  are  well  connected  and 
brought  to  a  uniform  basis.  On  all  such  lines,  a  series  of 
Bench-marks  is  established  for  reference. 

It  may  be  possible  in  localities  to  which  precise  level- 
ling has  not  yet  reached,  to  make  a  determination  of 
Mean  Sea  level  from  a  few  months  of  tidal  observations, 
to  meet  some  special  requirement.  In  the  Pictou  and 
Sydney  coal  fields  in  Nova  Scotia,  contoured  maps  by  the 
Geological  Survey  have  been  based  on  local  determinations 
of  sea  level  in  those  harbours,  which  afforded  fairly  good 
values,  sufficiently  close  for  the  purpose.  A  basis  for 
levels  required  also  by  this  Survey  in  a  mining  region  on 
Howe  Sound,  B.C.,  was  obtained  similarly  from  a  special 
reduction  of  a  few  months  of  tidal  observations  there. 

The  region  of  the  Great  Lakes  is  related  by  its  situa- 
tion to  sea  level  on  the  New  England  coast  directly 
opposite;  and  the  determination  of  Mean  Sea  level  at 
New  York  thus  affords  the  natural  basis  for  this  region. 
The  lines  of  the  United  States  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey 


form  a  net  work  by  which  the  Lake  levels  are  well  estab- 
lished ;  and  it  would  appear  that  the  elevations  now  arrived 
at,  can  be  accepted  without  question  of  further  revision. 
These  have  been  carried  across  to  the  Canadian  shores  by 
the  Hydrographic  Survey. 

Passing  to  the  Pacific  coast,  tidal  observations  were 
begun  there  in  1895  and  1902,  which  now  afford  accurate 
determinations  of  Mean  Sea  level  at  Vancouver  and  Port 
Simpson,  at  the  north  and  south  extremes  of  the  coast  of 
the  mainland;  as  well  as  at  Prince  Rupert,  from  observa- 
tions there  since  it  was  founded.  The  Geodetic  Survey 
had  thus  a  sound  basis  for  levelling,  when  it  was  begun  in 
the  region  of  the  lower  Fraser;  and  it  will  be  possible  to 
connect  the  land  lines  which  run  through  the  interior  of 
British  Columbia,  with  Mean  Sea  level  at  both  Vancouver 
and  Prince  Rupert;  two  points  on  the  coast  nearly  500 
miles  apart  in  a  straight  line.  This  is  a  further  example 
of  the  advantage  of  such  a  double  connection  for  long  land 
lines,  especially  in  so  mountainous  a  country. 

There  are  also  tidal  records  available  from  which 
Mean  Sea  level  can  be  worked  out  at  the  heads  of  any  of 
the  long  inlets  on  the  coast,  which  may  possibly  become 
Railway  terminals  in  the  future. 

On  Vancouver  Island,  there  are  three  determinations 
of  Mean  Sea  level  at  well  situated  points;  at  Victoria  and 
Hardy  Bay  at  the  south  and  north  ends,  which  are  260 
miles  apart,  and  at  Clayoquot  near  the  middle  of  the 
west  side.  Land  lines  throughout  the  length  and  breadth 
of  the  island  can  be  based  on  the  determinations  at  these 
three  tidal  stations.  Already  the  Geological  Survey  is 
utilizing  the  value  of  Mean  Sea  level  at  Victoria  for  a 
contoured  map  in  that  region. 

The  Geodetic  Survey  has  recently  completed  con- 
nections which  give  a  through  line  of  levels  across  the 
width  of  Canada  from  Halifax  to  Vancouver.  These 
levels  are  also  checked  by  United  States  Bench-marks 
near  the  boundary  in  the  middle  of  the  Continent. 
Towards  the  western  side,  a  net-work  of  lines  now  extends 
from  Vancouver  to  Regina,  and  from  Edmonton  to  Leth- 
bridge. 

In  these  central  regions,  levels  are  also  being  carried 
along  the  meridians  and  other  boundary  lines  which 
are  laid  out  by  the  Surveyor  General's  department. 
This  can  be  done  by  the  same  surveying  parties,  and  it 
helps  to  extend  the  levels.  This  work  is  correlated  with 
the  elevations  established  by  the  Geodetic  Survey  and 
is  kept  in  harmony  with  it. 

A  valuable  work  of  reference,  entitled  "Altitudes  in 
Canada,"  has  been  compiled  by  Mr.  James  White,  which 
gives  the  results  obtained  by  all  methods,  including 
precise  levelling,  re-levelling  on  railways,  and  reconnais- 
sances. The  earliest  edition  was  published  by  the  Geolo- 
gical Survey  in  1901;  and  the  later  editions  have  been 
largely  extended,  under  the  Conservation  Commission. 
The  elevations  throughout  are  referred  to  Mean  Sea 
level,  and  a  description  of  the  primary  determinations  by 
the  Tidal  Survey  is  given.  This  work  is  of  great  assistance 
in  familiarizing  Engineers  with  the  use  of  a  general  datum 
throughout  the  country. 

To  sum  up  the  situation,  we  have  at  present  a  net- 
work of  levelling  in  Eastern  Canada,  which  has  been  built 
up  by  three  systems  of  levelling  operations  since  1883, 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


85 


and  is  now  correlated  accurately  with  Mean  Sea  level. 
The  levelling  in  the  Public  Works  department,  extending 
from  Georgian  Bay  through  the  Montreal  region,  and  now 
connected  with  the  tidal  stations  on  the  Lower  St. 
Lawrence  and  at  Halifax,  was  finally  revised  in  1914. 
The  lines  of  the  Geodetic  Survey  in  the  Maritime  Pro- 
vinces, connected  with  the  tidal  station  at  Halifax  since 
1913,  extend  by  other  routes  continuously  to  the  region 
of  the  Great  Lakes.  On  the  Pacific  coast,  the  lines  of 
levels  are  also  beginning  to  form  a  net- work;  and  the  two 
sides  of  the  country  are  united  by  a  through  line  across  the 
Continent  finally  connected  in  1916  and  1917,  by  the 
comprehensive  work  of  the  Geodetic  Survey.  There  is 
thus  at  present  a  system  of  Bench-marks  throughout  all 
the  more  inhabited  parts  of  Canada  for  reference;  and  the 
dates  mentioned  show  that  this  is  quite  recently  accom- 


plished. It  is  obviously  desirable  therefore,  that  all 
Engineers  should  now  utilize  the  uniform  datum  thus 
established,  and  that  all  railway  profiles  should  be  referred 
to  it,  to  eliminate  the  confusion  arising  from  the  adoption 
of  independent  datums  which  is  still  in  vogue. 

The  only  necessary  exception  to  this  rule  is  for  marine 
charts  and  dredging,  for  which  a  Low-water  datum  must  be 
used;  as  well  as  for  the  height  of  the  tide  in  tide  tables. 
It  may  be  a  question  whether  it  is  essential  to  use  Low 
water  or  High  water  as  the  datum  for  harbour  con- 
struction and  dry  docks;  but  if  so,  it  should  be  possible 
to  give  a  correlation  with  Mean  Sea  level.  These  two 
datums  correspond  with  the  land  surface  of  the  country 
which  is  out  of  water,  and  the  harbours  and  maritime 
approaches  to  its  shores  which  are  below  sea  level. 


LIEUT.-COL.  R.  W.  LEONARD,  M.E.I.C. 
President,  Coniagas  Mines,  President  Elect.,  The  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 


86 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


The  Mining  and  Metallurgy  of  Cobalt  Silver-Ores 

By  Lieut-Col.  R.  W.  Leonard,  M.  E.  I.  C. 


In  the  Temiskaming  &  Northern  Ontario  Railway 
Commission's  Report  for  1916  on  the  Mining  Industry  in 
that  part  of  Northern  Ontario,  served  by  the  T.  &  N.  O. 
Railway,  Mr.  Arthur  A.  Cole,  Mining  Engineer  for  the 
Commission,  makes  the  following  remarks: 

"Along  the  Temiskaming  &  Northern  Ontario 
Railway  from  Cobalt  to  Porquis  Junction,  a  distance 
of  125  miles,  it  was  noticeable  this  year  that  there  was 
hardly  a  station  from  which  some  mining  operations 
were  not  being  carried  on.  New  districts  were  being 
reported  from  time  to  time,  and  the  older  districts 
were  looking  better  as  work  proceeded. 

"Anyone  who  looked  over  the  unbroken  forests 
of  Northern  Ontario  a  dozen  years  ago  and  predicted 
that  this  district  would  soon  be  producing  over  twenty 
millions  in  gold  and  silver  annually  would  have  been 
put  down  as  a  fantastic  dreamer;  but  that  figure  is 
surpassed  today  by  three  million  dollars,  and  the 
output  is  continually  increasing. 

"And  yet  only  a  small  portion  of  the  country  has 
been  prospected.  Running  north-east  and  north- 
west from  Cobalt  and  extending  to  the  Arctic 
Ocean  is  the  great  pre-Cambrian  shield,  the  basement 
formation  of  the  Continent.  It  contains  thousands 
of  square  miles  and  offers  to  prospectors  better  chances 
of  locating  valuable  mineral  deposits  than  can  be  found 
in  any  other  country  in  the  world." 

The  principal  camps  referred  to  by  Mr.  Cole  are  the 
Cobalt  silver  and  the  Porcupine  gold  areas,  and  if  to  this 
we  add  the  world-famed  copper-nickel  deposits  of  the 
Sudbury  district,  lying  about  160  miles  south  of  Porcupine 
and  80  miles  south-west  of  Cobalt,  we  have  a  very  inter- 
esting group,  of  which  two  are  the  most  wonderful  mineral 
deposits  in  the  world. 

In  1918,  Sudbury  is  credited  by  the  Deputy  Minister 
of  Mines,  Ontario,  with  a  production  of  Nickel  valued,  in 
matte  form,  at  $26,800,000.00,  and  of  Copper,  valued  in 
matte  form,  at  $8,500,000.00,  making  a  total  of 
$35,300,000.00.  The  market  value  of  the  refined  products 
would  exceed  these  figures  very  materially,  and  in  time 
the  refining  of  these  products  in  Canada  will  greatly 
stimulate  the  production  of  heavy  chemicals,  machinery 
and  many  other  materials  required  in  the  process. 

In  addition  to  the  silver  and  gold  produced  in  the 
Northern  Ontario  district  covered  by  Mr.  Cole's  Report, 
we  have  the  metal  cobalt,  existing  in  greater  concentration 
than  in  any  other  known  deposit,  enabling  Canada  to 
supply  for  some  years  past  practically  the  entire  world's 
consumption  of  refined  cobalt  products.  This  metal 
cobalt,  together  with  nickel  and  arsenic,  are  associated 
with  silver  in  the  Cobalt  ores,  and  in  this  same  district 
served  by  the  T.   &  N.  O.  Railway  are  found  copper, 


*To   be   read    at  the  General  Professional  Meeting,  Ottawa, 
February  12th. 


molybdenite,  barite,  fire-clay  and  pottery-clay,  all  in 
notable  commercial  deposits.  For  the  working  of  these 
deposits  the  district  affords  an  abundance  of  wood,  water- 
power  and  large  areas  of  peat  which  have  been  favorably 
reported  upon  by  A.  Anrep,  peat  expert  to  the 
Dominion  Government,  suggesting  its  use  in  the  form  of 
peat  powder,  even  for  locomotive  fuel. 

Before  proceeding  to  a  description  of  the  mining  and 
metallurgy  of  silver,  which  is  the  principal  mineral  pro- 
duced in  this  district  up  to  the  present  time,  just  a  word 
in  regard  to  the  gold  mines  of  the  Porcupine  Camp  which 
were  discovered  in  1907.  Since  that  year  to  December 
31st,  1918,  the  production  of  gold  has  reached  a  value  of 
$46,000,000.00,  and  the  working  mines  have  paid  dividends 
of  $13,312,310.00.  Gold  has  also  been  discovered  in 
notable  deposits  in  many  other  parts  of  this  district 
served  by  the  T.  &  N.  O.  Railway,  and  a  number  of  these 
occurrences  are  of  a  very  promising  nature. 

During  the  past  year  the  Cobalt  Camp  produced 
about  12} 4rv  of  the  total  world's  output  of  silver,  and  this 
was  achieved  by  a  camp  about  four  miles  in  length  and 
the  same  in  width.  The  Cobalt  silver  mines  have  paid  in 
dividends  to  December  31st,  1918,  over  $76,000,000.00, 
which,  added  to  the  dividends  paid  by  the  Porcupine  gold 
mines  of  over  $13,000,000.00,  gives  a  grand  total  of  more 
than  $89,000,000.00  paid  in  dividends  by  the  mines  of 
these  two  camps  since  1904. 

Notwithstanding  the  shortage  of  labour  due  to  the 
war,  the  gold  and  silver  mines  of  Northern  Ontario  are 
employing  about  7000  men  at  present  with  an  annual 
pay-roll  of  at  least  $8,500,000.00;  and  it  is  estimated  that 
up  to  the  present  time,  at  least  $100,000,000.00  has  been 
spent  by  the  operating  mines  in  labour,  equipment  and 
supplies. 

The  numerous  promising  discoveries  of  gold  through- 
out the  whole  territory  served  by  the  railway  gives  assur- 
ance that  the  gold-mining  industry  of  Northern  Ontario  is 
yet  in  its  infancy. 

In  1917,  there  were  fifteen  dividend-paying  silver 
mines  and  five  dividend-paying  gold  mines  in  Northern 
Ontario,  as  compared  with  nine  dividend-paying  silver 
mines  and  three  dividend-paying  gold  mines  in  1918. 

Notwithstanding  that  silver  was  discovered  on  the 
north-east  side  of  Lake  Temiskaming  about  a  century 
ago  when  operations  were  carried  on  at  the  Wright  Mine, 
the  history  of  the  Cobalt  mining  camp  began  in  1903, 
when  the  T.  &  N.  O.  Railway  was  in  course  of  con- 
struction, native  silver  being  discovered  at  that  time  at 
both  the  north  and  south  ends  of  Cobalt  Lake.  These 
spectacular  finds  of  native  silver  aroused  immediate  and 
widespread  attention  and,  as  a  result  of  the  work  done  by 
the  large  number  of  miners  and  prospectors  who  flocked 
into  the  country,  a  number  of  mines  were  rapidly  opened 
up,  and  these  mines  paid  handsomely  from  the  grass-roots 
down. 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


87 


The  total  output  of  silver  from  the  Cobalt  district 
from  1904  to  the  end  of  1918,  is  as  follows: — 


Average 
price, 
Cents 
per  oz. 

1904 57.2 

1905 60.4 

1906 66.8 

1907 67.5 

1908 52.9 

1909 51.5 

1910 53.5 

1911 53.3 

1912 60.8 

1913 57.8 

1914 54.8 

1915 49.69 

1916 65.661 

1917 81.418 

Estimated— 19 18... 96 .  772 


Ounces 


206,875 
2,451,356 
5,401,766 
10,023,311 
19,437,875 
25,897,825 
30,645,181 
31,507,791 
30,243,859 
29,681,975 
25,162,841 
24,746,534 
19,915.090 
19,401,893 
17,500,000 


Value 


$ 


111,887.00 

1,360,503.00 

3,667,551.00 

6,155,391.00 

9,133,378.00 

12,461,576.00 

15,478,047.00 

15,953,847.00 

17,408,935.00 

16,553,981.00 

12,765,461 

12,135,816 

12,643,175 

16,131,013 


00 
00 
00 
00 


16,935,100.00 


292,224,172    $168,895,661.00 


While  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  Cobalt  Camp  is 
rapidly  becoming  exhausted,  there  is  every  prospect  of 
other  workable  deposits  being  discovered  of  the  same 
geological  formation,  which  covers  an  enormous  area 
of  this  Northland,  in  the  vast  territory  which  remains  as 
yet  unprospected,  and  this  promise  is  borne  out  to  a  limited 
extent  by  notable  finds  of  silver  in  South  Lorraine  and 
Casey  Townships,  and  up  the  Montreal  River. 

Geologically,  the  Cobalt  Camp  consists  of  a  founda- 
tion of  Keewatin  rocks,  upon  which  a  slate  conglomerate 
has  been  uncomformably  deposited,  the  whole  broken  in 
places  by  eruptions  of  diabase  forming  dykes  and  sills  and 
causing  vertical  cracks  which  were  afterwards  filled  with 
mineral.  The  most  valuable  silver  deposits  are  found  in 
these  vertical  veins  cutting  through  the  conglomerate, 
and  the  silver  almost  invariably  disappears  in  depth  at 
the  contact  with  the  Keewatin.  Some  valuable  veins 
have  been  found  in  the  diabase  rocks  which  have  produced 
a  notable  amount  of  silver. 

In  the  opening  up  of  some  of  the  mines  in  the  early 
days  a  few  hand-drills  or  a  machine-drill,  a  derrick  and 
a  hoisting  engine  formed  the  only  plant  necessary  to 
sacking  the  rich  ore  and  shipping  it  in  carloads  to  the 
smelters,  these  carloads  of  ore  netting  as  high  as 
$100,000.00  per  car  when  silver  was  selling  at  about  60c. 
per  ounce.  This  method  of  mining,  however,  rapidly 
gave  way  to  mining  from  shafts  and  levels  underground 
with  overhand  stoping,  the  rich  ore  being  sorted  and 
sacked  in  the  mine  and  the  remainder  sent  to  concen- 
trating mills  before  shipment  to  the  smelters.  The  camp 
now  boasts  of  some  very  excellent  examples  of  mining 
and  milling  equipment,  with  resultant  up-to-date  operating 
methods,  as  reflected  in  the  costs  of  mining  and  milling 
at  the  Coniagas  Mine,  which  mine  has  produced  to  date 
over  26,000,000  ounces  of  silver  and  has  paid  in  dividends 
$9,240,000.00. 


The  total  cost  of  mining  and  milling  at  the  Coniagas 
Mine,  including  development,  head  office  and  adminis- 
tration and  all  overhead  charges,  have  declined  from: 

$19 .  75  per  ton  in  1908 
to      9.24     "     "   "   1910 
to      6.13     "     "    "   1915 
to      5.67     "     "   "    1917 
and  increased  to      5.88     "     "    "    1918 
The  cost  per  ounce  of  fine  silver  produced,  including 
the  above  charges,  freight,  treating  and  refining  at  the 
company's  smelter  at   Thorold,   Ont.,    war    taxes    and 
shipment  to  London,  England,  have  ranged  from: 
17.53c.  in  1908 


to  11.06 

'  1911 

to  13.06 

'  1913 

to  18.26 

'  1916 

to  25.69 

'  1917 

to  41.35 

'  1918 

For  the  description  which  follows  of  the  Milling  and 
Hydrometallurgy  of  Cobalt  ores  I  am  indebted  to 
F.  D.  Reid,  Mine  Manager,  Coniagas  Mines,  Cobalt; 
and  for  that  portion  which  deals  with  the  smelting  and 
refining  of  these  ores,  to  R.  L.  Peek,  manager,  The 
Coniagas  Reduction  Co.  Ltd.,  Thorold,  Ont. 

Ore   Treatment. 

The  outstanding  features  of  the  practice  of  recovery 
of  values  from  Cobalt  ores  followed  at  the  various  mills  are : 

1.  The  utilization  of  jigs  and  tables  to  recover 
a  large  percentage  of  the  silver  and  cobalt  content  of 
the  ore  prior  to  treatment  by  flotation  or  cyanidation 

2.  The  grinding  of  the  table  tailing  to  a  slime 
to  obtain  a  maximum  net  return  from  the  cyanidation 
treatment ; 

3.  The  necessity  of  grinding  the  table  tailing 
to  pass  a  100-mesh  screen  to  obtain  a  maximum  net 
return  from  the  flotation  process; 

4.  The  use  of  Sodium  Sulphide  as  a  precip'tant, 
and  Aluminum  in  a  caustic  soda  solution  as  ade- 
sulphurizer.     (Footnote  1.) 

5.  The  treatment  of  concentrates  by  the 
hypochlorite  method.     (Footnote  2.) 

Since  much  of  the  silver  now  produced  comes  from 
low-grade  ore,  chiefly  wall  rock,  the  treatment  of  this  low- 
grade  ore  is  described  more  in  detail.  In  this  connection 
cyanidation,  flotation  and  gravity  concentration  processes 
are  discussed. 

The  hypochlorite-cyanide  process  which  has  been 
recently  introduced  for  the  reduction  of  high-grade  ores 
is  also  dealt  with  somewhat  fully. 

Brief  Historical  Review. 

For  the  first  three  years  following  discovery  only 
high-grade  ore  was  sought  and  no  attempt  was  made  to 
extract  silver  from  the  low-grade  material.  Much  of  the 
ore  was  sacked  underground  and  the  rest  was  hand-sorted 
in  washing  plants.  In  this  way  three  products  were 
obtained  and  shipped  to  the  smelter,  viz.:  (1)  ore 
carrying  from  2000  to  4000  ounces  of  silver  per  ton; 


88 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


(2)  ore  carrying  about  400  ounces;  (3)  a  grizzly  product 
carrying  about  125  ounces.  The  discarded  material  with 
a  value  of  from  15  to  30  ounces  went  to  the  low-grade 
dump  for  future  treatment. 

In  the  summer  of  1907  the  McKinley-Darragh 
Mining  Company  erected  and  put  into  operation  a  five- 
stamp  mill  equipped  with  classifiers,  a  Wilfly  table  and 
Frue  Vanners,  with  a  view  to  treating  their  low-grade  ore. 
Shortly  after  this  the  Coniagas  Mill  was  put  into  operation 
with  a  daily  capacity  of  60  tons.  Then  followed  the 
Buffalo  and  others,  until  to-day  there  are  thirteen  mills 
in  operation  with  a  total  daily  capacity  of  approximately 
3000  tons. 

Preliminary  Treatment. 

The  general  practice  at  present  is  to  hand-sort  the 
high-grade  ore,  either  underground  or  in  washing  plants 
and  send  the  low-grade,  consisting  of  country  rock  con- 
taining a  portion  of  the  vein  matter,  to  the  mill.  Here  it 
is  crushed  in  breakers,  sized,  and  given  a  preliminary 
treatment  on  jigs,  thereby  practically  recovering  the 
balance  of  the  vein  matter. 

The  wall-rock,  containing  finely  disseminated  mineral 
and  fine  leaf  silver,  passes  on  to  the  stamps,  ball  or 
Hardinge  mills,  for  further  reduction  and  concentration. 

Concentrating  by  Gravity  Machines. 

In  general  it  may  be  said  that  the  silver,  when  in  a 
gangue  of  smaltite  or  niccolite,  is  readily  recoverable  by 
jigging;  or,  when  coarser  than  200-mesh  and  finer  than 
8-mesh,  by  concentrating  on  Wilfly,  Deister  or  James 
tables.  This  class  of  vein  matter  has  a  specific  gravity  of 
6  to  6.5,  whereas  the  specific  gravity  of  the  wall-rock  is  2.7. 

Losses  occur  in  concentrating  this  vein  matter  when 
crushed  to  finer  than  200-mesh.  Filmy  leaf  silver,  various 
brittle,  complex  silver  compounds,  oxidized  vein  matter  in 
the  form  of  slime,  and  silver  in  a  finely  disseminated  state 
in  the  wall  rock,  are  also  sources  of  loss  in  subsequent 
treatment.  However,  from  an  ore  containing  25  ounces  of 
silver  to  the  ton  80%  of  the  values  can  be  recovered  by  the 
gravity  concentrating  methods  at  a  comparatively  low 
cost — the  cost  depending  largely  on  the  capacity  of  the 
mill.  The  cost  of  crushing  the  ore  to  the  size  required 
and  concentrating  on  jigs  and  tables  is  approximately 
$1.00  per  ton  for  a  mill  with  a  capacity  of  200  tons  per  24 
hours.  This  does  not  include  overhead  charges  nor  the 
cost  of  marketing  the  concentrates.  In  general,  the  cost 
of  concentrating  the  prepared  ore  on  tables  is  approxi- 
mately 20c.  per  ton.  Gravity  concentration,  therefore, 
serves  its  purpose,  namely,  to  reduce  the  silver  content 
of  the  ore  to  approximately  5  ounces,  at  a  low  cost. 

The  introduction  of  the  Cyanide  process  and  later 
the  Flotation  process  was  with  a  view  to  recover  this 
elusive  five  ounces.  The  cyanide  process  has  the  additional 
advantage  of  producing  silver  in  the  form  of  bullion. 

Note  1. — See  "Sodium  Sulphite  Precipitation  of  Silver  at  the 
Nipissing  Mine"  (R.  B.  Watson)  Transactions,  Canadian  Mining 
Institute,  1917. 

Note  2. — See  "Notes  on  Metallurgy  at  Cobalt  during  1916." 
CR.  B.  Watson),  The  Canadian  Mining  Journal,  March,  1917. 


Mechanical  Concentration  followed  by  Cyanidation. 

Cyanidation  as  an  adjunct  to  mechanical  concentra- 
tion is  employed  in  three  mills,  the  Cobalt  Reduction, 
O'Brien  and  Nipissing. 

The  practice  at  the  Nipissing  and  Cobalt  Reduction 
Mills,  is  to  concentrate  as  closely  as  is  economically 
possible  on  concentrating  tables,  and  to  reconcentrate  the 
rougher  concentrates  to  obtain  a  product  assaying  from 
2000  to  3000  ounces  of  silver  to  the  ton.  This  concen- 
trate is  then  treated  by  the  hypo-chlorite  cyanide  process, 
to  be  described  later.  The  tailings  from  the  tables  after 
being  slimed  in  tube  mills  is  run  to  the  low-grade  cyanide 
plant  for  further  treatment.  The  O'Brien  practice  is 
similar  to  that  of  the  Nipissing  and  Cobalt  Reduction, 
excepting  that  the  concentrate  recovered  is  shipped  direct 
to  their  smelter  at  Deloro. 

The  run  of  mine  ore  after  receiving  a  preliminary 
treatment  in  the  washing  plant  to  recover  the  vein  matter, 
is  crushed  in  a  0.12%  cyanide  solution  to  pass  a  4-mesh 
battery  screen.  The  battery  discharge  is  then  concen- 
trated on  12  Wilfly  tables,  the  concentrate  going  to  the 
hypo-chlorite  cyanide  plant  and  the  tailings  discharging 
into  Dorr  classifiers  in  closed-circuit  with  tube  mills  until 
the  product  is  reduced  to  a  slime.  The  slime  product  is 
re-concentrated  on  slime  tables,  the  tailing  assaying 
approximately  6  ounces  is  given  a  48  hour  treatment  in  a 
0.25%  cyanide  solution.  The  pregnant  solution  is  then 
recovered  by  filtering  in  vacuum  filters  and  the  residue 
containing  from  2  to  2.5  ounces  of  silver  to  the  ton,  is  run 
to  waste.  The  silver  in  the  pregnant  solution  is  pre- 
cipitated by  the  addition  of  sodium  sulphide  and  the 
precipitate  desulphurized  by  being  brought  into  contact 
with  aluminum  in  a  caustic  soda  solution.  It  is  then 
refined  in  a  reverberatory  furnace  to  999  parts  per  thousand 
fine. 

Hypochlorite-Cyanide  Process. 

The  Nipissing  Mining  Company  and  the  Mining 
Corporation  of  Canada,  recover  approximately  97%  of  the 
silver  contained  in  their  high-grade  ore  and  concentrates, 
by  the  hypo-chlorite  cyanide  process. 

Until  recently  it  was  thought  that  concentrates  could 
not  be  treated  economically  by  the  cyanide  process. 
The  method  outlined  below,  however,  is  now  in  successful 
operation,  due  to  the  combined  efforts  of  J.  J.  Denny, 
research  manager  of  the  Nipissing  Mining  Company 
and  M.  F.  Fairlie,  manager  of  the  Mining  Corporation. 

Five  to  seven  tons  of  ore  or  concentrates  is  charged 
into  a  tube  mill  along  with  the  required  amount  of  iron 
balls  for  grinding  and  water  to  give  a  1  to  1  dilution.  The 
tube  mill  is  then  revolved  for  18  hours,  as  extremely  fine 
grinding  is  necessary  to  get  maximum  results.  Calcium- 
hypo-chlorite  is  then  added  at  the  rate  of  from  50  to  75 
pounds  per  ton  of  ore  treated,  depending  on  amount  of 
sulphides  present,  and  the  grinding  continued  for  an 
additional  six  hours.  The  pulp  is  then  discharged  into  a  tank 
and  fed  to  a  Dorr  classifier  to  separate  the  coarse  metallic 
silver  from  the  slime  pulp.  The  metallic  silver  discharged 
from  the  Dorr  classifier  is  held  over  and  re-charged  into 
the  tube  mill,  with  the  next  charge  of  ore,  for  further 
grinding.    The  slime  overflow  from  the  Dorr  classifier, 


JOURNAL    OF    THE    ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE    OF     CANADA 


89 


discharges  into  a  collecting  tank  and  is  allowed  to  settle, 
the  solution  is  then  decanted  and  the  thickened  pulp 
discharged  into  a  vacuum  filter  to  be  further  de- watered. 

The  de- watered  pulp  is  then  discharged  into  a  cyanide 
treatment  tank  and  the  charge  made  up  to  a  dilution  of 
20  to  1  and  the  cyanide  strength  maintained  at  0.5%. 
The  pulp  is  then  thoroughly  agitated  and  aerated  for 
fourteen  hours.  The  pulp  is  then  allowed  to  settle  and 
the  excess  solution  decanted.  After  being  again  agitated 
the  thickened  pulp  is  pumped  to  a  stock  tank  for  filtering. 
The  discharged  residue  from  the  filter,  containing  from 
50  to  75  ounces  of  silver,  with  the  cobalt,  nickel  and  arsenic 
content,  is  sold  to  the  smelters. 

The  silver  is  recovered  from  the  pregnant  solution  by 
the  soldium-sulphide  process. 

It  is  possible  by  this  process  to  recover  in  the  form  of 
fine  bullion  approximately  97%  of  the  silver  content  of 
the  ore,  in  a  period  of  96  hours. 

The  Flotation  Process 

In  September,  1916,  the  Buffalo  Mines  Limited,  put 
in  operation  a  Callow  flotation  plant,  of  600  tons  daily 
capacity,  to  treat  a  arge  accummulation  of  sand  tailings 
and  as  an  adjunct  in  the  treatment  of  its  low-grade  ores. 
Today  there  are  ten  mills  in  the  district  using  the  flotation 
process  with  a  total  daily  capacity  of  approximately, 
2000  tons. 

The  flotation  machines  used  are  the  Callow  pneu- 
matic and  the  Groch  centrifugal  types.  The  former  de- 
pends for  its  action,  entirely  on  air  forced,  from  below, 
through  a  porous  medium,  at  a  pressure  of  5  pounds;  the 
latter  depends  on  mechanical  agitation  and  air,  the  air 
being  drawn  into  the  pulp  through  a  hollow  shaft  by  the 
centrifugal  force  of  impellers. 

Oil  Mixtures. 

Experiments  have  been  carried  out  with  a  number  of 
oils  and  combinations  thereof.  A  mixture  of  20%  pine 
oil,  70%  coal  tar  creosote  and  10%  coal  tar,  is  now  in 
general  use,  with  slight  modifications  to  meet  varied 
conditions. 

The  amount  of  oil  used  ranges  from  %  pound  to  V/» 
pounds  per  ton,  depending  upon  the  dilution  of  the  pulp, 
the  amount  of  mineral  present,  the  fineness  of  the  product 
and  the  skill  of  the  operator. 

The  oil  mixture  is  usually  fed  into  the  tube  mills  to 
insure  an  adequate  mixing  of  the  oil  with  the  pulp. 

Practice. 

The  practice  in  general  use,  with  slight  modifications 
is  to  concentrate  the  battery  or  ball  mill  discharge  on 
reciprocating  tables  to  recover  the  coarse  free  mineral  and 
to  reduce  the  silver  content  in  the  slime  tailings.  The 
table  tailings  go  direct  to  the  Dorr  classifiers  and  are  kept 
in  closed  circuit  with  tube  mill,  where  the  oil  mixture  is 
added,  until  ground  to  pass  through  a  100-mesh  screen. 


This  product,  with  a  dilution  of  approximately  4  to 
1,  is  sent  to  the  flotation  machines,  where  it  is  fed  into 
the  rougher  cells  and  agitated  or  aerated  to  effect  a  separa- 
tion of  the  mineral  from  the  gangue.  The  mineral  is 
floated  and  discharged  in  the  form  of  a  froth,  assaying 
approximately  75  ounces  of  silver  to  the  ton.  The  tailing, 
varying  in  value  from  1  to  3  ounces,  is  sent  to  waste. 

The  rougher  concentrate  is  reconcentrated  in  cleaner 
cells  to  raise  the  value  to,  approximately,  250  ounces. 
The  cleaner  cells  discharge  a  nine  ounce  middling  product, 
which  is  returned  to  the  head  of  the  rougher  cells  for 
further  treatment.  The  final  concentrate  is  allowed  to 
settle  in  Dorr  thickeners,  filtered,  dried  and  sent  to  the 
smelters. 

General 

The  gravity  concentration  process  of  Cobalt  was 
developed  when  the  price  of  silver  ranged  from  50  to  65 
cents  an  ounce. 

Mill  operators,  employing  straight  concentrating 
methods,  concluded  that  an  economic  limit  of  extraction 
had  been  reached  when  the  silver  content  of  the  ore  was 
reduced  to  5  ounces.  Forty  percent  of  this  final  tailing 
was  slime,  assaying  approximately  6  ounces  per  ton  and 
the  balance  sand,  with  a  silver  content  of  4  ounces. 

With  silver  at  55  cents  an  ounce,  it  was  possible  to 
treat  the  current  slime  tailing  at  a  small  profit,  by  the 
flotation  process.  It  was  not,  however,  until  the  price  of 
silver  advanced  to  above  65  cents  an  ounce,  that  a  profit 
could  be  made  from  the  4  ounce  sand. 

The  present  activity,  in  the  treatment  of  these  low- 
grade  products  cannot  be  attributed  entirely  to  the 
flotation  process,  as,  owing  to  the  advance  in  the  price  of 
silver,  other  attractive  processes  were  available.  The 
cyanide  process,  which  did  not  look  economically  attractive 
when  a  tailing  of  only  $2.50  was  going  to  waste,  was  worthy 
of  consideration  when  this  value  was  raised  to  $5.00. 

It  must  not  be  supposed,  therefore,  that  the  silver 
now  being  recovered  by  the  flotation  process  would,  other- 
wide,  have  been  lost. 

The  uncertainty  in  the  price  of  silver  influenced 
operators,  using  the  gravity  concentrating  methods,  to 
adopt  the  flotation  process,  owing  to  the  comparatively 
low  cost  of  installation  and  to  the  satisfactory  results 
obtained  by  experiment.  On  the  other  hand,  the  high 
cost  of  marketing  the  flotation  concentrates,  which  is 
approximately  80  cents  per  ton  of  ore,  is  an  objectionable 
feature  to  the  process.  It  is  possible  that  research  may 
develop  a  process  to  treat  this  concentrate  locally  or  to 
raise  the  value  of  the  concentrate  by  elimniation  of  the 
silica,  which  is  about  65%  of  the  product  shipped,  and  so 
render  this  process  of  more  value  to  the  district. 

Smelting  and  Refining. 

Up  to  the  early  part  of  1908  all  the  ore  from  the  Cobalt 
camp  was  shipped  to  reduction  works  in  the  vicinity  of 
New  York  and  Camden,  N.J.,  for  treatment.  There  was 
previously  a  natural  desire  to  treat  the  ores  in  Canada, 
coupled  with  a  just  appreciation  of  the  complexity  of  the 


90 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


problem  such  treatment  presented.  There  was  very  little 
useful  information  bearing  on  the  treatment  of  these 
singular  ores  to  be  gleaned  from  the  literature  available, 
and  it  cannot  be  said  that  those  operating  then  existing 
works  minimized  the  difficulties  to  be  met  with.  That 
these  difficulties — metallurgical,  commercial,  financial 
and  hygienic — were  very  real  may  be  inferred  from  the  fact 
that  of  eleven  works  actually  built  in  Ontario  for  the 
treatment  of  Cobalt  ores,  only  three  survive  as  going 
concerns.  To  the  wastage  chargeable  against  the  mining 
industry  as  the  result  of  misdirected  prospecting,  exploita- 
tion of  unremunerative  mineral  deposits,  and  so-called 
"  wildcatting,"  may  be  compared  the  very  considerable 
losses  incurred  by  the  backers  of  the  eight  defunct  plants 
just  referred  to. 

Leaving  out  of  consideration  the  methods  of  treat- 
ment that  have  been  used  and  discontinued,  the  usual 
procedure  is  to  first  fine-grind  and  sample  the  ore  or 
concentrate,  and  then  smelt  in  a  blast  furnace.  This  at 
once  separates  the  non-metallic  or  rock  materials  as  a 
slag;  effects  a  separation  of  a  part  of  the  silver  combined 
with  antimony  and  arsenic — the  so-called  silver  buttons; 
volatilizes  a  part  of  the  arsenic  as  fume,  and  so  leaves  the 
cobalt  and  nickel  combined  with  arsenic  in  the  blast 
furnace  speiss. 

This  primary  separation  having  been  made  by  the 
very  simple  process  of  melting  the  ore  with  a  coke  fire,  it 
becomes  necessary  to  consider  the  four  primary  products. 
This  consideration  leads  us  far  from  what  has  been 
called  "  the  sweet  simplicity  of  fire,"  as  applied  to  the 
the  treatment  of  ores  and  metals. 

The  treatment  of  the  slag  is  summary;  it  is  thrown 
over  the  dump  or  used  to  ballast  the  track. 

Silver  Buttons  usually  consist  of  about  80-85 %  silver, 
the  balance  being  chiefly  antimony.  Most  of  the  unde- 
sired  components  may  be  removed  by  melting  and  blowing 
with  air.  Silver  does  not  oxidize  under  the  conditions  and 
so  remains  on  the  furnace  hearth,  while  the  oxides  of  the 
impurities  either  depart  as  fume  or  are  raked  off  as 
skimmings.  By  appropriate  means  the  silver  may  be 
refined  on  the  hearth  to  the  extent  desired,  or  it  may  be 
cast  as  anodes  for  electrolytic  refining. 

In  the  electrolytic  refinery  the  crude  silver  anodes 
are  treated  in  an  electrolyte  of  silver  and  copper  nitrates 
to  an  electric  current.  The  anode  undergoes  dissolution 
and  the  silver  only  plates  out  on  the  cathodes.  The 
impurities  of  the  -anodes  remain  either  in  solution  or  fall 
as  sediment  in  the  anode  compartments  whence  they  may 
be  removed  and  disposed  of.  The  cathode  silver  is  of  the 
highest  purity  and  has  only  to  be  washed,  melted  and  cast 
into  bars  for  shipment. 

Arsenical  fume  from  the  blast  furnace  is  collected  in 
cloth  dust  filters  called  bag  houses.  As  the  fume  laden 
gas  current  from  the  furnace  top  is  rather  hot,  it  is  led 
through  appropriate  flues  wherein  it  may  partly  cool  and 
deposit  coarse  dust  particles  before  it  is  filtered.  Under 
proper  operating  conditions  the  bag  house  retains  all  the 


solids  in  the  gas  stream,  and,  without  it,  it  may  be  said 
that  such  ores  as  those  of  Cobalt  could  not  be  safely 
treated  in  any  even  partly  settled  locality. 

After  collection  in  the  bag  house,  the  fume  is  put  into 
refining  furnaces  from  whence  white  arsenic  is  volatilized 
and  collected  in  suitable  condensing  and  filtering  arrange- 
ments. This  white  arsenic  is  sold  chiefly  to  plate  glass 
works  and  to  makers  of  insecticides.  At  one  time  a 
demand  arose  from  one  of  the  belligerent  powers  for 
metallic  arsenic.  This  demand  was  met  by  the  manu- 
facturers of  the  metal  by  the  reduction  of  white  arsenic 
with  carbon  in  large  cast  iron  retorts.  This,  though  but  a 
small  matter,  is  one  more  item  in  the  record  of  war  time 
achievement  to  the  credit  of  this  country. 

When  one  takes  up  the  treatment  of  speiss,  he  takes 
upon  himself  a  most  grievous  task.  Essentially  an 
artificial  arsenide  of  a  metal  or  metals  of  the  iron  group, 
it  may  present  a  degree  of  complexity  that  is  quite  dis- 
conserting.  Iron,  Cobalt,  Nickel,  Zinc,  Copper,  Lead, 
Silver,  Antimony,  Sulphur,  Arsenic,  are  the  substances 
practically  always  present  in  Cobalt  Speiss,  and  usually 
small  amounts  of  several  other  elements  are  also  found. 

The  practice  in  one  works  is  to  grind  and  roast  the 
speiss  with  salt  to  chloridize  the  silver  and  then  leach  out 
the  silver  with  a  solution  of  sodium  cyanide.  The 
silver  is  then  thrown  out  with  aluminium  powder,  washed 
and  melted  to  make  bars  of  great  purity.  Other  practice 
does  not  extract  the  silver  at  this  stage,  but  recovers  it  in 
the  smelting  of  the  insoluble  residue  after  separating  the 
greater  part  of  the  cobalt  and  nickel. 

All  processes  separate  the  cobalt  and  nickel  from  the 
speiss  by  dissolving  them  out  from  the  roasted  speiss  with 
acids.  Sulphuric  acid  is  usually  employed  on  account  of 
its  cheapness.  The  solution  of  sulphates  is  next  purified 
until  it  is  technically  free  from  undesirable  substances, 
when  the  cobalt  and  nickel  are  successively  precipitated 
as  hydroxides  by  hypochlorate  and  alkali  respectively. 
These  hydroxides  are  dehydrated  in  suitable  furnaces  and 
either  ground  and  sold  as  Cobalt  and  nickel  oxides,  or 
reduced  with  carbon  to  produce  the  metals. 

Until  the  last  four  or  five  years  practically  all  the 
Cobalt  produced  was  utilized  in  the  form  of  oxide  for  the 
manufacture  of  enamels,  ceramic  colors  and  for  correcting 
the  color  of  crockery  made  from  inferior  clays.  The 
development  of  "  Stellite,"  a  hard  alloy  of  cobalt,  chro- 
mium and  other  metals  led  to  a  considerable  demand  for 
metallic  cobalt.  There  was  also  some  demand  for  the 
metal  from  the  makers  of  high  speed  steels,  many  of  whom 
add  small  amounts  of  cobalt  to  toughen  and  improve 
the  wearing  qualities  of  their  product.  Most  of  the 
cobalt  metal  used  throughout  the  world  is  made  in  Cana- 
dian works  by  reduction  of  the  oxide  with  carbon  and 
melting  the  metal  in  electric  furnaces. 

The  nickel  derived  from  the  cobalt  ores  is  only  a 
trifling  part  of  the  Canadian  output  of  that  metal,  as  the 
very  great  production  from  the  Sudbury  ore  entirely  over- 
shadows it.  Neverthless  it  is  of  interest  that  metallic 
nickel  has  been  regularly  produced  in  Canadian  works  from 
Cobalt  ore  before  any  commercial  quantity  was  made  in 
Canada  from  Sudbury  ores. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


91 


National  Highways  and  Good  Roads* 

By  Capt.  J.  A.  Duchastel  de  Montrouge,  B.A.Sc.  M.E.I.C, 
Hon  y  Pres.,  Canadian  Good  Roads  Association. 


It  is  somewhat  embarrassing,  addressing  a  meeting 
of  Engineers  on  the  subject  of  Good  Roads,  one  would  feel 
more  at  home  in  talking  to  a  gathering  of  the  rank  and 
file,  men  requiring  to  be  taught  the  gospel  of  good  roads. 
Every  engineer  realizes  the  very  great  importance  of  a 
system  of  good  roads.  It  will  be  unnecessary  for  me  to 
point  out  the  great  benefits — material,  social  and  econ- 
omical— that  go  with  road  improvement. 

Permit  me  to  bring  to  your  attention  some  of  the 
conditions  we  have  in  Canada  today.  At  the  present 
hour  and  with  increasing  rapidity,  we  will  be  face  to  face 
with  the  great  problem  of  finding  employment  for  our 
returned  men  and  munition  workers.  Many  industries 
will  be  in  the  period  of  reorganization  for  months  to  come ; 
railroad  construction  will  practically  be  at  a  standstill, 
and  that  for  many  years.  Means  will  have  to  be  taken  to 
create  work,  and  road  construction  offers  in  a  great  measure 
the  opportunity  of  converting  for  the  good  of  the  country 
the  surplus  labor  it  will  have  for  a  long  period. 

We  have  to  admit  to  ourselves  that,  except  in  a  few 
instances  our  road  construction  has  been  sadly  neglected, 
as  compared  to  European  practice.  True  enough  our 
distances  are  very  large,  our  population  scarcely  settled, 
and  our  resources  limited.  Again,  nature  has  in  two  ways 
assisted  us — first,  in  providing  a  wonderful  system  of 
navigable  streams  and  chains  of  lakes,  which  takes  care  of 
the  transportation  of  a  great  number  of  our  natural 
products;  secondly,  the  cold  weather  we  experience  during 
several  months  of  the  year  permits  the  transformation  of 
many  poor  country  roads  into  excellent  winter  roads  for 
sleighing,  and  in  some  localities  a  great  deal  of  our 
transportation  is  accomplished  during  this  period. 

Railroad  companies  have  expanded  in  a  wonderful 
manner;  we  have  three  transcontinental  roads  parallelling 
one  another  at  close  range.  Many  localities  depend 
entirely  on  the  railroad  facilities  for  all  their  commodities. 
This  condition  of  affairs  is  all  very  well  up  to  a  certain 
point,  but  there  comes  a  time  when  feeders,  in  the  way  of 
highways  to  these  railway  trunk  lines  have  to  be  de- 
veloped. The  districts  situated  twenty  miles  or  more 
each  side  of  the  trunk  lines  of  these  railways  have  to  be 
tapped,  and  the  only  way  of  doing  so  is  to  build  good 
roads  permitting  the  settlers  and  farmers  to  economically 
transport  their  produce  to  the  railroad. 

A  great  deal  of  talk  has  recently  been  indulged 
about  the  help  the  Federal  Government  should  give 
towards  road  construction.  Several  methods  of  govern- 
ment aid  have  been  advocated.  The  French  system  has 
been  advocated  by  some.  There  is  no  question  that  it  is 
a  very  wonderful  one  and  its  results  clearly  show  its 
excellence.    The  roads  of  France  have  in  a  great  measure 


*To  be  read  at   the    General    Professional    Meeting,  Ottawa, 
February  12th. 


helped  to  win  the  great  victory  of  democracy  over 
aristocracy.  But  unfortunately  for  us  the  French  road 
policy  is  based  on  a  different  political  organization  to  ours. 
In  France  everything  is  centralized,  the  Department  of 
Ponts  and  Chaussees  constructs  and  maintains  all  roads — 
Nationales,  Departementales,  Vicinales,  etc. 

Here  the  situation  is  quite  different ;  the  British  North 
America  Act  has  vested  with  the  different  Provinces  the 
obligation  of  building  and  maintaining  public  roads.  We 
know  that  Provincial  rights  are  sacred  and  rightly  so. 
Our  situation  in  the  road  problem  is  very  similar  to  that 
of  the  United  States.  I  would  like  to  study  with  you  an 
Act  passed  by  Congress  in  July,  1916,  destined  to  aid  the 
several  States  of  the  Union  in  road  construction.  I 
believe  that  our  Federal  Government  should  adopt  a 
measure  somewhat  on  these  lines,  as  in  my  mind,  it  is  the 
most  practical  method  to  meet  our  conditions. 

These  remarks  are  made  with  the  sole  purpose  of 
inviting  discussion,  and  my  sincere  hope  is  that  it  will  be 
extensive  and  fruitful. 

The  law  in  question  is  entitled  "An  Act  to  provide  that 
the  United  States  of  America  shall  aid  the  States  in  the 
construction  of  Rural  Post  Roads  and  for  other  purposes." 
It  can  be  summarized  as  follows: — 

1.  Congress  appropriated  a  sum  of  $85,000,000.00 
to  be  apportioned  amongst  the  different  States  of  the 
Union  during  a  period  of  five  years  in  the  following 
manner: 

S  5,000,000  to  be  apportioned  during  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  301917 
10,000,009  do  do  June  30/1918 

15,000,000  do  do  June  30/1919 

20,000,000  do  do  June  30/1920 

25,000,000  do  do  June  30/1921 

Also  a  sum  of  $1,000,000.00  annually  for  ten  years  up 
to  and  including  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30th,  1926, 
for  the  survey,  construction  and  maintenance  of  roads  and 
trails  within  or  partially  within  the  national  forest. 

2.  The  apportionment  of  the  amount  available  for 
grants  to  each  State  is  done  in  the  following  manner: 

One-third  in  the  ratio  which  the  area  of  each 
State  bears  to  the  total  area  of  all  the  States; 

One-third  in  the  radio  the  population  of  each 
State  bears  to  the  total  population  of  all  the  States; 

One-third  in  the  ratio  which  the  mileage  of  rural 
delivery  routes  and  star  routes  in  each  State  bears  to 
the  total  mileage  of  rural  delivery  routes  and  star 
routes  in  all  the  States. 


92 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


3.  Any  amount  apportioned  to  any  State  for  any 
fiscal  year  as  remains  unexpended  at  the  close  there  of  shall 
be  available  for  expenditure  in  that  State  until  the  close 
of  the  third  fiscal  succeeding  the  year  for  which  appor- 
tionment was  made.  Any  amount  apportioned  and  unex- 
pended after  a  period  of  three  years  shall  be  re-apportioned 
to  all  the  States. 

4.  The  Secretary  of  Agriculture,  who  is  intrusted 
with  the  application  of  the  Law,  is  authorized  to  co-operate 
with  the  States  through  their  respective  State  Highway 
Department,  in  the  construction  of  rural  post  roads. 

5.  All  roads  constructed  under  the  provisions  of  this 
Act  shall  be  free  from  all  tolls. 

6.    The  Federal  authorities  contribute  only  50%  of 
the  total  cost  of  constructing  any  portion  of  road. 

7.  Any  State  desiring  to  avail  itself  of  the  benefits 
of  the  Act  must  submit  its  project  to  the  Federal  authori- 
ties. Before  any  grant  is  made,  surveys,  plans  and 
specifications  must  be  submitted  and  approved,  as  well 
as  the  location,  character  and  methods  of  construction. 

8.  No  payments  on  account  of  any  work  are  to  be 
made  until  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture  has  assured 
himself  that  the  work  has  been  constructed  according  to 
plans  and  specifications,  and  no  payment  shall  be  made  in 
excess  of  $10,000.00  per  mile,  exclusive  of  the  cost  of 
bridges  of  more  than  twenty  feet  clear  span. 

9.  The  construction  work  and  labor  in  each  State 
shall  be  done  in  accordance  with  its  laws  and  under  the 
direct  supervision  of  the  State  Highways  Department, 
and  subject  to  inspection  and  approval  of  the  Secretary 
of  Agriculture. 

10.  It  is  the  duty  of  the  different  States  to  maintain 
the  roads  constructed  under  the  provisions  of  the  Act, 
and  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture  shall,  if  any  such  road 
is  not  being  properly  maintained,  penalize  the  State  by 
refusing  any  further  grants  under  the  Act. 

11.  Items  including  engineering,  inspections,  and 
unforseen  contingencies,  shall  not  exceed  ten  per  centum 
of  the  total  estimated  cost  of  the  work. 

12.  The  cost  of  administering  the  provisions  of  the 
Act  must  not  exceed  three  per  centum  of  the  appropriation 
of  any  fiscal  year. 

13.  In  the  Act: 

(a)  the  term  "  rural  post  route  "  is  construed  to 
mean  any  public  road  over  which  the  United  States 
mails  are  now  or  may  hereafter  be  transported, 
excluding  any  street  or  road  in  a  locality  having  a 
population  of  over  2500  or  more,  except  when  on 
portions  of  streets  or  roads  along  which  the  distance 
between  the  houses  average  more  than  200  feet  apart. 

(b)  the  term  "  construction  "  is  construed  to 
include  reconstruction  and  improvement  of  roads. 

(c)  the  term  "  properly  maintained  "  is  con- 
strued to  mean  the  making  of  needed  repairs  and  a 
preservation  of  reasonably  smooth  surface,  con- 
sidering the  type  of  the  road,  but  shall  not  be  held 
to  include  extraordinary  repairs  nor  reconstruction. 


For  the  purpose  of  drawing  a  discussion  allow  me  to 
present  to  you  my  views  in  the  matter  of  Government 
aid. 

I  believe  that  a  Highway  Branch  of  the  Public  Works 
Department  or  Railways  and  Canals  Department  should 
be  organized,  and  that  this  Branch  should  be  intrusted 
with  the  duty  of  examining  and  reporting  on  all  projects 
brought  up  by  the  different  Provinces,  with  a  view  of 
obtaining  Federal  aid. 

Each  province  should  maintain  its  sovereignty  over 
the  roads  constructed  within  its  boundaries,  and  the 
Provincial  Highway  Departments  should  continue  to 
exercise  the  same  authority  and  duties  they  have  at  the 
present  time. 

No  project  should  be  considered  by  the  Federal 
authorities  unless  presented  and  vouched  for  by  a  Pro- 
vincial Highway  Department. 

We  should  do  our  best  to  keep  politics  out  of  the 
administration  of  a  Good  Roads  Aid  Act. 

The  Federal  government  should  provide  but  50% 
of  the  funds  necessary  to  build  roads  of  national  im- 
portance, or  international  highways.  By  "  roads  of 
national  importance,"  I  mean  roads  connecting  centres 
having  a  population  of  at  least  20,000  inhabitants. 

A  sum  of  $50,000,000.  should  be  voted  immediately 
by  the  Federal  government  to  aid  the  construction  of 
roads  throughout  the  different  provinces,  and  this  sum 
should  be  apportioned  to  the  provinces  during  a  period  of 
five  to  seven  years.  Apportionment  of  this  amount 
should  be  made  only  on  the  basis  of  population;  the  areas 
of  our  provinces  having  no  relation  to  their  needs  or 
importance.  The  relation  of  the  mileage  of  existing  roads 
in  each  province  to  the  total  mileage  in  the  country 
having,  in  my  mind,  little  or  no  importance  in  our  case. 

Any  amounts  unexpended  by  a  province  during  a 
given  fiscal  year  should  be  carried  over,  for  a  limited 
number  of  years,  to  the  credit  of  the  said  province,  as  in 
the  American  Act. 

All  roads  constructed  under  Federal  government  aid 
should  be  free  from  tolls. 

All  road  specifications,  plans  and  details  should  be 
standardized  and  adopted  by  the  different  Provincial 
Highway  Departments  and  Federal  Department. 

A  higher  limit  than  $10,000.  per  mile  as  the  contri- 
bution of  the  Federal  Authorities  should  be  fixed.  It  is 
the  feeling  in  the  United  States  today  that  this  amount  is 
not  always  sufficient. 

As  one  of  the  most  important  problems  in  road 
construction  is  "  maintenance,"  our  bill  should  go  the 
limit  on  this  score,  and  compel  each  province  to  thoroughly 
maintain  all  highways  over  which  the  Federal  Government 
has  spent  money. 

No  time  should  be  lost  in  obtaining  Federal  aid  for 
the  construction  of  roads,  because  it  will  take  considerable 
time  to  organize  a  Federal  Roads  Department,  and  the 
study  of  the  different  problems  submitted  will  also 
require  some  time. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


93 


Design  and  Construction  of  Reinforced  Concrete  Viaducts 

At  Mileages  0.9  &  1.8  North  Toronto  Subdivision, 
of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway 

By  B.  0.  Eriksen,  A.M.E.I.C.  and  H.  S.  Deubelbeiss,  A.M. E.I. C. 


General  Description  and  Design. 

The  greatly  increasing  freight  traffic  and  a  still 
greater  prospective  increase  in  passenger  traffic,  due  to  the 
agreement  between  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  and  the 
Canadian  Northern  Railway,  whereby  the  latter  acquired 
running  rights  over  the  Canadian  Pacific  Railway,  from 
Leaside  Junction  to  North  Toronto  Station,  necessitated 
the  double-tracking  of  the  line  between  these  two 
stations. 


heavier  motive  power  on  this  important  link.  Bridge 
1.8,  being  located  at  the  limit  of  the  North  Toronto  yard 
required  an  extra  track  for  switching  purposes,  so  as  not 
to  interfere  too  much  with  the  main  line  traffic. 

Estimates  for  both  bridges  were  made  for  building 
them  in  either  steel  or  reinforced  concrete.  The  higher 
cost  of  steel  viaducts  and  the  uncertainty  of  the  delivery 
of  structural  steel  were  the  deciding  factors  in  the  choice 
of  Reinforced  Concrete  Trestles  as  built  and  here  described. 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Viaduct,  Toronto. — Bridge  1.8  Completed. 


While  this  line  is  only  about  two  miles  long,  several 
reinforced  concrete  culverts  required  extensions  and  two 
important  bridges,  one  at  Mileage  0.9  from  Leaside  Junc- 
tion and  the  other  at  Mileage  1.8  therefrom  had  to  be 
rebuilt.  The  existing  single  track  steel  viaducts  at  these 
two  points  not  being  adequate  for  the  present  heavy  rolling 
stock,  and  still  less  for  future  requirements,  had  to  be 
rebuilt,  so  that  these  bridges  would  not  limit  the  use  of 

*Read  at  a  meeting  of  Montreal  Branch,  Thursday,  January  16th. 


While  no  designs  were  prepared  for  concrete  arches 
at  these  points,  the  possibility  of  building  such  was  con- 
sidered. The  limited  right  of  way  at  the  bridge  sites, 
however,  and  the  necessity  of  building  temporary  trestles 
within  these  limits,  made  the  maintenance  of  traffic  in 
building  arch  structures  a  most  difficult  problem.  The 
designs  adopted,  where  all  slabs  were  pre-moulded  and 
the  bulk  of  the  concrete  could  be  cast  in  forms  on  the 
ground,  promised  a  much  speedier  and  safer  construction, 


94 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


ffar/z.ftne  P  (per  berf).   rP- 


-F16.  I- 

and  permitted  the  carrying  of  traffic  within  our  right  of 
way  without  difficulty.  These  considerations  justified 
the  dropping  of  further  studies  of  reinforced  concrete 
arches,  and  the  adoption  of  designs  of  which  the  principal 
dimensions  are  shown  on  Plate  1. 

It  will  be  noted  that  continuous  piers  have  b^en  used 
instead  of  individual  pedestals,  as  is  customary  for  steel 
viaducts.  These,  together  with  the  very  stiff  caps,  made 
each  bent  act  as  one  unit. 

The  columns  are  thoroughly  bonded  to  the  piers  by 
the  recesses  and  the  rods  in  tops  of  same,  which  correspond 
to  the  reinforcing  rods  in  the  columns. 

In  designing  the  columns,  rectangular  and  octa- 
gonal sections  were  considered;  the  rectangular  section 
was  adopted  as  the  mos  suitable  to  resist  the  great 
bending  moments  that  the  columns  would  be  subject  to. 
The  columns  are  reinforced  with  longitudinal  rods  an- 
chored into  the  concrete  by  %"  diameter  bands.  On 
account  of  the  unusual  size  of  these  columns,  these  bands 
were  made  in  sections,  so  that  intermediate  bars  would  be 
thoroughly    anchored   into    the    body   of   the    columns. 


These  bands  were  not  considered  to  act  as  hooping  owing 
to  their  rectangular  shape.  The  tower  bracing  consists 
of  struts  reinforced  to  resist  the  bending  moments  due  to 
their  own  weight  and  the  various  horizontal  forces  acting 
on  the  tower.  In  order  to  improve  the  appearance  and 
reduce  the  weight,  the  vertical  faces  of  the  longitudinal 
struts  were  given  a  three  inch  recess.  It  will  be  noted  that 
the  longitudinal  and  transverse  struts  are  arranged 
alternately.  At  all  intermediate  points,  bending  moments, 
due  to  transverse  forces,  will  then  be  practically  zero,  where 
the  moments  caused  by  the  longitudinal  forces  are  maxi- 
mum. Sliding  surfaces  for  the  main  slabs  are  provided 
by  y2"  steel  bearing  plates  on  caps  of  the  bents;  the  plates 
are  held  in  position  by  VA"  dowels.  As  these  plates  are 
continuous  over  the  caps  of  the  bents,  they  strengthen 
the  caps  against  stresses  produced  by  longitudinal  forces 
on  the  bridge. 

Each  track  is  supported  by  two  pre-moulded  simple 
T  Beams.  The  end  brackets  shewn  on  these  slabs  do 
not  bear  on  the  caps,  but  are  kept  clear  by  the  steel 


mr 


East 


©  ©  ©  ® 

—  General    Elevation  — 


—  Bridge  18  Reservoir  Ravine.— 


.1,    X-f    I,    uv 


\      ;B      ifft 


AV     .1.      16  0       I      W     \     Jf--f 

166-r  &cr~u  ,a?  if  ~aMn>M&. 


.1  **■  i  **•   I 


m 


J/'tr     i     XV 


—  General    Plan.  — 


tor 


EA3T. 


<S>  ©  ©  ® 

—  General  Elevation. — 


-Bridge  0  9  Belt  Line  Ravine.- 


3  111 

.  J6-P    I    n-r    \    36ir 


■  jfc  !  I  \/fMraif  <rr,j,k    j  |  i 


j  \ 

J/iT    I     3fi      I      MV 


JXV  f*r/e&*  afgat&miB 


•     I      XT     I      3d'l 


■QMEAlQan  — 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway. 

Bridges  0-9*18  North  Toronto  Subdiv. 

at  North  Toronto. 


tmm- 


■  Typical  BfNT  Bridge  N?/8.  —       —  Typical  Bow  -Soioec  WO  9. — 
Bridges  0.9  &  1.8  North  Toronto  Subdivision  at  North  Toronto. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


95 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Viaduct,  Toronto. — Turning  of  Slabs. 


A  wind  load  of  30  pounds  per  square  foot  on  exposed 
surfaces  of  train  and  slabs,  and  a  similar  load  on  l1 4  times 
the  vertical  projection  of  towers  was  assumed. 

Bending  moments  in  columns  due  to  dead  load  of 
struts  were  included  in  calculations.  While  this  is 
usually  neglected  in  steel  structures,  it  becomes  necessary 
here,  owing  to  the  great  weight  of  the  struts.  These 
latter  moments,  and  also  the  moments  due  to  traction, 
were  calculated  by  the  elastic  theory — the  equations 
being  so  ved  by  the  Area  Moment  Method.  Plate  X 
indicates  how  these  equations  were  developed.  The 
application  of  this  theory,  however,  for  the  calculation  of 
moments,  due  to  transverse  forces,  becomes  extremely 
involved,  owing  to  the  shape  of  the  bents.  For  this 
reason,  points  of  inflection  were  assumed  as  shewn  on 
Fig.  1.  Comparison  between  results  obtained  by  similar 
assumptions  in  the  case  of  longitudinal  forces  with  those 
obtained  by  the  use  of  the  elastic  theory  shewed  that  the 
method  adopted  would  give  results  sufficiently  accurate 
for  the  purpose.  Stresses  in  columns  including  bending 
moments  when  one  span  only  was  fully  loaded  were  cal- 
culated, but  found  to  be  below  maximum  shewn  on  stress 
sheet. 


bearing  plates  which  they  overhang ;  they  are  intended  to 
strengthen  the  horizontal  flanges  and  improve  the  appear- 
ance of  the  structure.  The  top  surfaces  of  the  slabs  have 
a  smooth  finish  and  are  sloped  towards  drain  pipes,  placed 
along  coping  blocks  and  between  the  tracks. 

The  ballast  is  held  in  position  by  the  coping  blocks 
which  were  pre-moulded  in  sections  and  anchored  to  the 
slabs  by  1"  dowels.  After  the  erection  of  the  slabs  and 
coping  blocks,  the  surfaces  in  contact  with  the  ballast 
were  waterproofed  with  a  membrane  type  of  water- 
proofing. This  was  laid  continuously  from  abutment  to 
abutment,  the  gaps  between  slabs  being  reinforced  by 
additional  layers  of  felt  and  mastic. 

The  sidewalks  are  composed  of  pre-moulded  T  shaped 
slabs,  supported  on  brackets  projecting  out  from  the  main 
slabs.  The  flanges  of  the  sidewalk  slabs  fit  into  a  hori- 
zontal groove  in  the  coping  blocks;  these  coping  blocks 
are  heavy  enough  to  counteract  any  tendency  of  the  T 
beams  to  overturn.  1"  dowels  hold  these  slabs  in  position 
on  the  brackets.  The  hand-railing  consists  of  pre-moulded 
concrete  posts  and  three  rows  of  2"  pipe. 

The  bridges  are  designed  to  carry  Cooper's  E-50  load- 
ing, with  an  impact  allowance  of  .90-^rrr iL.L.,  where 

L.L.  =  live  load  and  1=  loaded  distance  in  feet.  Where 
stresses  are  produced  by  the  loading  of  more  than  one  track 
1  is  multiplied  by  the  number  of  tracks.  The  design 
is  in  accordance  with  the  Specification  for  Reinforced 
Concrete  of  the  Engineering  Institute  of  Canada. 

In  addition  to  dead  load,  live  load  and  impact,  the 
towers  had  to  be  designed  to  resist  stresses  due  to  traction 
and  wind.  A  traction  force  equal  to  9%  of  the  wheel 
load  was  assumed  to  act  at  the  rail  level.  This  coeffi- 
cient of  traction  was  derived  from  diagram  in  Mr. 
Blumenthal's  paper  on  "  Traction  Stresses  "  (Transaction 
of  the  Can.  Soc.  C.  Engrs.,  vol.  xxiv,  Part  II.). 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Viaduct,  Toronto. 
Bridge  0.9  Tower  Partly  Stripped. 


96 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


^nV-T       ,W.4>b#s  ab>  3Fi  e/oC.        W-?=^ 


f2"  jhee/wg—i 

Wedges  s  4T-4' 

•wwn  T>PJ  we//  fedt/ecf  //t  g/vurtd. 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway. 

Bridges  09*18  North  Toronto  5ubdik 

at  North  Toronto. 

DrraiLi  or  Forms  eor  Jmbs. 


—  Caoss  -  Sect/ on.  — 

Bridges  0.9  &  1.8  North  Toronto  Subdivision  at  North  Toronto. 
Details  of  Forms  for  Slabs. 

Maintenance  of  Traffic. 

Traffic  on  both  bridges  was  maintained  on  temporary 
wooden  trestles,  erected  on  the  north  side  of  the  old  main 
line  track.  This  was  contemplated  from  the  very  first 
for  Bridge  1.8,  as  the  spans  of  the  existing  bridge  were 
so  arranged,  that  to  build  a  concrete  trestle  and  keep 
clear  of  existing  steelwork  would  be  impracticable.  At 
Bridge  0.9,  however,  it  was  found,  that  if  the  new  bridge 
were  laid  out  with  34  ft.  tower  and  36  ft.  intermediate 
spans,  there  would  be  no  interference  with  existing  steel- 
work and  traffic  could  be  maintained  on  the  old  bridge.  This 
arrangement  of  spans  was,  therefore,  adopted  for  both 
bridges.  However,  when  excavation  was  started  it  was 
found  that  the  condition  of  existing  masonry  would  not 
permit  excavation  for  new  piers  to  be  carried  down  to  the 
required  depth  without  endangering  the  safety  of  traffic. 
It  was,  therefore,  considered  advisable  to  build  a  tem- 
porary wooden  trestle  for  this  bridge  also,  rather  than 
attempt  to  support  masonry  pedestals  on  these  steep 
hillsides. 


Plant — Bridge  1.8. 

A  plant  for  storage  and  mixing  was  installed  at  each 
end  of  the  bridge,  and  one  at  the  slab  yard  about  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  east  of  the  bridge.  The  stone  and  sand  were 
piled  in  the  open  about  25  feet  from  the  mixer.  They  were 
stored  on  plank  bottoms  to  prevent  admixture  of  earth. 
The  cement  was  stored  in  three  sheds  having  capacities  of 
five  carloads  each.  They  were  built  of  dressed  lumber  and 
roofed  with  ready  roofing  paper.  The  floors  were  kept 
about  8"  clear  of  the  ground  in  order  to  make  the  sheds 
damp-proof.  Each  carload  was  piled  separately;  there 
being  a  space  of  at  least  one  foot  all  around  each  pile. 

The  various  materials  were  wheeled  in  barrows  to  the 
mixers — stone  and  sand  were  measured  by  barrow  loads. 
One  bag  of  packed  cement  was  considered  one  cubic  foot. 
Water  barrels  were  filled  from  the  City  line  through  2" 
pipes,  and  the  water  was  measured  with  pails.    At  each 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway. 
Bridge  0-9  North  Toronto  Suboivi 
Belt  Line  Ravine  at  North  Toronto 
Details  of  Tower  5-6. 


-  JTRUT  si. 


Bridge  0.9.  North  Toronto  Subdivision,  Belt  Line  Ravine  at  North  Toron(j 

Details  of  Tower  5-6. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


97 


[11^2 


SI  ■  KJOV  urtk 

'■■.'. '-  '»«  -   - 


-Cross  Jcction. — 

s-Z4-tf?brl  -W  hrQUSxtCO 
f  f/fect.  Ami  oftMiim-55'  •  UJ5/' 


—H/ILF  ELEVATIOH- 


te/if//i  y BMbe  -J86P  Mir iKlan/engnttiViffitW/tiperti-jck 
TkxfarmSrutp.n,  S//yf/a}t/  -  107000 /if. 
Ttx//M  w/Tairfr-  £$?■  -  3/MC  /Ai,a/j//zjv/ii/  iftnret/r  /mes  jm/ 
av/fi'  £2i/u/ff/v  M p/p/vrZ/iVT  foMfir  refpec/tiv  &tw/i&  c///w//<?. 

§  imatim  Ajfuan^  affi&{//0/!.mlf/7/7r<xJrm/y  litutiM. 

Bend/if  Mrmt/rti  fattr  IVaSj/rjtio  in  /y/mmf  d/rec/icn  jm/  cmfivfa/ 


H  !.*■<:■*  it^j  M   h/W|     Lfi»*      [      H: 


^ 


—  BEH0IN6  MOMEHT  DIAGRAMS  — 

—  Outer  Cauttw -  —Inner  Columns.  — 

4t/r  ftfovrerr/s  jtioiv/r  Sy  frejvy  L/rv 


-HAIfjECT/ON  — 


Jecl  Modulus -ism. 

•         \~Z4-K* ton  -  i4i°& Stl.lBuBC. 
■*>    [Tectum  if  &•£'    •    IMS'- 

JtrlmltxIAl  •9366 


-!2-li'*ten  -It'  fer  Cd  Jer/mn  GH 
:fcfir /<m  .* ft/  -J5-J6  ■  1SW 


MOTE: 

Loading   Cooper's  C^ 

-S40S°-      .  /tfPACT  90%  y  Lf  •if  ("frit  •  /wW) 

A  M-'MxfiXJ  M  •  e920     S*> tf  BB-XXr  30O->  L      U/.  iMdn/duh'Krl 

CMCRETE /H/fTl/RE  I  It  3  a,/if»aimj^!e 

fir  jn**p/T*r/7/ sat/  /fitrrifr  y  /em/orr/m  isrr.  jt?4 


Otet  «m  °/a>-3s-56  •  aw 
H4-SZ  ■   Z7f° 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway. 
Brioge  0  9  North  Toronto  5ubdiv 
3aT  iine  Rapine  at  north  Toronto. 

5TRES5   5HEET   OF  TOWER  5"6. 


Sx-ibd  AH-M1U       XcikdBB-tUM     *&6  6r  Mu  turn 

Bridge  0.9  North  Toronto  Subdivision  Belt  Line  Ravine  at  North  Toronto. — Stress  Sheet  of  Tower  5-6. 


4  C  of  Trxks 
5-6'  6-e 

si  r  r  uf  1   v  ijmii 


~Ga'  Inn  G.-d'rq   ■ 
7    *   1 


66 


a.  -''" 


JS'-Wt'  out  ti>  out  of  S/J0r7 


it'JJJ.'  .1.A, ",."  ■  "   '"  -    -    -    -    ''  H">\  Wj,  /v"a  f^pixt/y  ofJHhtfu. 
"""jr.   "  j  ~>i  sTs  tr6t|t  t\t  6j,  i"b  tj,  Zvj^^JU'A'iVi 

Til 


*|7        .  P/*-.U,'j/jll      '       Uf  tr 


\HI*  IW  X3C] 


HJirtSa-lg 


j>__       'a.     LI _fcJ Ll/'LI-I-aZH ,IX_lL_I-1 If iJt!_LJ>'J L_I li 11 it!         jU   '*>•** 


,0  tVtkrJWfr 


•  Cms  j  Jtcrwfi  or  /met?  //no  Outer  Jims, 


l4tB 


1  1 

\  ~&<&  fwrti/d  N  h  St  jpjted  jif  i 
jpjrf  fjj&vtf  to  faff  rcrfj  np^/if  'O 
■  mitt' ly/ efar  t/ /'/trip  L. 


I  i-*i 

r-n- 

~7F^ 

g  a- 

'J 

t 

f 

]js. 

unr 

J')V   1 

«'/r    ] 

% 

f 

Canadian  Pacific  Railway. 
Bridge  0-9  North  Toronto  Subdiv. 
Belt  Line  Ravine  at  North  Toronto. 
Details  of  56  R  Slabs. 


•  Jmni/K  "/." 


3TIRRUPS   "Li" 

rVOTE- 

Concrete  IMix/ure  •IMS 


StiARups  'Li ' 


Jhmups '/-'. 


—  Arrangement  or  Stirrups. — 
Bridge  0.9  North  Toronto  Subdivision  Belt  Line  Ravine  at  North  Toronto.      Details  of  36  Foot  Slabs. 


98 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Viaduct,  Toronto. 
Bridge  1 .8,  Finished  Deck. 


end  of  the  bridge  a  75  ft.  hoisting  tower  was  erected  from 
which  concrete  was  conveyed  to  the  various  piers  and 
towers  by  spouting.  At  the  slab  yard  the  concrete  was 
wheeled  in  buggies  along  a  trestle  built  on  a  level  with  the 
tops  of  forms,  and  dumped  directly  into  the  forms. 

Plant  at  Bridge  0.9. 

At  this  bridge  only  two  storage  and  mixing  plants 
were  installed,  one  at  the  west  end  of  the  bridge  and  one 
at  the  slab  yard,  half  a  mile  east  of  the  bridge.  At  the 
slab  yard,  materials  were  stored  and  handled  in  the  same 
manner  as  at  Bridge  1.8.  The  plant  at  the  bridge  site, 
however,  was  entirely  different;  the  stone  received  here 
was  too  large  and  had  to  be  crushed  and  screened  to  1" 
size.  Between  the  storage  pile  and  the  mixer  a  Gyratory 
crusher  belt  connected  to  a  gasoline  engine— was 
mounted  on  a  platform  about  10  ft.  high.  This  crusher 
was  fed  from  the  storage  pile  by  a  one  yard  grab  bucket  and 
derrick.  The  crushed  stone  dropped  through  the  floor 
of  the  platform  to  an  inclined  screen,  which  screened  out 


all  particles  %"  and  less.     The  stone  was  then  delivered 


from  the  crusher  to  an  elevated  stone  bin  with  an  inclined 
bottom,  located  directly  above  the  hopper  of  the  mixer, 


"~T-r^. 


Method  tor  Calculating  Dead  Load  — 

-ffENDING   MOD/EIYTJ- 

Mi  Wz  t,  Ws  alr/to/e  trtrpfi/  p*r  //n  /r*  a//rjpef4rt  jM/tf 


Equations  /'  ts  6'/w/  reduced. 
(£)  m  s   *Zn?6 

©  Zm  fali-mktli  -Zm* k Is  - m  In  k 

®  Zmj  hi  -  m  k  I  - Imz  t* Ii  -mkft 

@  ZmthtU-mihU-iitilli-Jmilli 

GbZ0Jfo£-mfoZ-  2Mz  lit  -3m  I  Iz  -3m  Hz 

@  ZmtrsIe-msfaA  -  2MsLIs-3mtlIi  -3m Lis. 


It  00  it  jffff  o>?  mjpgrfm  of  D/ayrj/r?,  /fat: 

Z/Mtr  djpb&mer?/  of  ft//?/  J  firm  fe/zpe/tf  <?/  fig//?/  4-0. 

j/fxsr  (Ajp/geewe/j/  d5  0/  po/ftt  d  from  finomt  <tt  po'^t  3    m    fa 
Zioeardjphcemes?t  c/3   a/porn/  2  /rem  Errgeftt  jf  pcrr??  3  hZ 

Ztn&r  Jty£xmf/?t  d4  o/po/nt  J  fom  forspent  at  aer/rt  Z    — .    hZ 

l/nearmlpbtmtff/  c/f   af pom/  //rem  Tariyerft  gt  parrrt  Z  hi 

Mo  /fa/  : 

#rtgu/jr  duo/bcem*/?/    <fit  =  -ffi 

flngvtjr  duptfcemer?/     0Z    -  -&L 
®     /fop/far  drjpteremfrtt     fy   -  -£&- 

Jufa/rAr/rngr  rr7  adore  eyud/ro/rs  //?e  si#z?jj/0/zj  /br-  j/tfuferj?  //s?w 

d/jp/xe/pe/r/j  atfoi/rttf  dy //?e  Jr?£/I  MQffiNT  0F7MOD  fa  Mewty  tyuxfo/rj  /rjufc 
(j,     (ms*m6)>fyft5>%h5  -  m5*t!3'frjrs         q 

r*.    fas'mslhhs'ftfis  -  m6'/r3*hfo      m  /h  fmj  *m4)'khi*?sfa  -  ms'fo'frhi 


Tz 

/m  ./r>tj.tH,  -Villi  -  mi-  Ill  -Hill 


m) •Hill- %  hi  -  m.bi-yth, 


'T, ■ 37 

.  '/j/ffl  .lil  -  im-\l 


In  1 1  U 

(mi •m4)- 'klii  -'/stii  -m4 ■  fa .jiht  HMz-lil  -/mi'/rrj)*'/,l 

Tuiz  Ts 

(w/m)-li/ii'&fo  -  me ■/"■  'Ail  -&M- HI  - fa  -m].u 

Its  Is  a 


-Method  rot/  Calculating  Tractioh- 

-  BET/DING  M0/HCiVT3.  - 

P6lXfa  fattf  fcxfm  31  anf  longilbilir&l  frj/77e 

From  /V  /im/fymenhl prinrip/e  of  *p////6/-/t//r7 

//  fo//m;  Msr1  ■ 
Q)m:  =  £hi-mi 
Q)/r?i  -£ hi -nit 
©me  =£ '  hi-ms 

0n  /nspec/iep  a/  dribs mj// 0/7  diagram  //  /j 
endenl  Ihjl : 

®<pi -<*.-/)   --f--f- 

Ji/fo//lu//ny  //rlfa  J  feller  efi/j/'tiru  lllf  es/HVJJiarrs 
lor  l/rrrjr  jnd  jnaofer  d/j/fecewlj  oA/ji/vd '  ty  /At 
toft  /IfODie/IT  D/tTHOO  mUfari/y  lfvj/it>m  rvu//: 

mJiblfi-m-Ai     rni-M'1s''/ti   tmi.mi.M-lflil 
It  "     Ii-y,l  TTThl 

Tm; .mJHih -multi    Im-mhlii-'h'hl   AtfmrU.'/i-til 

Tl  "         U-H  '        Hit 

T/itj */n()»ihs-  ms-fo  .  /mj-nnil -Ikl  ■  fjl-M 
Is  Ji.'ltl 

"if'ri&y  fe  rtt/ucfd '  jj  fyl/ew. 
ffl'/l-0/./ii        mid      //m  -mjH 


JU 


3  Is 


rp.  HH-liz-  mJ-lii 
^  Iz 


Jls 

,  Im-r  -msl-/ 

J  It' 


Cms-msl-t 

J/6 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway 
Bridges  09*18  North  Toronto  Subdiv 

at  North  Toronto. 
Method  of  Calculating  Moments  in  Towers. 


Bridges  0.9  &  1.8  North  Toronto  Subdivision  at  North  Toronto. — Method  of  Calculating  Moments  in  Towers. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


99 


which  was  set  up  on  a  foundation  about  four  feet  above  the 
ground.  The  flow  of  the  stone  from  stone-bin  to  hopper 
was  regulated  by  a  steel  plate  gate,  and  the  hopper  was 
graduated  to  receive  the  correct  quantities  of  stone.  The 
screenings  from  the  crusher  were  used  mixed  with  the  sand. 
The  sand  was  stored  on  plank  bottoms  as  at  Bridge  1.8, 
and  delivered  from  there  to  the  elevated  bin  adjacent  to 
the  stone  bin  and  handled  in  same  way  as  the  stone. 
The  cement  was  stored  in  a  shed  of  similar  construction 
to  those  at  Bridge  1.8  and  was  delivered  to  the  mixer  by 
the  derrick.  No  hoisting  tower  was  used  at  this  bridge 
for  conveying  the  concrete.  It  was  wheeled  in  dump 
cars  running  on  a  narrow  gauge  track  on  a  trestle  con- 
structed at  the  track  level  along  the  bridge.  The  concrete 
was  dumped  into  hoppers  at  various  points  along  the  deck 
of  the  trestle  and  delivered  from  there  to  piers  and  towers 
by  metal  chutes  connected  to  the  hoppers. 

Materials. 

Stone. — The  stone  used  was  partly  trap  rock  and 
partly  hard  limestone,  ranging  in  size  from  1"  down  to  l4". 

Sand. — The  sand  was  a  natural  bank  and  of  a  granity 
composition,  well-graded  from  }i"  down. 

Cement. — Two  brands  of  cement  were  used. 
"  Pyramid  Brand,"  manufactured  by  the  St.  Mary's 
Cement  Company,  and  "  Canada  Brand,"  manufactured 


by  the  Canada  Cement  Company.  They  were  fairly  slow 
setting  cements;  averaging  about  3  hours  for  initial 
set,  and  about  5 j 2  hours  for  final  set. 


Canadian  Pacific  Railway  Viaduct,  Toronto. 
Bridge  0.9  Completed. 


J/sit  Is  t?  eric  lit/  di  fomitrfd  m  OaiJ  Section  . 

af/<&  AM/arlt?/  *  //j  //off  /ex/to?  f/r*  ■/ J& /wr  tJ/rr/rf  mjfttm 
it  ////«/ '  *>airir  /of/rj  &x//i&r/&'f>  to  if  mvem/. 
<!•    ■*,-  t.nj  fr,j  t/ffaf  Tjehle  u /# it  wtd  for sjrtrnf  jj  jf.mn  "> 
Me/rri  ate*  J/jtj  2*3  m// /.tm  te /*Ktd /n Mine 
Jbt  Mi>4  /»*f>/r  rjn  te  .i*rrro  J'rr'f  fa //J  ///rj/pa.,/ 


CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY 
Bridge  0  9  North  Toronto  5ubdiv 
Belt  Line  Ravine  at  North  Toronto. 
Scheme  for  Erection  of  Slabs. 


Cross  Jtrcr/cw  "A-A" — 


Cross  Scction  B-b:  — 


Bridge  0.9  North  Toronto  Subdivision  Belt  Line  Ravine  at  North  Toronto. — Scheme  for  Erection  of  Slabs. 


100 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


While  the  cement  was  being  unloaded  from  the  cars, 
one  bag  in  every  50  was  opened  and  a  small  sample  taken 
from  it.  These  small  samples  were  mixed  into  one  com- 
posite sample  for  each  car  (one  car  contained  an  average 
of  760  bags).  These  samples  were  then  forwarded  to  the 
testing  laboratory  in  Montreal,  shipped  in  air  tight  lever 
top  tins  which  insured  that  cement  did  not  air  slack  in 
transit.  Each  car  load  of  cement  was  stored  separately 
in  sheds,  given  a  number  corresponding  to  number  of 
sample  and  held  until  the  inspector  was  notified  that  the 
test  had  proved  satisfactory.  All  cement  used  was  in 
conformity  with  the  C.  P.  R.  Cement  Specification,  1912. 

Treatment  of  Forms. 

The  forms  were  treated  with  one  application  of 
Petrolatum  and  neutral  oil,  mixed  in  the  proportion  of  one 
of  Petrolatum  to  two  of  neutral  oil,  or  until  a  creamy  con- 
sistency existed.  After  the  forms  were  fabricated,  all 
holes  and  large  cracks  were  filled  with  putty,  all  knots 
and  putty  fillings  were  then  shellacked.  The  above 
mixture  was  then  applied  on  inside  of  forms  with  a  white- 
wash brush;  the  neutral  oil  penetrated  about  34"  into  the 
wood,  leaving  a  thin  waxy  film  of  petrolatum  on  the 
surface.  The  forms,  thus  treated,  did  not  warp  or  wind, 
and  moisture  did  not  cause  the  grain  of  the  wood  to  rise. 
A  number  of  the  forms  were  used  as  often  as  eight  times, 
and  all  that  was  necessary  after  each  stripping  was  to  dust 
or  sweep  them  off  with  an  old  bag  or  broom. 

Heating. 

In  the  month  of  November,  when  the  temperature 
dropped  to  40°F.,  heating  of  the  materials  was  commenced. 
A  live  steam  jet  was  introduced  into  each  water  barrel, 
which  kept  the  water  nearly  to  the  boiling  point  while 
the  mixer  was  running.  Sand  and  stone  were  heated  by 
perforated  steam  pipes  placed  under  sand  and  stone  piles. 
For  the  very  cold  weather,  the  steam  was  kept  on  night  and 
day.  The  temperature  of  the  concrete  as  it  left  the  mixer 
was  about  55°  to  60°F.  during  the  very  coldest  weather. 
For  the  main  track  slabs,  concrete  was  poured  in  as  low 
a  temperature  as  25°F.  After  pouring  of  concrete,  the 
tops  of  slabs  were  covered  with  tar  paper,  kept  about  6" 
clear  of  the  surface  of  concrete,  a  layer  of  straw  was  then 
packed  around  the  entire  form  and  the  whole  covered  with 
tarpaulins.  The  sidewalk  slabs  and  coping  blocks  were 
protected  in  a  similar  manner  to  the  main  slabs.  The 
hand-rail  posts  were  cast  in  a  shed  heated  by  a  stove. 

Bents  were  housed  in  from  top  to  bottom  with 
y%'  tongued  and  grooved  boards;  this  housing  was  built 
about  three  feet  away  from  the  forms  and  steam  pipes 
were  run  into  this  space.  As  an  auxiliary  to  the  steam 
heat,  a  battery  of  four  (4)  coke  burning  salamanders  was 
placed  on  the  ground.  With  these  precautions  concrete 
was  poured  at  a  temperature  as  low  as  10°  F.,  and  the 
space  around  the  forms  could  be  kept  at  a  temperature  of 
about  50°  F.  Heat  was  maintained  for  at  least  three  days 
after  pouring  was  completed. 

The  longitudinal  struts  were  also  housed  in  and  a 
steam  line  run  along  each  side  near  the  bottom  of  the 


housing.  The  bottoms  of  the  housings  for  struts  were 
packed  with  straw — the  tops  were  covered  with  tar  paper 
clear  of  concrete,  on  this  was  placed  a  packing  of  straw  and 
the  whole  covered  with  tarpaulins. 

Details  of  Construction. 

Excavation  was  started  during  the  middle  of  August, 
1917,  the  soil  encountered  was  generally  a  hard  blue  clay, 
in  some  cases  coarse  sand.  Before  any  concrete  was 
placed,  each  foundation  was  subjected  to  a  loading  test 
at  both  ends.  An  ordinary  table  having  4-3"  x  3" 
legs  was  used  for  this  purpose;  the  table  was  loaded  with 
cement  bags  filled  with  sand,  the  total  load  corresponding 
to  four  (4)  tons  per  square  foot. 

Piers. — Concrete  in  the  piers  was  poured  in  three 
consecutive  runs  as  follows :  The  footing  course  was  poured 
in  the  open  excavation;  before  this  had  a  chance  to  set 
large  boulders  and  stone  from  the  old  pedestals,  broken 
up  to  one  man  size,  were  imbedded  in  the  top  surface  in 
three  rows  and  about  three  feet  apart;  thus  a  good  bond 
was  obtained  with  the  next  course.  After  the  footing 
course  had  taken  its  final  set,  forms  were  erected  for  the 
pier  proper  and  the  surface  was  thoroughly  scraped  and 
slushed  with  water  until  all  signs  of  laitance  had  been 
removed.  The  concrete  was  now  poured  for  the  vertical 
portion  of  pier.  After  the  top  surface  of  same  had  been 
treated  in  the  same  way  as  the  footing  course,  concrete 
was  finally  poured  for  the  batter  course  of  the  pier.  For 
recesses  of  columns,  templets  in  the  shape  of  a  box  with 
proper  number  of  holes  spaced  to  receive  the  anchor  rods 
were  placed  and  fastened  in  position  to  the  forms  of  the 
batter  course.  After  the  last  batch  of  concrete  was  poured, 
the  anchor  rods  were  inserted  in  the  holes,  and  driven  to 
the  right  depth  in  the  wet  concrete.  The  forms  of  the 
piers  were  stripped  after  two  days  and  the  exposed  surfaces 
rubbed  with  carborundum  stones. 

Towers. — Details  of  towers  are  shewn  on  Plate  IV, 
and  photographs  show  clearly  the  details  of  forms.  In 
erecting  the  forms  great  care  was  taken  not  to  have  any 
parts  braced  to,  or  allow  any  to  come  in  contact  with  the 
trestle  carrying  traffic,  so  as  to  avoid  disturbance  of 
concrete  while  it  was  setting.  The  concrete  was  poured 
from  strut  to  strut,  the  brackets  at  the  end  of  each  strut 
forming  hoppers  to  receive  concrete.  At  every  con- 
struction joint,  trap  doors  had  been  arranged  in  the  column 
forms  in  order  to  permit  removal  of  all  laitance  and  thor- 
roughly  to  clean  the  surface  before  any  new  concrete  was 
poured.  The  concrete  in  the  column  forms  was  spaded 
by  long  handled  spades,  and  the  outsides  of  the  forms  were 
beaten  with  wooden  mallets  to  free  any  air.  A  good 
smooth  surface  with  very  few  air  pockets  resulted  there- 
from. The  column  forms  were  stripped  after  four  or 
five  days  in  warm  weather,  and  after  a  week  or  ten  days 
in  cold  weather.  The  strut  sides  were  stripped  after  seven 
days  in  warm  weather  and  after  two  weeks  in  cold  weather. 
The  bottoms  of  the  struts  were  not  stripped  until  absolutely 
necessary  and  never  before  three  weeks  in  warm  and  four 
weeks  in  freezing  weather.  All  surfaces  of  towers  were 
rubbed  down  with  carborundum  stones. 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


101 


Slabs. — Details  of  slabs  are  shown  on  Plate  V  and 
details  of  forms  on  Plate  VI.  Forms  were  made 
collapsible,  as  is  clearly  shewn  in  details.  A  new  bottom, 
however,  was  made  for  each  slab.  After  assembling  of 
forms  one  end  was  left  open  until  all  reinforcing  bars  were 
properly  placed  and  wired  together.  Bars  were  sup- 
ported on  pre-moulded  dove-tailed  concrete  blocks  1~W 
thick ;  this  made  suspending  wires  unnecessary,  thus 
avoiding  obstructions  to  levelling  off  top  surface  of  slabs. 
On  slabs,  only  the  exposed  surfaces  of  outer  slabs  were 
rubbed  down  with  carborundum  stones. 

Erection  of  Slabs. — Erection  of  Main  slabs  of  Bridge 
0.9  was  started  on  February  22nd  and  completed  on 
April  10th,  1918.  On  Bridge  1.8  erection  started  on  April 
11th  and  the  last  slab  was  placed  on  June  1st,  1918. 

The  longest  slab  weighs  56  tons. 

As  the  100-ton  wrecking  crane  did  not  have  the  reach 
required  for  placing  these  heavy  slabs,  a  special  scheme  of 
erection  had  to  be  devised.  This  is  shewn  on  Plate  VII, 
and  photographs.  At  the  slab  yard,  one  end  of  the  slab 
was  lifted  on  to  a  freight  car  truck,  the  other  end  suspended 
from  the  crane.  The  slab  was  thus  pushed  ahead  by  the 
crane  on  to  the  bridge.  Two  timber  trusses  specially 
constructed  for  the  purpose  were  placed  far  enough  apart 
to  permit  the  slab  to  be  lowered  down  to  the  bents.  The 
end  of  slab  resting  on  the  track  was  then  hitched  to  a 
trolley,  which  was  running  on  rails  on  top  chord  of  trusses. 
The  derrick  was  then  moved  ahead  until  the  slab  had 
reached  the  position  for  lowering  down  to  rollers  on  caps; 
after  the  slab  was  on  rollers,  it  was  moved  sideways  on 
them  to  its  final  position.  When  all  slabs  of  one  span 
were  erected,  the  erection  trusses  were  moved  forward 
by  the  crane  to  the  next  span  and  same  operation  repeated. 

The  actual  cost  per  cubic  yard  of  concrete  in  the 
various  parts  of  the  structure  at  1.8  North  Toronto,  was 
as  follows: 

Piers. 

Forms. — Including  labor,  o.h.  expenses, 

and  contractors'  commission $1 .35  per  cu.  yd. 

Concrete. — 

Materials 3.94 

Freight  for  sand,  stone  and  cement  0.87 

Labor 1.61 

Incidentals,  o.h.  exp.  and  comm.  0.98 

Steel 1.07 

$9.82  per  cu.  yd. 

Abutments. 

Forms. — Including  labor,  o.h.  exp.  and 

commission $4 .  38  per  cu.  yd. 

Concrete. — 

Materials 3 .  70 

Freight  on  sand,  stone  and  cement  0.76 

Labor 3 .  38 

Heating 1.28 

Drainage  and  waterproofing 0 .  16 

Incidentals,  o.h.  exp.  and  comm.  1.59 

Sin  I 2.54 


Toivcrs. 

Forms. — Material,  labor,  o.h.  exp.  and 

commission $13 .  32  per  cu.  yd. 

Concrete. — ■ 

Materials 4 .  53 

Freight  on  sand,  stone  and  cement  1 .00 

Labor 5.75 

Heating 4.19 

Incidentals,  o.h.  exp.   and   comm.  2.65 

Steel 14.12 


$45.56  per  cu.  yd. 


Slabs. 


Forms. — Material,  labor,  preparing  of 
slab  yard,  incidentals,  o.h.  exp. 
and  commission $9 .  15  per  cu.  yd. 

Concrete. — 

Materials 5.67 

Freight  on  sand,  stone  and  cement  0.97 

Heating 0.20 

Labor 3.11 

Incidentals,  o.h.  exp.   and  com..  1.55 

Steel 13.45 

$34.10 
Cost  of  erection  of  slabs,  per  cu.  yd.  7. 18 


$17.79  per  cu.  yd. 


$41.28 

Regarding  the  item,  Heating  of  Towers,  the  average 
cost  of  $4.19  is  shewn;  as,  however,  only  about  three 
fifths  of  the  towers  required  heating,  the  actual  cost  per 
cu.  yd.  was  approximately  $7.00. 

The  average  cost  of  materials  used  and  the  average 
rates  of  wages  paid  were  as  follows: 

Materials. — 

Lumber $38 .  50  per  M. 

Stone 993  per  ton. 

Sand 295       " 

Cement  (including  bags) 2 .00  per  bbl. 

Wages. — ■ 

Carpenters 51  cts.  per  hour. 

Carpenters  helpers 40 

Laborers 37^ 

Engineers  on  mixers 55 

Concrete  finishers 41  " 

The  work  was  carried  out  under  the  direction  of 
J.  M.  R.  Fairbairn,  chief  engineer,  P.  B.  Motley, 
being  Engineer  of  Bridges  -  -  J.  H.  Barber,  with 
A.  H.  Munson  as  assistant,  was  engineer  in  charge  of 
construction,  while  the  necessary  investigations,  calcula- 
tions and  details  were  worked  out  by  the  writers.  The 
contractors  for  Bridge  1.8  were  Wells  &  Grey  Ltd.,  and 
for  Bridge  0.9  The  Dominion  Construction  Company,  both 
of  Toronto. 


102 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


Can  Earth  Roads  be  Made  Satisfactory? 

By  II.  S.  Carpenter,  A.M.E.I.C.,  Deputy  Minister,  Department  of  Highways 


Many  states  south  of  the  International  Boundary  are 
known  to  the  road  building  fraternity  as  "  earth  road 
states."  To  be  thus  characterized  does  not  of  necessity 
imply  a  reflection  on  the  condition  of  the  roads.  It  may 
mean  that  these  states  like  the  Province  of  Saskatchewan 
have  not  been  supplied  by  nature  with  material  from  which 
broken  stone  or  other  hard  road  metal  can  be  obtained 
within  their  boundaries,  and  that  they  are  obliged  to  make 
the  best  of  the  clay,  sand  and  gravel  which  is  found 
comercially  available  for  road  construction  purposes. 
We  know  that  some  states  have  used  this  inferior  road 
building  material  to  good  purpose.  If  in  addition  to  being 
known  as  an  "  earth  road  state  "  a  state  has  earned  the 
right  to  be  called  also  a  "  road  drag  state,"  it  will  have 
gone  a  long  way  towards  removing  any  reproach  which  the 
former  term  may  imply. 

Saskatchewan  is  an  earth  road  province  and  although 
it  would  be  rashness  for  any  one  to  state  that  sometime  in 
the  future  this  province  may  not  be  served  by  main  roads 
surfaced  with  some  form  of  durable  road  metal  we  have 
to  face  the  fact  that  there  is  not  at  present  available 
material  from  which  to  obtain  broken  stone  with  which  to 
build  hard  surfaced  roads.  This  material  has  been  shipped 
into  the  province  for  use  in  paving  our  city  streets.  There 
is  also  the  possibility  that  it  may  be  obtained  from  the 
rock  deposits  which  cover  the  northern  parts  of  the  pro- 
vince. The  cost  of  this  material  at  present  makes  its 
use  prohibitive  for  any  extensive  program  of  improvement 
of  our  country  roads.  The  same  may  be  said  of  the 
relatively  small  amount  which  can  be  obtained  from  field 
stone. 

We  sometimes  indulge  in  speculation  as  to  whether 
or  not  some  process  of  treatment  may  not  be  devised  by 
which  our  Saskatchewan  clays  or  gumbo  soils  may  be 
converted  into  a  material  which  may  be  used  as  a  substitute 
for  the  broken  stone,  slag,  or  other  hard  durable  road- 
building  material  found  in  other  countries.  It  is  pointed 
out  that  it  took  many  years  of  patient  labor  and  experi- 
menting to  demonstrate  that  the  soil  of  this  great  north- 
west would  produce  crops.  Many  of  us  remember  not  so 
many  years  ago  when  it  was  said  that  the  Regina  plains 
were  barren.  Other  sections  of  this  country  were  at  one 
time  looked  upon  as  hopeless  from  an  agricultural  point 
of  view.  Through  the  hard  work,  perseverance  and 
intelligence  of  the  earlier  settlers  all  difficulties  were 
overcome  and  it  was  demonstrated  that  Saskatchewan 
mud  could  be  so  treated  as  to  be  converted  into  the  very 
best  of  farm  lands.  It  is  reasoned  then  that  there  is 
reason  to  hope  that  the  road  builder  may  in  a  similar 
manner  work  out  his  own  salvation,  and  in  time  evolve 
ways  and  means  of  converting  the  prairie  soils  into  service- 
able road  metal.  Certain  characteristics  of  Regina  gumbo 
it  must  be  admitted  are  such  as  to  lend  encouragement 
to  this  optimistic  outlook.  If  you  will  go  out  onto  one  of 
the  unpaved  streets  of  this  city  a  few  hours  after  a  rain 
when  the  surface  has  dried  out  sufficiently  to  have  lost  its 
stickiness,  but  is  still  plastic,  it  will  be  found  that  portions 

*Read  before  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Saskatchewan  Branch, 
January  9th,  1919. 


of  the  surface  which  have  been  rolled  out  and  compressed 
by  heavy  motor  wheels  have  been  converted  into  a  material 
which  in  that  state  would  make  a  good  road  surface.  It  is 
so  hard  that  it  will  take  a  polish,  as  tough  as  leather,  and  so 
dense  that  one  would  expect  it  to  be  waterproof,  as  it 
dries  out  under  the  rolling  of  traffic  these  properties  in- 
crease. If  we  could  devise  some  means  of  fixing  it  in  this 
condition  it  might  be  utilized  as  a  serviceable  road  metal. 
But  we  know  only  too  well  what  happens  to  it  the  next  time 
it  rains. 

Methods  of  burning  clays  have  been  tried  in  the  con- 
struction of  "  burnt  clay  "  roads.  This  has  met  with 
more  or  less  success  in  districts  where  fuel  is  plentiful  and 
cheap,  but  this  treatment  does  not  promise  success  in  this 
province  where  fuel  is  scarce. 

We  do  not  wish  to  dampen  the  enthusiasm  of  the 
optimist  or  even  of  the  dreamer,  on  the  contrary  they 
should  be  encouraged,  but  in  the  meantime  it  does  not  seem 
wise  that  we  should  defer  our  hopes  of  providing  this 
province  with  good  roads  until  some  genius  has  evolved 
some  magical  process  of  transmuting  Saskatchewan 
mud  into  hard  road  metal. 

It  would  seem  then  that  we  should  devote  our  energies 
to  making  the  best  use  of  the  material  commercially 
available  which,  generally  speaking,  is  the  material  which 
is  within  scraper  haul  or  at  most  waggon  haul  of  our  roads. 
This  does  not  imply  that  we  should  not  make  a  judicious 
selection  of  this  material.  In  fact  it  is  the  neglect  to 
exercise  judgment  in  this  respect  which  is  responsible  for 
the  construction  of  a  great  many  miles  of  poor  earth  roads. 
Instances  of  this  are  noted  in  the  attempt  to  construct 
grades  across  sloughs  when  advantage  is  taken  of  a  dry 
season  to  build  the  grade  from  the  soft  alkali  mud  which 
often  forms  the  bed  of  the  slough  regardless  of  the  fact 
that  good  material  can  be  obtained  from  the  banks  of  the 
slough.  Even  where  it  is  necessary  to  cut  down  these 
banks  to  provide  a  suitable  grade  at  each  end  of  the 
fill,  good  material  excavated  from  these  banks  is  some- 
times wasted  rather  than  incur  the  little  longer  haul  that 
its  use  involves,  as  compared  with  scraping  in  the  material 
from  the  bottom  of  the  slough. 

Again  attempts  are  made  to  build  a  road  entirely  of 
light  sandy  material  or  even  of  fine  sand,  when  clay  could 
conveniently  be  obtained  to  mix  with  the  sand  to  construct 
a  sand  clay  road,  or  conversely  a  clay  road  is  built  not- 
withstanding the  fact  that  sand  suitable  for  mixing  with 
the  clay  can  be  conveniently  obtained. 

It  may  be  noted  also  that  we  are  not  making  the 
most  of  our  resources  in  gravel.  In  many  districts 
gravel  can  be  obtained  convenient  to  our  roads,  and 
although  the  presence  of  these  gravel  deposits  is  more  or 
less  generally  known  in  each  locality  this  is  ignored 
by  those  in  charge  of  road  improvement  work.  In  order 
that  greater  advantage  may  be  taken  of  our  gravel  supplies 
it  would  be  well  for  each  rural  municipality  to  undertake 
a  survey  of  the  municipality  to  ascertain  its  resources  in 
the  way  of  gravel  and  sand.  This  information  should  be 
so  recorded  as  to  be  available  in  connection  with  any 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


103 


scheme  of  road  improvement  planned  by  the  municipality. 
Control  of  many  of  these  deposits  could  probably  be  more 
readily  obtained  now  than  later  on  after  the  value  of  the 
gravel  and  sand  has  increased.  A  start  has  been  made  by 
the  Department  of  Highways  to  collect  information  as  to 
location,  extent  and  quality  of  gravel  and  sand  deposits  in 
the  province.  It  is  hoped  this  information  will  be  very 
useful  both  to  the  department  and  to  the  rural  munici- 
palities in  carrying  out,  not  only  road  construction,  but 
also  in  connection  with  the  construction  of  concrete 
culverts  and  bridges. 

It  cannot  be  too  forcibly  insisted  on  that  the  question 
as  to  whether  or  not  earth  roads  will  prove  satisfactory  is 
largely  a  question  of  maintenance.  The  necessity  for  this 
should  be  faced  at  the  inception  of  any  scheme  of  road 
improvement.  Provision  for  financing  the  improvement 
should  also  include  provision  for  adequate  maintenance. 

The  satisfactory  road  to  be  built  in  any  locality  we 
may  assume  to  be  that  road  which  is  most  suitable  to  the 
conditions  for  which  the  road  is  to  be  used.  The  conditions 
to  be  considered  are  soil,  climate,  nature  and  extent  of  the 
traffic,  and  the  materials  available,  but  also  unfortunately 
we  cannot  overlook  the  condition  that  the  road  must  be 
suitable  to  our  ability  to  pay  for  it.  This  latter  condition 
so  dominates  the  others  that  it  is  generally  accepted  that 
we  are  justified  in  expending  on  a  scheme  of  highway 
improvement  only  so  much  as  will  represent  a  safe  sound 
investment  upon  which  dividends  will  be  paid,  not  in 
actual  cash  disbursements  but  in  actual  cash  savings  to  the 
community  to  be  served  and  which  has  to  bear  the  cost. 
That  is,  the  tax  which  will  have  to  be  borne  to  finance  the 
improvement  must  not  exceed  the  tax  which  is  imposed 
because  of  the  poor  condition  of  the  roads. 

The  suitable  class  of  roads  then  is  the  one  that  can  be 
built,  financed,  and  maintained  from  the  annual  savings 
represented  by  the  difference  in  cost  of  hauling  over  poor 
roads  and  the  cost  of  hauling  over  the  improved  road. 
A  careful  study  of  the  costs  of  hauling  over  different 
classes  of  roads  has  been  made  by  the  United  States  Office 
of  Public  Roads,  and  also  by  officials  of  some  of  the  high- 
way departments  of  the  different  states.  The  United 
States  Office  of  Public  Roads  gives  the  cost  of  hauling  on 
unimproved  roads  throughout  several  different  states  as 
varying  from  24  to  37  cents  per  ton  per  mile,  or  an  average 
of  30  cents.  From  the  insufficent  data  I  have  been  able  to 
gather  it  would  appear  that  the  cost  in  Saskatchewan  is 
at  least  as  high  as  30  cents. 

The  cost  of  hauling  on  improved  roads  is  given  as 
10  cents  per  ton  mile  on  the  first  class  roads  in  European 
countries  before  the  war,  making  allowances  for  extreme 
variations  in  wages  between  Europe  and  the  United 
States,  the  cost  in  this  latter  country  is  given  as  not  to 
exceed  20  cents  on  improved  earth  or  sand  clay  roads,  and 
from  15  to  12  cents  on  good  gravel,  macadam  or  other 
more  expensive  pavements.  Similar  figures  for  Saskat- 
chewan are  for  obvious  reasons  not  available. 

B.  K.  Coughlan,  Professor  of  Highway  Engineer- 
ing in  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  College  of  Texas, 
gives  the  following  very  conservative  -figures  for  the 
saving  in  the  cost  of  hauling  effected  by  the  following 
classes  of  improved  roads  in  cents  per  ton  mile :  earth  or 


sand  clay  roads,  l\-2  cents;  gravel  roads,  10  cents;  bit- 
uminous macadam,  concrete  or  other  expensive  pave- 
ments, 15  cents.  These  figures  are  made  use  of  in  the 
computations  submitted  below.  It  should  be  noted  here 
that  these  figures  do  not  take  into  consideration  the  saving 
in  wear  and  tear  on  vehicles,  harness  and  animals,  nor  do 
they  include  the  undoubtedly  great  benefits  to  the 
community  from  improved  social  opportunities,  greater 
comforts,  and  other  benefits  resulting  from  improved 
roads  which,  however  apparent,  are  difficult  to  value  in 
dollars  and  cents. 

Having  then  the  annual  saving  in  hauling  costs,  if 
we  ascertain  the  annual  traffic  which  the  road  system 
slated  for  improvement  will  carry  reduced  to  ton  miles 
we  can  calculate  the  annual  saving  to  the  community  which 
the  improvement  will  produce.  We  can  then  capitalize 
this  amount  and  thus  determine  the  class  of  road  which  is 
economically  suitable.  Or  conversely  having  the  cost  of 
constructing,  financing  and  maintaining  a  certain  class  of 
road  it  can  be  ascertained  the  minimum  of  traffic  which 
would  be  necessary  to  justify  the  investment. 

In  this  discussion  it  is  assumed  the  money  necessary  to 
cover  the  improvement  will  be  obtained  by  the  sale  of 
bonds  or  debentures.  This  means  that  included  in  the 
cost  must  be  ample  provision  for  annual  maintenance 
sufficient  to  preserve  the  investment  during  the  currency 
of  the  bond.  This  provision  is  a  matter  that  is  too  fre- 
quently overlooked.  Bond  money  should  not  be  spent  for 
road  improvement  unless  the  arrangement  provides  for 
adequate  maintenance. 

The  annual  cost  of  the  improvement  then  is  the 
interest  on  the  bonds,  the  annual  sum  needed  to  retire  the 
bonds  at  maturity,  and  the  annual  cost  of  maintenance. 
The  bonds  for  earth  and  sand  clay  roads  should  not  run 
over  20  years.  This  may  be  extended  to  30  years  for 
gravel,  macadam  and  the  more  expensive  pavements. 

Following  then  the  method  of  calculation  adopted 
by  Professor  Coughlan  we  can  determine  the  amount  of 
traffic  which  a  road  will  have  to  carry  to  justify  an  issue 
of  bonds  to  convert  it  into  an  improved  road  of  any 
particular  class  as  follows: 

Earth  Road. 

Cost  of  construction  estimated  at  $1000  per  mile. 
Annual  cost  of  maintenance  at  $75  per  mile;  Interest 
on  bonds  at  6%.  Interest  on  sinking  fund  3}4%-  Bonds 
to  run  20  years.  The  annual  cost  then  equals  .09536  x 
1000  plus  75  equals  $170.36,  which  at  a  saving  of  7^  cents 
per  ton  mile  would  require  a  traffic  of  2270  tons  or  about 
8  tons  for  each  working  day. 

Sand  Clay  Road. 

Cost  of  construction  estimated  at  $1500  per  mile. 
Annual  cost  of  maintenance  at  $125  per  mile.  Interest  on 
bonds  at  6%.  Interest  on  sinking  fund  at  314%.  Bonds 
to  run  20  years.  The  annual  cost  then  equals  .09536  x 
1500  plus  125  equals  268.04,  which  at  a  saving  of  7]/2  cents 
per  ton  mile  would  require  a  traffic  of  3570  tons  or  about 
12  tons  for  each  working  day. 


104 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


(travel  Road. 
Cost  of  construction  estimated  at  $3000  per  mile. 
Annual  cost  of  maintenance  at  $225  per  mile.  Interest  on 
bonds  at  6('( .  Interest  on  sinking  fund  at  3^%.  Bonds 
to  run  30  years.  The  annual  cost  then  equals  3000  x  .07937 
plus  $225  equals  463.11,  which  at  a  saving  of  10  cents  per 
ton  mile  would  require  a  traffic  of  4630  tons  or  about  15 
tons  for  each  working  day. 

Water  Bound  Macadam  Road. 
Cost  of  construction  estimated  at  $9200  per  mile. 
Annual  cost  of  maintenance  at  $525  per  mile.  Interest 
on  bonds  at  6%.  Interest  on  sinking  fund  at  3 ]  2 f  <•  - 
Bonds  to  run  30  years.  The  annual  cost  then  equals 
.07937  x  9200  plus  525  equals  1255.20,  which  at  a  saving 
of  15  cents  per  ton  mile  would  require  a  traffic  of  8366 
tons  or  about  28  tons  for  each  working  day. 

Bituminous  Bound  Macadam  Road. 
Cost  of  construction  estimated  at  $10,300  per  mile. 
Annual  cost  of  maintenance  at  $700  per  mile.  Interest  on 
bonds  at  6% .  Interest  on  sinking  fund  at  3^9?  •  Bonds 
to  run  30  years.  The  annual  cost  then  equals  .07937  x 
10,300  plus  700  equals  1517.50,  which  at  a  saving  of  15 
cents  per  ton  mile  would  require  a  traffic  of  10,116  tons 
or  about  34  tons  for  each  working  day. 

The  cost  of  constructing  water  bound  macadam  and 
bituminous  bound  macadam  roads  used  above  at  $9200 
and  $10,300  per  mile,  respectively,  is  taken  from  a  report 
of  the  United  States  Office  of  Public  Roads  on  the  average 
cost  of  constructing  in  the  years  1908  to  1911  of  137  miles 
of  the  former  class  of  road  and  85  miles  of  the  latter,  the 
width  of  the  road  paved  being  in  both  classes  15  feet. 
I  would  not  venture  an  estimate  of  what  these  two 
classes  of  pavement  would  cost  in  Saskatchewan. 

I  have  endeavored  to  give  the  results  of  the  above 
calculations  a  local  application,  but,  unfortunately,  traffic 
census  on  any  of  our  main  roads  are  not  available.  Lacking 
more  definite  data  I  have  assumed  a  hypothetical  case. 
Assuming  a  main  market  road  leading  out  from  a  market 
center  in  one  direction  for  a  distance  of  twelve  miles  and 
considering  only  the  traffic  which  originates  on  the  farms 
for  which  the  road  is  the  main  market  road ;  neglecting  then 
the  traffic  in  coal,  lumber,  and  other  supplies  from  the 
market  town  to  the  farms,  also  any  traffic  which  may  use 


the  road,  but  which  originates  outside  the  area  tributary 
to  the  road.  I  have  assumed  that  each  quarter  section 
will  annually  yield  30  tons  of  produce  or  equivalent  to 
1000  bushels  of  wheat.  The  traffic  on  each  mile  num- 
bering from  the  town  out  would  be  as  follows: 

1st  mile 7320  tons 

2nd   "   7200   " 

3rd    "   6800  " 

4th    "  6400  " 

5th    "  5880  " 

6th    "   5280  " 

7th    "  4680  " 

8th    " 4080  " 

9th    "   3000  " 

10th    "  2520  " 

11th    "  900  " 

12th    "   840  " 

Comparing  these  figures  with  the  results  of  the  com- 
putations for  each  class  of  road  we  find  that  on  no  part  of 
this  road  would  the  traffic  warrant  the  construction  of 
either  water  bound  or  bituminous  bound  macadam  surfaces. 
The  theoretically  suitable  road  would  be  constructed  of 
gravel  for  the  first  six  miles,  sand  clay  for  the  next  two 
miles  earth  for  the  ninth  and  tenth  miles  and  the  last  two 
miles  would  not  carry  sufficient  traffic  to  warrant  even  an 
earth  road.  In  actual  practice,  of  course,  the  total  length 
of  the  road  would  be  included  in  the  scheme  of  improve- 
ment and  the  class  of  road  built  be  that  which  the  average 
traffic  over  the  whole  stretch  would  justify. 

If  the  road  under  discussion  in  addition  to  being  a 
local  market  road  were  also  an  interurban  road  or  a  trunk 
road  there  might  be  added  to  the  local  traffic  sufficient 
through  traffic  to  justify  more  durable  and  more  expensive 
pavements.  We  must  face  the  fact,  however,  that  in 
comparison  with  our  small  population  we  have  a  very 
large  mileage  of  roads  to  construct  and  maintain;  so  that 
when  we  are  confronted  with  the  question  as  to  whether 
we  should  use  the  money  available  to  build  one  mile  of 
bituminous  bound  macadam  road  or  ten  miles  of  improved 
earth  road,  we  are  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
province  will  be  best  served  by  making  the  best  use  of  the 
material  commercially  available  and  that  for  the  present 
at  least  we  should  devote  our  energies  to  the  improvement 
of  our  organization  for  constructing,  maintaining  and 
financing  our  earth  roads. 


Economy  in  Ocean  Transportation 

By  A.  W.  Robinson,  M.E.I.C. 


The  purpose  of  this  paper  is  to  direct  attention  to  a 
few  points  connected  with  ocean  transportation  which 
are  deserving  of  special  attention  now  in  view  of  the  altered 
conditions  consequent  upon  the  war.  In  the  replacement 
of  lost  tonnage  we  have  now  an  opportunity  to  make  a 
distinct  advance  upon  previous  practice.  It  is  incumbent 
upon  us  to  make  such  an  advance  and  to  increase  the 
efficiency  of  everything  connected  with  ocean  transporta- 
tion to  the  utmost  possible  extent  in  view  of  the  new  con- 
ditions of  increased  cost  of  fuel,  labor  and  materials,  and 
the  competition  of  other  nations. 

*To  be  read  before  the  Montreal  Branch,  Thursday,  February  6th. 


Conservation  of  fuel  whether  it  be  coal  or  oil  is  now  a 
national  necessity.  Economy  in  the  generation  and  use 
of  propelling  power  is  now  highly  developed,  and  the 
gains  that  can  be  made  in  that  direction  are  comparatively 
small.  It  is  in  the  direction  of  larger  units  more  efficiently 
employed  that  we  must  look  in  order  to  obtain  a  greater 
output  per  man  and  per  horse-power. 

How  can  larger  and  more  economical  vessels  be  pro- 
fitably utilized,  what  is  their  relative  economy,  and  what 
are  their  limitations  ?  The  writer  will  endeavor  to  present 
facts  and  data  that  will  enable  an  independent  judgment 
to  be  formed. 


JOURNAL     OF     THE    ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


105 


During  the  four  years  that  have  elapsed  there  would, 
in  ordinary  times,  have  been  a  natural  increase  of  require- 
ments to  be  provided  for,  but  this  cannot  be  figured  at  the 
normal  rate  because  of  the  great  interruption  to  trade  and 
commerce.  Much  of  that  trade  will  now  have  to  begin 
where  it  left  off  and  the  enormously  increased  transport 
due  to  war  material  having  now  ceased  is  no  longer  a 
factor. 

During  the  closing  months  of  war  a  powerful  impetus 
was  given  to  building  vessels  of  any  kind  that  would 
promise  quick  delivery,  and  a  large  programme  was 
entered  upon,  the  United  States  alone  undertaking  to  build 
25  million  tons.  All  other  nations  are  striving  to  contri- 
bute their  quota.  It  is  impossible  to  foresee  the  future  or 
to  say  how  far  the  present  building  programme  will  be 
pushed,  but  if  one  may  venture  on  an  opinion,  there  will 
soon  be  a  superabundant  supply  of  the  smaller  class  of 
ships  now  being  built.  It  is  now  necessary  to  meet  new 
conditions  and  build  more  permanent  tonnage.  It  is 
most  important  that  the  permanent  ships  now  building 
and  to  be  built,  should  be  in  every  way  suited  to  carry 
cargo  at  the  least  cost  and  that  all  the  factors  that  contri- 
bute to  this  end  should  be  most  carefully  studied. 

The  increased  cost  of  construction  and  of  fuel  and 
labor  and  the  likelihood  of  competition  from  Japanese 
and  other  sources  all  have  to  be  met.  The  earlier  ships 
built  during  the  present  period  will  be  handicapped  by 
excessive  first  cost  and  to  some  extent  also  by  inferior 
construction  due  to  haste  and  inexperience.  For  reliable 
service  under  stress  of  all  weathers  and  for  freedom  from 
repairs  and  breakdowns  nothing  but  the  best  and 
staunchest  construction  dictated  by  long  sea  experience 
will  suffice.  In  view  of  the  increased  cost  of  fuel  and 
labor  it  will  be  necessary  to  improve  the  design  not  only 
of  the  ship  itself  but  of  every  thing  connected  with  ocean 
transportation,  including  means  for  rapid  and  economical 
handling  of  cargo  and  improved  terminal  facilities  in 
general. 

These  questions  are  receiving  close  study  and 
attention  from  both  naval  architects  and  ship  owners  as 
well  as  shipping  registry  societies  and  port  authorities. 
There  is  a  society  of "  Terminal  Engineers,"  and  a  monthly 
journal  called  "  Freight  Handling  and  Terminal  En- 
gineering," now  in  its  fourth  volume. 

There  is  also  a  comprehensive  survey  of  the  resources 
and  development  of  the  British  Dominions  contained  in 
the  great  report  of  the  Dominions  Royal  Commission, 
already  referred  to.  This  report  being  prepared  by  the 
most  competent  authorities  and  having  for  its  object  the 
economic  linking  up  of  the  great  Dominions  of  the  Empire 
merits  our  most  careful  study  and  earnest  co-operation. 

This  Commission  was  appointed  by  the  British 
Government  in  April,  1912,  and  made  its  final  report  in 
March,  1917,  so  that  it  covers  much  of  the  war  peried. 
Its  proceedings  and  evidence  are  contained  in  nine  volumes 
and  include  the  most  complete  and  exhaustive  study  of  the 
relations  of  the  Dominions  to  the  Empire  and  to  each 
other  that  has  ever  been  made. 

That  portion  of  the  report  dealing  with  the  question 
of  ocean  transportation  is  so  important  that  I  quote  a  part 
of  it  as  follows: 


"The  war  has  abundantly  demonstrated  that  the  life 
of  the  Empire  depends  upon  its  sea  communication. 
Whatever  the  existing  magnitude  of  the  ocean-borne 
commerce  between  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  Do- 
minions, and  whatever  the  prospect  of  its  development  in 
the  future,  producer,  manufacturer  and  merchant  alike 
are  concerned  and  vitally  concerned  with  securing  cheap, 
regular  and  efficient  transport  for  their  goods,  and  conse- 
quently with  the  progressive  improvement  of  the  Empire's 
shipping  facilities." 

"  We  emphasize  this  point  for  we  feel  that  in  discus- 
sions as  to  the  best  means  of  fostering  trade  within  the 
Empire,  its  importance  has  been  obscured  by  other 
factors  affecting  the  exchange  of  merchandise,  and  in 
particular  to  the  prominence  given  to  fiscal  legislation. 
In  our  view  cheap  sea  transport  is  not  only  of  importance 
in  relation  to  other  means  of  fostering  exchange  of  mer- 
chandise, but  it  also  confers  absolute  advantages  on  the 
countries  which  possess  it.  So  long  as  freights  are  cheaper 
and  means  of  communication  better  between  the  Mother 
country  and  the  Dominions  overseas,  and  between  the 
Dominions  themselves,  than  between  foreign  countries 
and  the  Dominions,  so  long  will  trade  naturally  follow 
Imperial  channels.  If,  therefore,  it  is  possible  to  devise 
some  means  of  permanent  betterment  of  sea-routes  within 
the  Empire,  a  powerful  impulse  will  have  been  given  to 
Imperial  trade,  while  the  strength  and  cohesion  of  the 
Empire  will  be  notably  increased." 

'  The  development  of  cheap,  regular  and  efficient 
transport  (and  indeed  of  quick  transport)  depends  in  the 
last  resort  on  increase  in  the  size  and  draft  of  sea-going 
vessels,  and  consequently  on  the  existence  of  harbours 
and  waterways  of  a  capacity  and  particularly  of  a  depth 
adequate  to  receive  such  vessels." 

'To  some  extent  these  considerations  have  influenced 
the  minds  of  ship  owners,  naval  architects  and  harbour 
authorities,  but  the  improvement  of  isolated  harbours  is 
of  little  avail  unless  all  the  harbours  on  a  given  route  are 
brought  up  approximately  to  the  same  level.  Joint 
co-ordinated  action  is  required.  Individual  disconnected 
effort  is  of  little  use.  It  is,  therefore  obvious  that  efforts 
should  be  made  to  correlate  and  develop  the  existing  and 
future  capacity  of  harbours  and  waterways  on  the  great 
trade  routes  of  the  Empire,  and  to  suggest  a  general  scheme 
for  improving  the  ports  on  these  routes." 

The  report  goes  on  to  state  that  so  far  as  the 
Dominions  are  concerned,  Canada  is  most  favored  by 
nature  with  deep  and  extensive  harbours  both  on  the  east 
and  west  coasts.  Full  data  is  given  of  all  trade  routes 
and  available  depths  at  present  in  all  principal  harbours, 
and  estimated  work  to  be  done  at  various  points  to  bring 
them  up  to  standard. 

A  depth  of  40  ft.  is  recommended  as  being  the  limit 
at  present  available  in  principal  ports,  and  that  can  be 
attained  in  some  other  secondary  ports  within  reasonable 
time.  We  have,  or  soon  will  have  this  depth  at  our  own 
ports  on  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific.  The  Panama  Canal 
is  40  ft.  Hong  Kong,  Singapore,  Sydney,  Hobard  and 
Capetown  are  all  40  ft.    Shanghai  contemplates  50  ft. 

The  most  efficient  size  of  a  vessel  fixed  upon  by  this 
Commission  is  the  largest  that  can  make  use  of  these 
main  ports,  and  will  be  a  vessel  660  ft.  long,  38  ft.  draft, 


106 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


and  about  25,000  tons  deadweight  capacity.  Vessels 
of  this  size  are  proposed  for  the  main  trade  routes  to 
Australia,  via  Capetown,  and  to  Canada.  Also  a  line 
from  a  British  port  to  New  Zealand,  via  Halifax,  Bermuda, 
Jamaica  and  Panama  Canal,  giving  a  faster  mail  route 
than  via  Suez.  It  is  not  generally  realized  that  the 
Panama  Canal  is  directly  on  the  shortest  sailing  line  from 
Britain  to  New  Zealand  and  that  the  distance  is  560 
nautical  miles  shorter  than  the  mail  route  via  Suez. 

Mail  services  are  also  an  important  subject  for  dis- 
cussion. Much  improvement  can  be  made  in  the  methods 
that  prevailed  before  the  war  in  our  transatlantic  mail 
service.  Instead  of  numerous  trans-shipments  by  methods 
involving  delay,  injury  and  risk  of  loss,  it  should  be  pos- 
sible to  run  a  mail  train  alongside  the  ship  and  fit  portable 
rubber  belt  conveyors  that  would  take  the  mail  bags  from 
the  railway  car  and  deliver  them  directly  into  the  mail 
room  of  the  ship  through  a  door  in  the  ship's  side  designed 
for  the  purpose.  A  further  improvement  would  be  an 
ample  postal  station  as  part  of  the  railway  terminal,  so 
that  trucking  the  mail  bags  through  the  streets  or  along 
station  platforms  among  passengers  and  baggage  would  be 
avoided. 

The  increased  cost  of  labor  and  fuel  makes  it  necessary 
to  devise  new  ways  and  means  to  meet  this  cost.  If  all 
countries  suffered  the  same  relative  increase  we  would  be 
in  much  the  same  position  as  before.  Manual  labor 
must  be  superseded  by  mechanical  appliances.  Where 
manual  labor  cannot  be  dispensed  with  it  should  be  sup- 
plied with  such  mechanical  aids  as  will  render  it  more 
effective.  In  the  manufacturing  industries  it  has  been 
shown  repeatedly  that  the  most  important  factor  in 
cheap  production  is  not  the  rate  of  wages,  but  rather  the 
increase  of  output.  We  can  well  afford  to  pay  high  wages 
with  efficient  plant  and  large  output. 

As  in  railroads  economy  in  haulage  has  been  obtained 
by  increase  of  train  loads,  so  in  marine  transport  the 
simplest  and  most  direct  way  to  reduce  costs  is  to  increase 
the  capacity  of  ships  so  as  to  carry  more  tons  of  freight 
per  unit  of  labor  and  fuel.  Theoretically  the  larger  the 
vessel  the  greater  the  economy  but  practically  there  are 
limitations.  These  limitations  are  not  rigid,  and  do 
not  bind  down  the  ship  as  do  railroad  limits  of  size,  but 
are  elastic  and  depend  on  commercial  considerations  of 
traffic,  freight  handling  and  depth  of  water,  and  can  be 
expanded  to  any  extent. 

The  question  is,  how  far  can  we  go  efficiently  in 
increasing  the  size  of  ships  ?  The  discussion  which  follows 
will  enable  us  to  find  the  answer. 

In  November,  1902,  the  writer  read  a  paper  before 
this  Society  on  "  The  Economy  of  Large  Ships,  "in  which 
he  stated  the  principles  governing  the  case  and  pointed 
out  that  when  the  30  ft.  channel  to  Montreal  was  completed, 
we  could  employ  a  vessel  520  ft.  long,  61  ft.  beam  and  30  ft. 
draft,  which  would  carry  12,000  tons  deadweight  at  13 
knots  speed  on  5  lbs.  of  coal  per  100  ton  miles.  He  also 
pointed  out  the  economy  that  would  result  in  even  larger 
sizes  and  deeper  draft.  That  limit  has  been  long  since 
reached  and  passed.  A  very  full  discussion  was  contri- 
buted to  that  paper  by  the  late  E.  L.  Corthell  and  printed 
in  our  transactions,  in  which  he  ably  reviewed  the  develop- 
ment of  ocean  traffic  up  to  that  date 


The  degree  to  which  size  can  be  carried  to  be  profitable 
is  limited,  not  by  any  problem  of  construction  but  by 
depth  of  water  and  commercial  considerations  of  traffic. 

The  superior  economy  of  the  large  vessel  is  generally 
recognized.  There  exists  some  difference  of  opinion  as  to 
the  limits  to  which  great  size  can  be  carried  to  advantage. 
Economy  in  railway  transport  has  been  attained  by  heavier 
train  loads  and  full  car  loading.  The  same  principle 
applies  to  ships  except  that  they  are  not  limited  like 
railways,  and  hence  can  derive  a  greater  benefit. 

The  following  table  shows  the  comparative  economy 
of  cargo  vessels  of  2500  to  25,000  tons  deadweight  capacity: 

Deadweight  Capacity  tons    2500     5000    10,000  15,000  20,000  25,000 

Length  of  vessel ft.  215  300  430  510  590  675 

Beam               "       "  36  44  58  68  72  80 

Draft  of  water,  loaded.  "  22  25  28^  32  34  36 

Speed,  sea-miles 11  11  11  11  11  11 

Indicated  H.  P 1460  1900  2800  3750  5000  6000 

Coal  per  hour lbs.  2920  3600  5000  6380  7350  7950 

Coal  consumption  lbs. 

per  100  ton-miles. . .  10.6  6.5  4.5  3.9  3.3  2.9 

In  the  above  table  the  dimensions  may,  of  course,  be 
varied  to  suit  different  designs,  as  for  instance,  if  deeper 
draft  can  be  allowed  the  hulls  may  have  less  length  and 
beams,  but  the  comparison  is  sufficient  to  illustrate  the 
great  saving  in  coal  consumption  in  the  larger  sizes. 
Thus,  a  vessel  of  2500  tons  deadweight  consumes  10.6  lb. 
of  coal  per  100  ton-miles  at  11  knots,  while  a  vessel  of 
25,000  tons  only  consumes  2.9  lb.  per  100  ton-miles  at  the 
same  speed.  In  other  words:  a  given  amount  of  cargo 
is  carried  in  the  larger  vessel  with  27  per  cent  of  the  fuel, 
a  saving  of  73  per  cent,  with  intermediate  sizes  in  pro- 
portion. Not  only  is  there  a  saving  in  fuel  but  in  labor 
also.  These  savings  are  cumulative  as  the  space  saved 
by  reduced  percentage  of  machinery  and  fuel  goes  to 
increase  the  paying  cargo  space.  It  will  be  seen  that  the 
largest  size  vessel  in  the  table  corresponds  closely  with 
that  proposed  by  the  Dominions  Royal  Commission. 

The  saving  in  labor  in  the  large  vessel  is  also  most 
important.  The  question  of  finding  crews  for  a  great 
number  of  small  vessels  is  already  proving  a  problem. 
Inevitably  the  standard  of  skill  and  experience  must  be 
lowered  and  this  will  result  in  loss  and  inefficiency.  The 
number  of  crew  will  vary  in  different  services,  but  roughly 
speaking  a  vessel  of  5000  tons  deadweight  may  have  a  crew 
of  35,  while  a  vessel  of  25,000  tons  would  only  require 
about  68.  That  is  to  say  twice  the  crew  would  carry 
five  times  the  cargo.  For  oil-burning  vessels  the  saving 
would  be  still  more  marked. 

A  further  advantage  of  the  large  vessel  is  that  less 
wharf  frontage  is  required  for  a  given  tonnage.  Thus  a 
berth  for  one  vessel  of  25,000  tons  deadweight  would  be 
about  700  ft.  long,  whereas  berths  for  two  vessels  of  12,500 
tons  would  be  1,000  ft.  and  for  four  vessels  of  6250  tons, 
about  1500  ft.,  and  so  on,  in  proportion.  Consequently 
the  cost  of  wharfage  accommodation  is  actually  less  for 
the  large  vessels,  although  the  depth  of  water  required  is 
a  few  feet  more.  The  concentration  of  so  much  cargo  on 
a  small  frontage  will,  however,  make  necessary  more  floor 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF.  CANADA 


107 


space  in  the  sheds  and  much  better  distribution  facilities 
than  for  the  smaller  ships.  In  other  words,  the  harbor 
accommodation  must  be  designed  to  suit  the  vessel  and  the 
traffic. 

What  are  the  conditions  essential  to  enable  us  to  use 
successfully  these  large  and  efficient  vessels? 

Unless  they  can  be  worked  under  suitable  conditions 
they  will  yield  no  benefit.  These  are:  (1)  Sufficient 
volume  of  trade  on  a  regular  route  to  furnish  full  cargoes, 
or  nearly  so;  (2)  Sufficient  terminal  and  warehouse 
facilities  at  both  ends  of  the  route  to  collect  and  hold 
available  a  full  cargo  ready  for  loading  during  the  time  in 
port;  (3)  Improved  mechanical  appliances  for  rapid 
loading  and  unloading  so  that  the  time  in  port  can  be 
reduced  to  a  satisfactory  minimum;  (4)  Sufficient  depth 
of  water  and  sufficient  space  for  manoeuvering  in  port. 

Let  us  consider  more  specifically  the  foregoing  points. 
The  first  condition,  that  of  sufficient  traffic,  can  be  deter- 
mined from  statistics  of  any  given  trade  route,  with  allow- 
ance for  future  changes.  We  are  not  now  considering  the 
tramp  steamer,  which  must  seek  trade  where  it  can  find  it, 
and  which  must  necessarily  be  restricted  to  the  smaller 
class  of  vessel.  There  is  no  doubt  of  ample  traffic  being 
available  on  the  main  trade  routes. 

The  second  condition,  that  of  terminal  facilities,  is 
one  which  is  now  receiving  great  attention.  To  utilize 
the  large  economical  ship,  we  must  assemble  25,000  tons 
of  outgoing  cargo  at  a  time  in  sufficiently  close  proximity 
to  the  ship's  side  so  that  it  can  be  rapidly  handled,  and  at 
the  same  time  provide  for  incoming  cargo.  We  must  also 
consider  the  rail  and  water  facilities  for  assembling  this 
cargo  economically.  It  will  require  about  15  train  loads 
to  fill  such  a  ship. 

Improved  mechanical  appliances  for  handling  cargo 
are  essential  to  economy.  In  the  case  of  bulk  cargoes  as 
grain,  coal  or  oil,  mechanical  means  can  be  and  are  used 
most  efficiently,  and  the  time  of  loading  and  unloading 
is  very  short.  But  with  miscellaneous  freight  no  means 
have  yet  been  devised  to  supersede  hoisting  by  slings  or 
skips  which  must  be  loaded  by  hand  in  the  hold  of  the 
ship.  The  limiting  point  will  be,  therefore,  the  rate  at 
which  slings  or  skips  can  be  loaded.  The  hoisting 
apparatus  should  be  so  improved  that  the  lifts  are  made 
with  safety  and  high  speed,  and  the  capacity  of  the  lifts 
should  be  in  excess  of  the  capacity  of  the  men  to  load  them 
so  that  there  should  be  no  waiting.  The  number  of 
hatches  should  be  as  many  as  can  be  arranged  on  the 
vessel,  and  with  as  large  openings  as  possible  so  that  two 
or  more  lifts  can  be  used  at  each  hatch. 

The  chief  mechanical  improvements  which  can  be 
made  are  the  adoption  of  electric  hoists  on  shore  instead 
of  steam  winches  on  the  ship,  and  electric  trucks  to  receive 
the  load  directly  from  the  hoist  and  carry  it  away  to  avoid 
congestion.  In  this  way  manual  labor  can  be  reduced  and 
hand  trucking  done  away  with.  The  electric  winch  should 
be  double  drum,  and  the  hoist  arranged  with  two  points 
of  suspension,  one  over  the  hatch  and  one  over  the  point 
of  deposit.  In  this  way  perfect  control  at  high  speed  can 
be  obtained,  and  no  swinging  booms  or  derricks  are 
required. 

If  the  25,000  tons  of  cargo  in  the  ship  proposed  by  the 
Dominions  Royal  Commission  can  be  unloaded  at  eight 
hatches  with  sixteen  hoists,  each  working  at  40  tons  per 
hour,  the  ship  can  be  unloaded  in  40  hours.  Much  depends, 
of  course,  on  the  character  of  the  cargo. 

As  long  as  we  are  obliged  to  handle  miscellaneous 
freight  in  packages  of  every  conceivable  size  and  shape 


so  long  will  the  loading  process  be  subject  to  more  or  less 
delay  due  to  hand  manipulation.  Some  improvement 
might  be  effected  by  giving  a  preferred  rate  to  standardized 
packages  specially  adapted  to  quick  loading.  Something 
may  also  be  done  to  save  the  ship's  time  by  carrying  small 
freight  in  large  crates  or  containers  that  can  be  quickly 
lifted  and  closely  stowed. 

In  repetition  work  as  in  unloading  a  vessel,  a  time 
study  should  be  made  of  each  movement  to  a  fraction  of 
a  second  showing  where  the  losses  are  and  the  methods  so 
improved  as  to  eliminate  them. 

It  has  been  a  time-honoured  custom  for  each  ship  to 
have  a  complete  outfit  of  steam  winches  and  derricks  to 
discharge  her  own  cargo.  For  the  tramp  steamer  and 
for  ports  not  properly  equipped  this  is,  of  course,  necessary. 
But  why  perpetuate  it,  and  why  carry  a  deckload  of  obso- 
lete winches  and  derricks  cumbering  the  ship  and  weighing 
hundreds  of  tons  when  the  work  can  be  better  done  by 
electrically  operated  winches  on  shore  ?  The  steam  winch 
as  used  on  shipboard  is  probably  the  most  wasteful  form 
of  power  known.  With  its  long  steam  pipes  and  general 
maintenance  it  costs  at  least  ten  times  as  much  to  operate 
as  an  electric  motor  on  shore.  Hatchways  could  be  made 
larger  if  the  winches  were  omitted,  and  the  weight  of  the 
whole  outfit  added  to  paying  cargo  capacity.  Elecricity 
can  also  be  made  available  for  rapid  distribution  and 
stowage  of  the  cargo  on  shore. 

To  give  effect  to  this  plan  requires  that  all  ports  of 
call  for  this  special  ship  be  fully  equipped  with  all  the 
necessary  appliances  and  standardized  to  suit  the  ship. 
A  point  for  discussion  is,  shall  we  construct  our  ships  to 
suit  present  terminal  facilities  and  channel  depths,  and' 
thus  put  a  limitation  on  them,  or  shall  we  adopt  a  size  and 
type  of  ship  that  will  give  the  utmost  economy  for  a 
particular  route,  and  then  design  the  terminals  and  shore 
equipment  at  both  ends  of  the  route  to  suit  that  ship  ? 
The  writer  believes  that  the  latter  should  be  adopted  and 
that  great  economies  would  thereby  result. 

The  most  perfect  example  of  the  success  of  this 
policy  is  found  in  the  ore-carrying  fleet  of  the  Great 
Lakes.  Here,  as  is  well-known,  the  vessels  are  standard- 
ized, no  unloading  equipment  is  carried  on  them,  and  the 
utmost  economy  and  quick  despatch  is  secured.  The 
hatchways  are  spaced  a  uniform  distance  apart  so  that 
a  vessel  of  any  length  and  any  number  of  hatchways 
will  fit  under  a  row  of  fixed  loading  shoots  and  also  under 
the  unloading  equipment.  While  the  Great  Lakes  type 
of  vessel  and  unloading  equipment  would  not  be  suitable 
for  ocean  traffic  with  miscellaneous  cargo,  the  central  idea 
of  a  standardized  vessel  with  all  cargo  handling  equipment 
co-ordinated  to  it  and  placed  on  shore  finds  full  vindication. 
Portable  and  inexpensive  high-speed  electric  hoists  could 
be  spaced  along  to  suit  any  number  and  arrangement  of 
hatches,  having  a  double  wire-rope  tackle  carried  in  snatch- 
blocks  overhead,  and  requiring  no  swinging  booms  or 
expensive  cranes  except  for  special  or  heavy  lifts.  They 
would  also  be  flexible  and  would  suit  any  spacing  of  hatches. 

The  elaborate  equipment  of  travelling  and  revolving 
cranes  at  some  foreign  ports  is  often  referred  to  as  an 
example  for  us  to  copy.  The  author  thinks  that  any 
system  of  cranes,  especially  those  involving  heavy  travel- 
ling or  revolving  parts,  is  much  too  slow. 

It  has  been  customary  hitherto  to  consider  the  design 
of  a  cargo  vessel  as  inseparably  connected  with  the  number 
of  hatches  and  derrick  systems  that  can  be  arranged  along 
the  deck,  and  to  consider  the  time  required  to  unload  the 


108 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


cargo  by  this  means  as  one  of  the  factors  acting  adversely 
to  the  large  vessel.  This  was  brought  out  by  a  paper  by 
John  Anderson,  on  "The  most  suitable  sizes  and  speeds  for 
General  Cargo  Steamers,"  read  before  the  Institution  of 
Naval  Architects,  March,  1918.  In  this  paper  the  author 
discusses  fully  the  characteristics  of  five  sizes  of  cargo 
vessels  with  the  number  and  arrangement  of  winches  and 
derrick  systems  to  each  and  shows  that  at  the  estimated 
rate  of  working  the  time  in  port  would  vary  from  2.37 
days  for  1800  tons  deadweight  to  13  days  for  18,000  tons 
The  latter  is  the  largest  size  he  considers  and  he  concludes 
that  at  this  size  the  large  vessel  begins  to  be  less  efficient 
because  of  the  long  time  required  in  port.  The  most 
efficient  cargo  liner  he  places  at  450  ft.  long  and  a  maximum 
draft  of  28  ft.,  and  in  view  of  this  maximum  draft  he 
thinks  it  is  an  open  question  whether  the  proposed  deep- 
ening of  trade  routes' should  be  considered  prior  to  other 
improvements.  Mr.  Anderson  is  undoubtedly  right  in 
his  conclusions,  based  on  the  slow  unloading  rate  of  ships' 
winches,  but  instead  of  resting  content  at  28  ft.  draft 
because  of  inefficient  unloading  appliances,  the  writer 
thinks  that  the  cargo  handling  arrangements  and  terminal 
facilities  should  be  improved  so  that  we  can  reap  the  bene- 
fit of  the  large  vessel  as  already  pointed  out. 

The  relative  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  large 
ships  are  clearly  pointed  out  by  Mr.  Anderson  in  his  paper 
as  follows.  The  principal  advantages  are :  1st,  reduced 
initial  cost  in  relation  to  the  deadweight;  2nd,  reduced 
horsepower,  crew  and  coal  required  in  relation  to  the 
deadweight;  and  3rd,  greater  seaworthiness.  These 
are  all  indisputable  and  well  recognized. 

The  disadvantages  he  states  as  follows :  The  increased 
length  of  time  required  to  load  and  discharge;  the  un- 
suitability  of  certain  harbors,  loading  berths  and  dry 
docks,  and  greater  loss  in  case  of  mishap  or  disaster. 
Let  us  consider  these  disadvantages  specifically.  First, 
as  to  longer  time  to  load  and  unload.  Undoubtedly  it 
will  take  longer  time  to  discharge  25,000  tons  than  a  less 
amount,  but  this  can  be  greatly  reduced  by  improved  and 
faster  methods  as  already  pointed  out.  Furthermore,  the 
cargo  can  be  discharged  from  the  large  ship  at  a  much 
faster  rate  than  from  the  small  owing  to  the  greater 
number  of  hatchways  and  hoists  in  use  at  once,  conse- 
quently the  detention  does  not  increase  as  the  weight  of 
cargo,  but  in  a  much  smaller  ratio. 

The  second  disadvantage  is  the  unsuitability  of  many 
harbors,  berths  and  dry  docks,  etc.  My  answer  is,  let 
these  small  and  unsuitable  harbors  continue  to  be  served 
by  the  smaller  vessels  and  by  the  tramp  steamers,  of 
which  we  will  soon  have  a  superabundance,  and  let  us 
equip  certain  harbors  on  our  main  trade  routes  specially 
for  the  most  economical  ship. 

The  last  point  is  the  greater  risk  of  loss  in  the  large 
vessel.  The  best  answer  to  this  is  experience,  and  statistics 
show  that  total  losses  of  large  and  seaworthy  ships  are 
comparatively  infrequent.  Furthermore,  as  pointed  out 
in  my  former  paper  on  "  Economy  of  Large  Ships,"  the 
risk  of  accident  is  in  proportion  to  the  number  of  voyages 
and  these  are  less  in  the  large  ship.  Finally  the  risk  of 
possible  loss  can  hardly  be  adduced  as  a  valid  argument 
to  cause  us  to  forego  the  undoubted  advantages. 

The  question  of  draft  of  water  is  one  of  the  most 
important  as  affecting  the  use  of  the  large  and  efficient 
ship.  The  660  ft.  ship  proposed  by  the  Dominions 
Royal  Commission  will  have  a  draft  of  38  ft.  requiring  a 
40  ft.  channel  at  least.  The  ruling  depth  of  ports  of  the 
first-class  at  the  present  time  is  40  ft.    The  depth  of 


Panama  Canal  is  40  ft.  The  present  depth  of  Suez 
Canal  is  about  30  ft.,  but  is  soon  to  be  33  ft. 

A.  D.  Swan  in  his  paper  on  "  Deep  Water  for 
Harbors  and  Cargo  Handling,"  read  before  the  American 
Association  of  Port  Authorities,  Sept.,  1918,  gives  a 
resume  of  the  question  and  quotes  authorities  on  the 
subject.  The  British  authorities  "  expressed  a  preference 
for  at  least  45  ft.  as  the  minimum  depth  which  harbor 
engineers  should  recommend  and  work  for,  because 
although  at  the  present  moment  40  ft.  might  be  a  satis- 
factory minimum  working  depth,  the  demand  for  shipping 
would  grow  so  steadily  as  to  make  45  ft.  necessary  before 
even  this  depth  could  be  achieved." 

The  same  paper  also  quotes  Prof.  Biles'  calculations 
showing  that  the  most  efficient  draft  for  a  ship  1,000  ft.  long 
would  be  57  ft.  6  in.  and  that  it  was  not  unreasonable  to 
predict  that  within  20  or  30  years  a  depth  of  harbor  of  60 
ft.  could  be  profitably  employed. 

It  is  clear  that  deep  draft  more  than  any  other  factor 
contributes  to  the  economy  with  which  heavy  loads  can 
be  carried,  in  fact  it  is  impossible  to  reap  the  benefit  of 
cheap  transportation  without  adequate  depth  of  water. 
Hence  the  efforts  that  are  now  being  made  to  increase 
the  depth  in  all  harbors  to  a  point  commensurate  with 
their  needs. 

Another  point  in  which  improvement  can  be  made  is 
in  provision  for  life-saving.  By  the  rules  now  existing 
ships  are  obliged  to  carry  a  load  of  life-boats  adequate  for 
the  whole  population  on  board.  In  a  passenger  liner 
carrying,  say  4000  people  this  is  an  onerous  and  useless 
requirement.  In  emergency  this  fleet  of  boats  cannot  be 
launched,  and  the  history  of  most  disasters  is  that  people 
are  precipitated  into  the  sea  and  left  to  cling  to  a  chance 
oar  or  piece  of  wreckage.  The  writer  has  long  advocated 
that  the  life-boat  accommodation  be  reduced  and  that  the 
supply  of  automatically  floating  accommodation  be 
increased  in  the  form  of  rafts,  pontoons  or  floatable  sections 
of  deck-houses.  The  entire  bow  and  stern  superstructure 
of  the  ship  might  be  made  to  float  off  by  disconnecting 
fastenings.  The  lifeboat  is  a  survival  from  early  condi- 
tions, and  while  we  cannot  supersede  it  entirely  we  should 
made  a  more  comfortable  and  safe  means  of  keeping  afloat 
for  the  short  time  now  necessary"  until  relief  arrives. 

In  conclusion  the  writer  has  endeavored  to  point  out 
some  lines  along  which  progress  can  be  made  towards 
further  economy  in  ocean  transportation.  The  subject  is 
too  large  and  many  sided  to  reach  definite  conclusions 
without  much  further  discussion,  but  it  is  certain  that 
there  is  room  for  great  improvement,  and  that  the 
opportunity  is  now. 

When,  as  has  been  shown,  the  25,000  ton  ship  can 
carry  two  and  a  quarter  times  as  much  cargo  on  the  same 
fuel  consumption  as  a  5000  ton  ship  and  do  it  with  two- 
fifths  of  the  crew  and  less  first  cost,  it  is  clear  that  immense 
savings  can  be  made  that  will  vitally  affect  the  whole 
system  of  ocean  transportation.  We  may  not  be  able  to 
make  sweeping  changes  in  the  existing  order  of  things,  but 
we  can  at  least  endeavor  to  see  that  the  additions  made  are 
in  the  right  direction.  It  will  be  an  immense  step  forward 
if  the  suggestions  of  the  Dominions  Royal  Commission  can 
be  carried  out  as  to  a  service  of  large  and  efficient  cargo 
liners  on  our  main  trade  routes. 

What  we  need  is  co-ordination,  co-operation  and 
standardization.  By  means  of  these  properly  applied  we 
can  have  a  merchant  marine  which  will  be  so  efficient  as 
to  more  than  hold  its  own  with  any  nation,  and  which  will 
link  up  the  empire  with  lines  of  vessels  that  will  be  the 
closest  bond  of  union  and  that  will  carry  our  products  to 
every  corner  of  the  globe. 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


109 


Modern  Boiler  Practice 

By  F.  A.  Combe,  A.M.E.I.C.j 


The  object  of  this  paper  is  to  give  a  brief  outline  of 
the  principles  governing  boiler  and  furnace  design,  with 
a  review  of  our  present  knowledge  of  the  laws  related 
thereto,  and  the  trend  of  modern  practice,  together  with 
some  general  notes  regarding  boiler  installation  and  opera- 
tion which  may  be  of  interest  to  Canadian  engineers  and 
possibly  timely  in  view  of  the  number  of  new  steam  plants 
and  extensions  to  existing  plants  which  it  is  expected  will 
be  undertaken  in  this  country  now  that  war  restrictions 
have  been  withdrawn. 

During  the  last  eight  years  there  has  been  a  con- 


efficient  furnaces,  boiler  settings  and  plant  operation, 
and  engineers  and  plant  owners  are  beginning  to  pay  more 
attention  to  this  very  important  part  of  power  production. 
In  the  past  it  has  been  too  often  thought  that  anyone 
could  lay  out  a  boiler  room,  with  the  result  that  plants 
have  been  put  in  without  proper  consideration  of  their 
suitability  for  the  particular  conditions,  or,  even  when 
good  boilers,  stokers  and  main  apparatus  were  installed, 
no  facilities  for  economic  operation  were  provided.  More 
money  can  be  saved  or  lost  in  the  boiler  room  than  in 
any  other  part  of  the  plant,  yet,  while  the  latest  refine- 


3^1X1 


Standard  Longitudinal  Drum  Sectional  Header  Boiler. 


siderable  advance  in  the  art  of  generating  steam,  following 
a  better  understanding  of  the  combustion  of  fuel  and  heat 
transmission  in  boilers,  which,  while  not  leading  to  any 
radical  change  in  actual  construction,  has  resulted  in 
improved  arrangement  of  boiler  heating  surface,  with  more 

*Read  at  Montreal  Branch  January  30th. 

fEngineer  for  Canada,  for  Babcock  &  Wilcox  Limited. 


ments  may  have  been  added  to  the  engine  room  and 
electrical  side,  the  boiler  room  has  been  considered  as 
a  necessarily  dirty  place  to  be  avoided  as  much  as  possible. 
The  condition  of  this  same  boiler  room  under  operation 
is,  however,  usually  a  direct  indication  of  the  ability 
of  the  plant  designer  or  management,  or  both,  as  a  boiler 
room    need    not   be   dirty,    and   dirt   generally   means 


110 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


inefficiency  and  bad  management  somewhere.  At  the 
present  time  when  the  question  of  fuel  supply  is  of 
such  importance  in  Canada,  every  effort  should  be  made 
to  ensure  its  efficient  use,  and  steps  taken  where  possible, 
through  education  and  control,  to  cut  down  the  enormous 
waste  which  occurs  annually  through  inefficient  operation, 
or  the  false  economy  or  indifference  of  the  plant 
management. 

The  operating  efficiency  of  the  engine  room  machinery 
is  largely  inherent  in  the  design,  that  is  to  say,  beyond 
the  control  of  the  attendant,  but,  although  a  boiler  and 
furnace  must  be  properly  designed,  its  actualjefficiency  in 
service  is  to  a  great  extent  dependent  upon  intelligent 
operation  and  supervision,  and  for  that  reason  warrants 
the  placing  of  the  most  intelligent  and  highest fpriced 
men  with  every  modern  appliance  in  this  part  of  the  plant, 
since  an  increase  of  even  a  fraction  of  one  per  cent  in 
efficiency  represents  the  saving  of  a  considerable  quantity 
of  coal  annually.  Such  a  distribution  of  labour  and 
superintendence  is  very  seldom  the  case  at  the  present 
time. 

The  present  day  tendency  towards  high  steam 
pressures  and  temperatures,  concentration  of  power  and 
larger  unit  capacities  have  led  to  the  practical  elimination 
of  the  shell  boiler  for  this  service  and  to  certain  modi- 
fications in  the  setting  and  rating  of  water  tube  boilers. 
The  different  water-tube  boilers  made  to-day,  suitable 
for  these  conditions,  resolve  themselves  into  two  general 
classes, — horizontally  inclined  straight  tube  boilers  and 
vertically  inclined  bent  tube  boilers.  Fig.  1  shows  a 
section  of  a  standard  longitudinal  drum  boiler  of  sectional 
header  construction  with  vertical  baffles,  fitted  with  a 
superheater  and  chain  grate  stoker,  having  a  high  furnace 
setting;  and  Fig.  2  shows  a  large  double  setting  vertically 
inclined  tube  boiler  with  superheater  and  underfeed 
stokers.  For  the  purpose  of  illustrating  the  application 
of  the  principles  entering  into  boiler  design,  the  author 
will  confine  his  attention  chiefly  to  the  former  type  of 
boiler  and  its  recent  development. 

The  peculiar  conditions  under  which  boilers  must 
necessarily  work  affect  their  design  to  a  greater  extent 
than  with  most  machines.  It  is  possible  to  design  a 
boiler  which  would  give  a  higher  efficiency  under  test 
conditions  than  any  yet  built,  but  taking  into  considera- 
tion the  general  class  of  service,  attention,  ease  of  cleaning, 
first  cost  and  maintenance,  a  compromise  must  be  made 
for  continued  satisfactory  and  efficient  service. 


r*& 


Fig.  3.     Heat  Absorption  by  Convection  in  Standard  Boilers. 


Fig.  2.      Double  Setting  Stirling  Boiler. 

The  more  severe  demands  of  modern  service  and  a 
better  realization  by  engineers  of  the  possible  economies 
to  be  effected  in  the  boiler  room  has  encouraged  the 
development  of  boilers  for  higher  efficiency  and  rating, 
but  it  must  be  understood  that,  as  with  any  other  machine, 
the  higher  the  rate  at  which  a  boiler  is  operated  the  more 
careful  attention  is  needed  and  the  less  abuse  it  will  stand. 
Boilers,  engines,  or  anything  else  can  be,  and  are,  built 
to  stand  rough  usage,  but,  if  the  highest  efficiency  and 
rating  be  desired,  they  must  be  treated  with  respect  and 
for  the  purpose  for  which  they  are  designed,  for  instance: 

The  function  of  a  boiler  is  to  make  steam  and  it  is 
not  at  any  time  the  proper  place  for  the  treatment  and 
deposit  of  the  impurities  in  the  feed  water.  Boilers 
designed  for,  and  operating  under,  moderate  loads  will 
stand  a  lot  of  abuse  in  this  way,  albeit  at  a  loss  in  efficiency, 
and  under  such  conditions  the  use  of  chemicals  or  boiler 
compounds  fed  into  the  boiler  with  the  feed  water  may  be 
justifiable  to  lessen  adherent  scale,  but  pure  soft  water 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


111 


20 


RESULTS      OF     EXPERIMENTAL     DETERMINATION 

OF 

THE.     HEAT      TRANSFER      RATE 
IN     BOILER      FLUES 

BY 

THE.    BABC0CK.    AND    WILCOX     CO 


16    "I 


14 


10 


«**■/ 

- 

Correal"  to  within  £.  0  %  for  a    2  in.  internal 
diameter    tube    with    a   wall    temp,  of    180°  F. 

The  straight  lines,  however,  are.    probably 
tangents  to  curves   which,  as  the  weight  of 
gas    increases ,    bend     downward . 

(0 

V 

iW 

/yZffi? 

& 

A 

^y 

y.<</ 

ASi 

|V/ 

y? 

V/ 

y&y 

% 

y$y 

s 

z 

\// 

"    V 

,<$/// 

'// 

/ 

TW^l 

oS 

/ 

'/ 

yyy 

j-z 

'// 

'  / 

% 

/#* 

\ 

v/ 

^V1 

<y 

i 

V/ 

yy 

A 

yyyy 

a 

y 

//// 

//T// 

_l 

/< 

'/)$& 

i 

M 

y/< 

~~ t 

A 

f. 

WL 

//// 

'/// 

r 

7/// 

/// 

/ 

'///, 

i 

W/ 

W 

w 

Ss 

0, 

Ph 

w 

f 

i 

Mi 

y 

rz 

^ 

W 

W 

V 

y 

<•  Ranf/e    Covered    in    Experiments  - 

■- H. 

J_ 

Pratl 

d  LBS.      2000  4-OO0  6000  8000  IO0O0  12000        14000  LBS 

Weight    of  Gases    per   Sq.  Ft.    of   Flue   Area    per    Hour. 
Fig.  4.      Heat  Transfer  in  Boiler  Tubes. 

must  be  used  in  any  type  of  boiler  which  is  to  be  operated 
at  high  rates  of  evaporation  in  order  to  get  proper  benefit 
from  the  installation,  and  to  avoid  tube  troubles,  and  this 
usually  necessitates  the  provision  of  an  independent  water 
purifying  plant  for  the  raw  make  up  water  in  the  feed 
supply. 

Haling  and  Capacity. 

When  speaking  of  boiler  loads  or  high  and  low  rates 
of  evaporation  of  boilers,  it  is  necessary  to  have  a  clear 
understanding  of  the  unit  on  which  such  evaporations 
are  based,  that  is,  what  constitutes  a  normal  full  load  ? 
In  Europe  and  other  countries  boilers  are  usually  rated 
on  the  quantity  of  water  which  they  are  capable  of 
evaporating  per  hour  under  certain  conditions  with  a 
specified  heating  surface,  but  in  Canada,  following  the 
custom  of  the  United  States,  boilers  are  generally  rated 
simply  in  boiler  horsepower,  a  term  often  very  loosely 
used. 


A  boiler  horsepower,  in  its  true  sense,  is  solely  a  unit 
of  evaporation,  being  equal  to  34.5  lbs.  of  water  evaporated 
per  hour  from  and  at  212°F.  and  equivalent  to  the  standard 
adopted  by  the  boiler  committee  of  the  Centennial 
Exposition  in  Philadelphia  in  1876.  The  term  has 
nothing  to  do,  strictly  speaking,  with  the  heating  surface 
of  the  boiler,  but  at  different  stages  of  progress  of  the  art, 
manufacturers  of  stationary  boilers  have  adopted  as 
arbitrary  standards,  certain  amounts  of  boiler  heating 
surface  which  could  be  taken  as  suitable  for  economically 
evaporating  one  boiler  horsepower  under  average  con- 
ditions of  service  and  with  a  definite  ratio  of  heating  to 
grate  surface.  In  recent  years  10  square  feet  of  heating 
surface  per  boiler  horsepower  or  the  equivalent  of  approxi- 
mately 3  }4  lbs.  evaporation  per  square  foot  heating  surface 
has  been  considered  a  nominal  full  load  rating  for  a  water 
tube  boiler  of  standard  construction,  but  considerably 
higher  rates  are  adopted  in  modern  stationary  boilers 
designed  for  high  duty  service,  as  also  in  marine  boilers 
where  average  evaporative  rates  of  6  lbs.  and  over  per 
square  foot  heating  surface  are  usual. 

The  normal  rating,  or  rate  of  evaporation,  of  a  boiler, 
and  its  point  of  maximum  efficiency  is  entirely  dependent 
on  the  design,  and  while  higher  rates  than  3Ao  lbs.  per 
square  foot  heating  surface  may  constitute  a  so-called 
overload  on  a  boiler  designed  for  10  square  feet  heating 
surface  per  boiler  horsepower,  with  a  ratio  of  heating 
surface  to  grate  area  of  about  50  to  1,  and  the  efficiency 
may  drop  with  such  overload,  it  does  not  follow  that  the 
same  condition  will  exist  with  a  boiler  and  furnace  designed 
for  a  different  rating. 


Fig.  5.      Modern  Waste  Heat  Boiler. 


112 


JOURNAL    OF    THE    ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


The  rate  of  conductivity  of  the  metal  of  the  heating 
surface  is  sufficiently  high  to  carry  away  considerably 
more  heat  than  can  possibly  be  transmitted  in  boiler 
service  without  danger  of  burning,  provided  that  water 
be  in  contact  with  one  side  of  the  metal,  so  the  limit  of 
capacity  alone  is  practically  only  governed  by  the  positive 
circulation  of  the  water  in  the  boiler,  the  cleanliness  of 
the  heating  surface,  inside  and  out,  and  the  amount  of 
fuel  that  can  be  burned,  or  the  gases  which  can  be  passed 
through  the  boiler. 


is  dependent  on  the  avoidance  of  large  chambers  in  the 
water  passages  in  which  eddies  and  down  currents  impede 
the  pumping  action.  Tests  recently  carried  out  on  a 
horizontally  inclined  tube  boiler  of  the  header  construction, 
28  tubes  high,  showed  that  this  pumping  action  amounted 
to  the  equivalent  of  some  18"  of  water  head  when  the 
boiler  was  operating  at  rated  capacity  and  that  it  increased 
progressively  as  the  load  increased.  Boilers  similar  to 
that  shown  in  Fig.  1,  equipped  with  a  duplex  furnace  are 
in  service  operating  up  to  400%  rating  during  peak 


Fig.  6.     Cross  Drum  Boiler  with  Integral  Economizer. 


There  is  very  little  difference  in  temperature  of  the 
water  throughout  any  part  of  a  well  designed  water  tube 
boiler,  the  circulation  being  caused  by  a  pumping  action 
set  up  by  the  steam  bubbles,  in  a  similar  manner  to  an 
air  lift  pump,  either  in  the  front  tubes  of  a  vertically  in- 
clined tube  boiler,  or  in  the  uptake  headers  of  a  sectional 
horizontally  inclined  tube  boiler,  and,  as  with  an  airlift 
pump,  the  rapidity  and  efficiency  of  the  pumping  action 


load  periods  or  an  average  evaporative  rate  of  14  lbs. 
per  square  foot  heating  surface  when  using  purified  feed 
water,  so  that  as  far  as  capacity  alone  is  concerned,  a 
boiler  having  good  circulation  can  be  run  at  considerably 
higher  rates  than  has  been  the  usual  practice,  provided 
it  be  kept  clean.  Cleanliness  and  positive  rapid  circula- 
tion become  of  increasing  importance  as  the  rate  of 
evaporation  is  increased. 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


113 


In  order  to  better  appreciate  the  significance  of 
evaporative  rates,  let  us  examine  the  mode  of  heat  transfer 
in  a  boiler  in  the  light  of  our  present  knowledge,  and  at 
the  same  time  see  how  the  general  principles  are  applied 
in  modern  boiler  design. 

Assuming  coal  to  be  burned  under  a  water  tube  boiler 
at  an  efficiency  equivalent  to  the  production  of  12,500 
B.T.U.  per  pound  with  18  pounds  of  gaseous  products  of 
combustion;  then  the  temperature  above  the  surface  of 
the  fuel  bed  would  theoretically  be  approximately  2800°. 
The  heat  is  transmitted  to  the  boiler  heating  surface,  by 
direct  radiation  from  the  surface  of  the  fuel  bed  and 
furnace  walls  and  by  convection  from  the  hot  gases  passing 
over  the  tubes. 

Radiation. 

The  amount  of  heat  absorbed  by  the  surface  of  the 
tubes  directly  exposed  to  radiant  heat  from  the  furnace 
is  generally  proportional  to  the  difference  of  the  fourth 
powers  of  the  absolute  temperatures  of  the  two  surfaces, 
or  =  C(T4-t4)  where  C  is  a  constant  for  any  unit  of  surface 
and  time.  The  laws  governing  radiant  heat  or  heat 
rays  are  analogous  to  those  for  light,  the  heat  transfer 
being  extremely  rapid,  but  the  great  proportion  of  the 
heat  energy  is  supplied  by  the  obscure  or  dark  rays,  only 
a  very  small  amount  being  carried  by  the  actual  light  or 
visible  rays. 


Fig.  8.      Boiler  Units  at  Montreal  Tramway  Company  s  Plant. 

The  value  of  the  coefficient  in  the  above  radiation 
formula  was  determined  experimentally  for  black  surfaces 
by  Stefan  about  30  years  ago,  and  while  this  coefficient 
has  been  taken  as  applicable  to  the  partly  sooted  surfaces 
in  a  boiler  furnace  it  is  probably  far  from  correct,  while 
the  permeability  of  the  gases  in  the  furnace  to  heat  rays, 
their  capability  of  radiating  heat  themselves,  the  reflecting 
and  absorbing  power  of  the  fire  brick  furnace  walls  and 
the  proper  consideration  of  the  exposed  areas,  are  all 
points  on  which  there  is  little  authoritative  data,  although 
investigations  are  being  made  into  this  subject  at  the 
present  time.  Of  course  a  close  determination  can  never 
be  made  if  the  area  of  the  hot  surface  of  the  fuel  bed  is  to 
be  a  determining  factor,  as  it  is  obviously  impossible 
to  do  more  than  very  roughly  estimate  the  average  extent 
of  the  irregular  surface,  and  there  will  be,  in  addition, 
radiation  from  the  incandescent  carbon  particles  in  the 
gases;  but  it  is  questionable  if  this  surface  is  a  necessary 
factor.    With  gaseous  or  oil  fuel,  we  have  to  deal  with 


Fig.  7.      Boiler  Units  at  Montreal  Tramway  Company  s  Plant. 


Fig.  9.      Chain  Grate  Stoker  Setting  for  Lignite. 


114 


JOURNAL     OF     THE    ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


volume  radiation  which  presents  a  somewhat  similar  case 
to  that  in  a  gas  engine  cylinder  where  the  heat  from  the 
explosive  charge  is  transmitted  to  the  water  jacketed 
cylinder  walls  chiefly  by  radiation,  as  brought  out  in 
investigations  undertaken  by  the  explosives  committee 
of  the  engineering  section  of  the  British  Association  some 
years  ago. 

One  thing  we  do  know  is  that  in  a  Babcock  and  Wilcox 
boiler,  the  amount  of  water  evaporated  per  hour  per 
square  foot  of  surface  of  the  lower  rows  of  tubes  exposed 
to  furnace  radiation,  with  a  furnace  temperature  around 
2500°F.  is  at  least  from  50  to  65  lbs.,  and  as  this  may 
represent  over  one  half  the  total  evaporation  of  the  boiler 
at  normal  rating,  the  importance  of  a  full  knowledge  of 
the  subject  of  radiation  is  evident,  while  it  incidentally 
shows  how  high  the  evaporative  capacity  of  a  tube  is,  and 
that  an  average  evaporation  rate  of  3^  lbs.  per  square 
foot  heating  surface  for  the  whole  boiler  gives  no  indication 
of  the  amount  of  work  which  any  part  of  the  heating 
surface  is  doing. 

Failure  to  take  into  consideration  the  extent  of  heat 
radiation  often  leads  to  considerable  error  in  boiler  work, 
both  in  testing  and  recording  and  also  in  details  of  the 
boiler  and  furnace  setting.  For  instance  it  is  extremely 
difficult,  in  fact  impossible  with  the  usual  type  of  instru- 
ments procurable,  to  measure  exactly  the  temperature  of 
the  gases  in  a  boiler  setting  owing  to  radiation  from  the 
thermometer  bulb  or  end  of  pyrometer  element  to  the 
hot  furnace  or  to  the  cooler  boiler  heating  surface  in  close 
proximity.  H.  Kreisinger,  of  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Mines, 
Washington,  presented  a  paper  to  the  American  Society 
of  Mechanical  Engineers,  in  1917,  dealing  with  this 
subject,  in  which  he  gave  the  probable  error,  arrived  at 
by  experiment,  in  temperature  measured  by  a  thermo- 
couple placed  amongst  the  tubes  of  a  water  tube  boiler  as 
from  approximately  600°  too  low  at  2000°F.  to  40°  too 
low  at  500°F.  when  using  a  common  form  of  pyrometer 
with  a  Yi'  diameter  element;  also  showing  that  the  error 
was  proportional  to  the  size  or  exposed  area  of  the  instru- 
ment. The  author  has  had  some  success  with  a  special 
cap  screen  surrounding  the  end  of  the  instrument  element, 
that  is,  measuring  success  by  the  higher  temperature 
recorded,  but  in  any  case  there  will  be  some  correction  to 
make.  Even  the  measurement  of  the  temperature  of  the 
flue  gases  leaving  the  boiler  setting  is  liable  to  considerable 
error  unless  proper  precautions  are  taken. 

Again,  the  opinion  was  held  until  recently  that  an  air 
space  in  the  walls  of  a  boiler  formed  a  good  heat  insulator. 
Actually  it  is  useless  and  even  a  disadvantage,  as,  although 
still  air  is  a  poor  conductor  of  heat,  the  rate  of  conduction 
is  proportional  only  to  the  actual  difference  of  temperature 
of  the  surfaces,  whereas  radiant  heat  will  pass  across  the 
air  space  at  a  rate  proportional  to  the  difference  of  the 
fourth  powers  of  the  absolute  temperatures  of  the  two 
surfaces.  For  low  temperatures,  as  in  refrigeration  work, 
air  spaces  are  beneficial,  but  with  a  high  temperature 
difference,  the  heat  transfer  becomes  very  great. 

To  obtain  a  better  insulated  wall  than  that  of  ordinary 
red  brick  for  a  boiler  setting,  special  insulating  material 
is  today  often  used,  either  as  a  middle  course  between  the 
firebrick  lining  and  the  outer  wall  facing,  or  on  the  outside 
of  the  brick  wall,  but  it  should  be  realized  that  if  too 


good  an  insulation  is  made,  it  becomes  increasingly  difficult 
with  certain  types  of  furnaces  to  get  a  firebrick  lining  to 
stand  the  higher  temperature  attained.  Sometimes  the 
entire  boiler  brick  setting  is  enclosed  in  a  steel  casing,  but 
this  is  rather  to  give  a  tight  seal  preventing  the  infiltration 
of  air,  which  occurs  through  any  ordinary  brick  wall, 
especially  in  boilers  operated  at  high  ratings  with  a  corres- 
ponding greater  draft  suction  in  the  setting.  The  cost 
of  these  casings  is  high,  but,  if  properly  constructed,  are 
of  considerable  value  and  in  many  cases  are  undoubtedly 
a  good  investment.  If  they  are  used,  there  should  always 
be  a  course  of  asbestos  or  other  insulating  material  between 
the  brickwork  and  the  casing,  otherwise  the  radiation 
loss  may  be  increased  owing  to  the  metal  presenting  a 
better  radiating  surface  than  the  brickwork. 

Furnace  Duty. 

Returning  to  the  furnace  and  the  assumed  case,  it 
will  be  seen  that,  with  the  same  efficiency  of  combustion 
maintained,  since  heat  will  be  radiated  as  quickly  as 
generated,  the  actual  apparent  temperature  will  not  reach 
the  theoretical  figure  of  2800°  until  sufficient  coal  is  being 
burned  to  generate  the  heat  necessary  to  satisfy  the  radia- 
tion equation  for  2800°  in  addition  to  raising  the  tem- 
perature of  the  products  of  combustion  to  a  figure 
dependent  upon  their  rate  of  liberation.  The  stage  when 
this  condition  is  reached  will  depend  on  the  area  of  the 
cool  surface  exposed  to  radiation  and  it  does  not  necessarily 
mean  that  apparent  high  furnace  temperature  is  essential 
to  high  efficiency,  although  they  will  coincide  to  an 
extent  dependent  upon  the  constituents  of  the  fuel. 

In  brick  lined  extension  furnaces  or  when  the  lower 
row  of  boiler  tubes  over  the  fire  are  encased  in  brick  tiles, 
as  for  certain  forms  of  baffling,  higher  temperatures  are 
attained  at  a  lower  rate  of  combustion  on  the  grate,  but 
this  means  that  the  gases  also  enter  the  bank  of  tubes  at 
a  higher  temperature  for  the  same  load,  resulting  in 
a  corresponding  higher  exit  gas  temperature  and  conse- 
quently reduced  efficiency,  while  the  higher  furnace 
temperature  shortens  the  life  of  the  furnace  brickwork. 

With  such  a  horizontal  baffling,  there  will,  of  course, 
be  radiation  from  the  furnace  or  hot  brickwork  to  the 
exposed  tubes  of  the  gas  passage  beyond  the  tiles,  while 
heat  will  be  conveyed  from  the  furnace  to  the  lower  tubes 
through  the  encircling  tiles  by  conduction  and  possibly 
secondary  radiation,  but  following  the  fourth  power  law  of 
temperature  difference  the  amount  will  be  considerably  less 
than  for  a  direct  exposure,  and  it  is,  therefore,  preferable, 
wherever  a  high  furnace  temperature  is  not  necessary  for 
proper  combustion,  for  a  lower  horizontal  baffle  to  take 
the  form  of  flat  tiles  laid  on  the  second  row  of  tubes  from 
the  bottom  so  as  to  gain  the  full  effect  of  direct  radiation, 
which  is  the  most  active  and,  therefore,  the  most  econom- 
ical mode  of  heat  transfer. 

If  the  furnace  efficiency  could  be  maintained  constant, 
the  temperature  of  the  gases  entering  and  leaving  the 
boiler  heating  surface  would  increase  with  increasing 
coal  consumption,  resulting  in  a  continued  decrease  in 
overall  efficiency  as  the  load  increased,  but  in  general 
practice,  the  furnace  and  grate  efficiency  increases  with 
the  load  up  to  a  certain  point  dependent  on  the  proportions 
of  boiler,  furnace  and  grate,  so  offsetting  the  drop  in 


JOURNAL     OF    THE    ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE    OF      CANADA 


115 


efficiency  due  to  the  higher  flue  gas  temperature.  With 
a  standard  setting  of  boiler  designed  for  10  square  feet  of 
heating  surface  per  boiler  horsepower,  or  an  equivalent 
normal  full  load  evaporation  of  31-?  lbs.  per  square  foot 
heating  surface,  and  a  ratio  of  heating  surface  to  grate  of 
about  50  to  1,  the  maximum  efficiency  will  usually  be 
maintained  fairly  constant  from  90%  to  130%  rating. 
Below  90%  rating  the  loss  in  efficiency  is  chiefly  due  to 
incomplete  combustion  in  the  furnace  and  grate  and 
above  130%  rating  chiefly  due  to  the  increasing  exit  gas 
temperatures,  the  furnace  and  grate  having  then  reached 
their  highest  efficiency.  For  other  proportions  and  designs 
of  boiler  and  furnace  the  point  of  maximum  efficiency  will 
be  different;  for  instance,  the  very  complete  tests  carried 
out  on  the  large  Stirling  boilers  at  the  Detroit  Edison 
Company's  plant  some  years  ago  showed  the  highest 
efficiency  of  over  80%  at  75%  rating  (based  on  ?>\->  lbs. 
normal  evaporation  rate)  and  dropping  in  a  straight  line 
to  76%  efficiency  at  200 %  rating.  This  remarkably  high 
efficiency  over  such  a  wide  range  of  load  was  due  to  the 
exceptionally  large  combustion  chamber,  promoting  almost 
complete  combustion  even  at  low  loads;  the  skilled  regula- 
tion and  operation;  and  the  small  proportional  radiation 
loss  from  the  walls  with  such  a  large  unit.  Fig.  2  shows  a 
section  of  one  of  these  boilers. 

The  general  tendency  in  modern  design  is  to  provide 
greater  and  greater  furnace  volume  to  ensure  more  com- 
plete combustion  before  the  gases  reach  the  comparatively 
cool  boiler  heating  surface.  Not  many  years  ago  the  ratio 
of  cubic  feet  of  furnace  volume  to  square  foot  of  grate 
usually  provided  was  about  3  or  3  \  ■>  to  1,  whereas  today  we 
may  have  b\-2  or  61  ■>  to  1  for  natural  draft  stokers  and 
even  more  for  forced  "draft  stokers,  particularly  when  high 
overloads  are  demanded.  In  the  Detroit  Edison  boilers 
mentioned  above  the  ratio  was  approximately  9  to  1. 
For  horizontally  inclined  tube  boilers  this  increased  com- 
bustion space  generally  means  that  the  mean  height  from 
the  floor  line  to  the  lower  tubes  over  the  fire  has  been 
increased  from  approximately  6  or  7  feet  to  9  or  10  feet 
and  over,  where  conditions  permit,  and  as  required  by 
the  nature  and  volatile  content  of  the  coal,  type  of  stoker 
and  duty. 

Convection. 

The  best  method  of  passing  the  gases  over  the  tubes, 
and  the  relative  advantage  of  different  form  of  baffling 
have  been  discussed  at  various  times,  but  it  seems  reason- 
able that  a  cross  flow  over  several  passes  of  staggered  tubes 
avoids  stratification  by  ensuring  the  most  thorough 
breaking  up  of  the  gas  currents,  with  the  consequently 
better  contact  of  all  particles  with  the  walls  of  the  tubes, 
while  with  the  first  pass  at  the  upper  end  of  the  tubes,  a 
contra  flow  action  to  the  circulation  of  the  water  in  the 
boiler  is  obtained  and,  at  the  same  time,  with  a  horizontally 
inclined  tube  boiler,  the  circulation  will  be  improved,  and 
the  danger  of  blistering  the  lower  row  of  tubes  lessened  by 
procuring  the  quick  release  from  the  tubes  of  the  steam 
bubbles  formed. 

The  laws  governing  heat  transfer  by  convection  from 
the  gases  passing  over  the  boiler  heating  surface  has  been 
the  subject  of  many  investigations,  and  formulae  have 
been  put  forward  based  on  mathematical  deduction  and 


laboratory  experiment,  but  the  great  majority  of  these 
formulae,  while  holding  good  within  the  limits  of  the 
experiments,  are  not  applicable  without  considerable 
correction  for  the  conditions  existing  in  a  full  size  com- 
mercial boiler,  especially  where  the  gases  pass  across  a 
bank  of  tubes,  in  which  case  the  area  of  the  gas  passage  is 
not  constant.  In  view  of  the  lack  of  authoritative  data 
on  the  subject,  the  Babcock  &  Wilcox  Company,  a  few 
years  ago,  conducted  a  series  of  experiments  with  a 
specially  constructed  plant  to  determine  a  formulae  with 
coefficients  which  could  be  depended  upon,  for  the  rate 
of  heat  transfer  in  boilers. 

The  relation  of  the  heat  absorbed  by  convection  only 
from  the  gases  to  the  amount  of  heating  surface  passed 
over  in  a  boiler  of  standard  proportions  under  coal  fired 
conditions  on  the  basis  of  10  square  feet  heating  surface 
per  boiler  horsepower  is  given  by  the  curve,  Fig.  3,  which 
shows  that  the  great  proportion  of  the  total  evaporation 
takes  place  in  the  first  pass  of  the  boiler  and  very  little 
in  the  last  pass ;  for  this  reason  it  does  not  pay,  with  these 
proportions,  to  increase  the  heating  surface  by  adding 
another  pass. 

A  test  was  published  a  few  years  ago  of  a  4  pass 
boiler  in  which  the  actual  drop  in  temperature  through 
the  last  pass  was  only  67°  and  even  this  drop  was  obtained 
only  by  reason  of  the  low  steam  pressure  carried  (117  lbs. 
per  sq.  in.).  With  a  steam  pressure  of  200  lbs.  and  a 
corresponding  less  difference  of  temperature  between  the 
gases  and  the  water,  the  flue  gas  temperature  must  have 
been  higher  and  the  value  of  the  fourth  pass  still  further 
reduced. 

Waste  Heat  Boilers. 

In  direct  fired  boilers  where  furnace  temperatures 
are  high,  and  the  weight  of  gas  per  boiler  horsepower 
comparatively  low,  there  is  not  a  great  deal  of  difference 
in  heat  transfer  between  several  different  types  of  standard 
boilers,  fire  tube  or  water  tube,  when  new  and  clean;  but 
with  boilers  arranged  to  utilize  the  heat  from  waste  gases 
where  larger  gas  weights  are  handled,  with  generally, 
lower  temperature  differences,  the  area,  length  and 
arrangement  of  the  gas  passages  must  be  very  carefully 
considered  in  order  to  obtain  transfer  rates  for  an  absorp- 
tion comparable  to  direct  fired  practice,  and  so  extract  the 
maximum  heat  from  the  gases  with  an  amount  of  heating 
surface  which  will  make  the  installation  of  a  waste  heat 
boiler  a  commercially  economical  proposition. 

It  was  principally  for  such  work  that  the  experiments 
on  heat  transfer  above  referred  to  were  undertaken,  as 
with  waste  gases,  the  radiation  factor  being  largely 
negligible,  it  is  possible,  with  a  proper  knowledge  of  the 
laws  governing  heat  transfer,  to  calculate  very  closely  the 
results  that  will  be  obtained  with  a  given  boiler  and  vice 
versa  to  design  a  boiler  to  give  the  maximum  return  for 
the  investment. 

The  results  of  the  investigations  are  given  graphically 
in  Fig.  4,  which  shows  the  effect  of  gas  velocity  on  heat 
transfer  rates.  For  ease  in  computation,  owing  to  the 
variation  in  density  of  the  gases  with  the  temperature, 
the  velocity  is  considered  in  terms  of  gas  weight  per  unit 
area. 


116 


JOURNAL    OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


It  will  be  seen  that  at  low  rates  of  gas  flow,  as  found 
generally  in  boiler  practice,  the  transfer  rates  are  affected 
by  the  velocity  to  a  much  greater  extent  than  by  any 
rate  of  temperature  difference,  also  that  the  effect  of 
temperature  difference  increases  as  the  rate  of  gas  flow 
increases.  The  effect  of  gas  velocity  on  heat  absorption 
had  previously  been  appreciated  to  a  certain  extent,  but 
its  full  importance  for  waste  heat  work,  as  brought  out  by 
these  experiments,  has  led  to  developments  in  boiler  design 
which  has  opened  up  this  field  to  a  remarkable  extent. 

Up  to  a  comparatively  few  years  ago,  when  boilers 
were  installed  to  utilize  the  heat  in  the  waste  gases  from 
furnaces,  kilns,  etc.,  it  was  the  practice  to  use  boilers  of 
the  same  general  design  as  for  direct  coal  fired  purposes,  or 
even  with  still  larger  gas  passages  in  order  to  interfere 
as  little  as  possible  with  the  draft  at  the  primary  furnace. 
This  meant  working  on  the  upper  part  of  the  curve,  Fig.  3, 
and  necessitated  the  provision  of  such  an  excessive  amount 
of  boiler  heating  surface  for  the  steam  produced  that  the 
installation  became  a  doubtful  investment. 

Following  the  better  understanding  of  the  laws 
governing  heat  transfer  and  the  possibility  of  economies 
from  the  utilization  of  a  greater  proportion  of  the  heat  from 
waste  gases,  this  subject  has  been  receiving  particular 
attention  during  the  last  few  years  and  efficient  boilers 
are  now  in  successful  operation  in  connection  with  all 
kinds  of  kilns,  furnaces  and  ovens  with  temperatures  as 
low  as  1000°F. 

Fig.  5  shows  the  side  elevation  of  a  typical  B.  &  W. 
boiler  fitted  with  a  superheater,  designed  for  waste  heat 
work. 

The  high  gas  velocities  necessary  for  efficiency  in 
waste  heat  boilers  results  in  greatly  increased  frictional 
resistance  through  the  setting,  the  draft  loss  running  in 
many  cases  to  over  2"  water  pressure  and,  of  course, 
requiring  the  use  of  induced  draft  fans  to  handle  the  gases. 
The  power  required  to  drive  the  fan  is,  however,  many 
times  offset  by  the  increased  efficiency  and  capacity 
obtained,  while,  in  many  cases,  the  installation  of  waste 
heat  boilers  has  actually  resulted  in  an  increased  output 
from  the  primary  furnace  owing  to  the  possibility  of 
greater  draft  at  the  outlet  by  the  use  of  a  fan  in  place  of 
the  original  chimney. 

Many  factors  have  to  be  taken  into  consideration  in 
waste  heat  boiler  work,  peculiar  to  the  particular  nature 
and  origin  of  the  gas;  for  instance  the  dust  held  in 
suspension  in  many  forms  of  waste  gases,  especially  from 
cement  kilns,  has  a  considerable  influence  on  the  weight 
of  gas  handled  and  the  draft  resistance,  and  a  knowledge 
of  the  effect  of  such  factors  and  the  proper  way  of  taking 
care  of  them  can  only  be  obtained  by  experience. 

Modern  Boiler  Design. 

In  modern  direct  fired  boiler  design,  the  principle  of 
higher  gas  velocities  is  also  adopted  where  advantage  can 
be  gained,  and  the  tendency  is  to  reduce  the  heating  sur- 
face, or  increase  the  evaporative  rate,  of  the  boiler  proper 
employing  it  primarily  for  steam  raising,  and  adding 
additional  independent  surface  for  water  heating,  in  order 
to  get  a  more  efficient  total  heat  transfer  by  the  increase 
in  temperature  difference  for  a  portion  of  the  total  heating 
surface.     This  practically  means  combining  a  boiler  and 


economiser  in  one  unit  proportioned  to  give  the  highest 
efficiency  and  resulting  in  less  total  heating  surface  and 
considerable  saving  in  space  and  of  many  of  the  losses 
incident  to  the  use  of  separate  economisers. 

A  cross  section  of  such  a  boiler  is  given  in  Fig.  6.,  a 
study  of  which  will  show  that  the  maximum  effect  of 
direct  radiation  is  obtained  while  the  hot  gases,  entering 
the  tube  bank  at  the  uptake  end  and  passing  at  right 
angles  across  the  staggered  rows  of  tubes  at  high  velocity 
through  the  long  passages  of  the  boilers  and  economiser 
fulfil  conditions  conducive  to  high  efficiency. 

In  Figs.  7  and  8  are  given  two  views  of  one  of  four 
boilers  of  this  type  recently  installed  at  the  Montreal 
Tramway  Company's  plant  at  Hochelaga,  being  the  largest 
boilers  in  Canada.  Each  of  these  boilers  contains  5625 
square  feet  heating  surface  in  the  boiler  proper  or  steam 
raising  section  and  2909  square  feet  economiser  or  water 
heating  section,  giving  a  total  heating  surface  for  the  unit 
of  8534.  These  boilers  are  capable  of  easily  generating 
over  40,000  lbs.  steam  per  hour  at  200  lbs.  per  square  inch 
steam  pressure  and  150°F.  superheat  from  a  feed  water 
temperature  of  120°F.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  equivalent 
evaporative  rate  for  the  boiler  proper  is  as  high  as  8.75 
lbs.  per  square  foot  heating  surface,  or  5.75  lbs.  for  the 
whole  unit,  in  spite  of  which,  it  is  possible  to  reduce  the 
temperature  of  the  gases  below  what  it  would  be  with  a 
standard  boiler  of  3.5  lbs.  normal  evaporative  rate, 
that  is  to  say,  with  considerably  more  heating  surface. 
Each  unit  is  steel  cased,  lined  with  special  non-conducting 
material  to  minimize  air  leakage  and  radiation,  and  fitted 
with  double  chain  grate  stokers,  having  a  total  grate 
area  of  224  square  feet. 

An  interesting  feature  in  connection  with  these 
units  is  the  draft  apparatus  comprising  a  specially  formed 
stack  for  each  pair  of  boilers,  having  a  constricted  throat 
into  which  a  high  pressure  air  blast  is  delivered  through  a 
nozzle  from  a  small  fan;  the  action  being  that  of  an  ejector, 
inducing  a  suction  in  the  flue  connections  to  the  boilers. 

A  complete  test  of  these  boilers  has  not  been  made,  but 
in  a  paper  read  before  the  British  Insititute  of  Civil 
Engineers  about  a  year  ago,  details  are  given  of  a  test 
made  on  a  boiler  of  this  type,  approximately  the  same 
capacity,  but  containing  4963  sq.  ft.  boiler  heating  sur- 
face and  4086  sq.  ft.  economiser  surface,  in  which  a  thermal 
efficiency  of  88.33%  for  the  unit  was  obtained,  the  exit 
gas  temperature  being  293°F.,  and  the  evaporation  per 
sq.  ft.  boiler  heating  surface  9.53;  while  another  test  made 
in  1916  at  the  Hague  municipal  plant  with  a  slightly 
smaller  unit  gave  an  overall  efficiency  of  88.41%.  It 
is  probably  not  possible  to  obtain  such  efficiencies  with 
the  coals  usually  obtainable  here,  but  it  indicates  that  a 
very  high  efficiency  in  steam  generating  equipment  has 
been  reached. 

Boiler  Efficiency. 

It  is  to  be  understood  that  in  a  boiler  of  the  usual 
construction,  where  the  temperature  of  the  water  in  the 
boiler  is  practically  at  the  temperature  of  the  steam,  it  is 
obviously  impossible  to  reduce  the  temperature  of  gases 
below  that  of  saturated -steam  at  the  pressure  carried,  in 
fact,  while  it  is  possible  to  add  heating  surface  to  reduce 
the  gas  temperature  below  100°  above  the  steam,  the  very 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


117 


low  transfer  rate  resulting  from  such  a  small  temperature 
difference  in  the  last  passes  of  the  boiler  does  not  warrant 
the  expense  of  the  additional  heating  surface. 

In  a  great  number  of  published  boiler  tests  the  exit 
gas  temperature  is  given  as  near  the  temperature  of  the 
steam,  but  such  temperatures  will  usually  be  found  to 
have  been  incorrectly  measured,  owing  either  to  air 
leakage  around  the  boiler  damper  or  to  radiation,  as 
pointed  out  earlier  in  the  paper.  The  saturated  steam 
temperature  referred  to  in  this  connection  must  not  be 
confused  with  the  superheated  steam  temperature  leaving 
the  boiler  when  a  superheater  is  installed,  as  the  exit  gas 
temperature  is  often  considerably  below  the  superheated 
steam  temperature,  the  superheater  coils  being  placed  in 
the  high  temperature  gas  zone. 

For  a  proper  consideration  of  the  efficiency  of  a  boiler, 
the  steam  pressure  carried  must  be  taken  into  account. 
It  is  not  fair  to  compare  the  efficiency  of  a  boiler  operating 
at,  say  100  lbs.  pressure  with  a  boiler  operating  at  200  lbs. 
pressure  where  the  temperature  of  the  boiler  heating  sur- 
faces differs  by  50°  and  the  necessarily  increased  flue  gas 
temperature  results  in  a  greater  heat  loss  with  a  corres- 
ponding reduction  in  the  efficiency  as  usually  measured. 
For  this  reason  it  has  been  proposed  that  the  efficiency 
of  a  boiler  be  measured  in  terms  of  its  '  true  '  efficiency,  or 
the  ratio  of  the  heat  actually  absorbed  to  the  heat  theo- 
retically available  for  absorption,  which  latter  value 
corresponds  to  a  reduction  of  the  temperature  of  the 
flue  gas  to  the  temperature  of  the  steam.  In  the  same 
way  allowance  is  made  in  England  and  Europe  for  the 
burning  of  the  hydrogen  in  the  coal  which  leaves  a  boiler 
in  the  form  of  superheated  steam,  but  which  in  a  calori- 
metric  analysis  of  the  coal  is  condensed  and  its  latent 
heat  added  in  the  heat  value  obtained.  The  revised  heat 
value,  corrected  for  the  hydrogen  content  is  termed  the 
lower  or  nett  calorific  value  of  the  fuel. 


Stokers  and  Fuels. 

The  greatest  factor  in  the  overall  efficiency  of  a 
boiler  unit  lies,  of  course,  in  the  combustion  of  fuel 
in  the  furnace.  It  is  not  within  the  scope  of  this  paper 
to  deal  with  the  theory  of  combustion,  and  a  great  amount 
of  literature  has  already  been  published  on  the  subject, 
but  one  of  the  chief  causes  for  inefficient  combustion  lies 
in  the  faulty  design  of  the  furnace  and  the  lack  of  volume 
provided  for  the  proper  mixing  and  burning  of  the  gases 
before  striking  the  cool  boiler  heating  surface.  With 
hand  firing  under  small  boilers,  the  skill  of  the  fireman  in 
keeping  an  even  regular  fire  is  also  a  big  factor,  but  with 
larger  boilers  and  automatic  stokers  a  great  deal  of  this 
work  is  taken  care  of  and,  if  operated  intelligently,  with  the 
aid  of  recording  instruments,  a  high  degree  of  efficiency 
can  be  maintained. 

The  advantage  of  automatic  stokers  for  plants  of 
over  500  boiler  horsepower  has  now  become  generally 
recognized  and  the  only  question  for  the  engineer  to  decide 
is  what  stoker  to  instal.  No  type  is  suitable  for  all  coals 
and  conditions  of  service.  Where  boilers  of  a  nominal 
evaporative  rate  of  3^  lbs.  are  to  be  forced  to  high  capa- 
cities or  where  anthracite  coal  is  to  be  burned,  forced  draft 
stokers  will  probably  have  to  be  used  and  in  considering 


high  overloads,  allowance  should  be  made  for  the  extra 
upkeep  cost  generally  entailed  and  the  consequent  need 
for  reserve  boilers. 

Difficulties  have  frequently  occurred  through  the 
installation  of  a  chimney  of  insufficient  height  to  freely 
take  away  the  products  of  combustion  from  the  furnace 
of  a  forced  draft  stoker  when  operating  at  a  high  rate,  the 
assumption  having  been  made  that  as  there  was  an  air 
pressure  under  the  grate,  very  little  chimney  draft  was 
necessary.  The  result  has  been  that  a  pressure  has  built 
up  in  the  furnace,  causing  excessive  burning  up  of  the  brick 
walls  by  reason  of  the  hot  gases  being  forced  into  the 
cracks.  A  definite  suction,  say  1/10  inch  of  water,  should 
always  be  maintained  in  a  furnace  of  this  type  and  as  with 
boilers  forced  considerably  above  their  rating  the  resistance 
through  the  boiler  itself  becomes  considerable,  it  does  not 
allow  of  much  reduction  in  the  height  of  chimney  to  be 
provided. 

For  steady  running  on  continuous  moderate  loads,  the 
natural  draft  stoker  will  probably  give  the  best  satis- 
faction; of  this  type  the  chain  grate  is  the  most  common 
and  probably  the  most  logical  way  of  burning  high  volatile 
coals,  possessing  the  advantage  of  simplicity  and  ease  of 
adjustment  to  suit  the  particular  grade  of  coal  and  load 
conditions. 

In  view  of  the  attention  now  being  paid  to  the  utiliza- 
tion of  the  Western  Canadian  lignites,  it  may  be  of 
interest  to  mention  that  a  chain  grate  stoker  was  in- 
stalled in  1913  in  the  University  of  Alberta,  having  a 
special  setting  of  arches  similar  to  that  used  in  England 
and  Europe  and  very  excellent  results  have  been  obtained 
with  the  Edmonton  lignites  on  this  stoker,  so  much  so, 
in  fact,  that  several  engineers  in  the  Western  cities  have 
modified  their  standard  stoker  settings  as  far  as  possible 
to  conform  to  it.  A  similarly  set  stoker  has  recently 
been  installed  at  Moose  jaw  where  the  higher  moisture 
Saskatchewan  lignites  will  be  burned,  and  from  information 
received  it  promises  to  also  prove  satisfactory. 

Fig.  9  shows  the  typical  setting;  the  essential  feature 
being  the  centre  and  back  arch  construction,  which,  by 
deflecting  the  gases  and  reflecting  the  radiated  heat 
towards  the  front  of  the  grate,  drives  off  the  moisture 
from  the  freshly  fed  coal.  A  front  coking  arch  of  the 
standard  form  is  of  no  use  for  this  class  of  fuel,  as  the 
excessive  moisture  prevents  it  getting  hot  and  so  hinders 
the  ignition.  This  arrangement  of  arches  is  hardly 
suitable  for  burning  higher  grade  bituminous  coal,  as  the 
centre  arch  would  generally  not  stand  up  for  long  against 
the  higher  furnace  temperatures,  but  it  has  been  used 
extensively  for  low  volatile  or  semi-anthracite  coals, 
which  cannot  be  burned  satisfactorily  with  a  natural 
draft  chain  grate  stoker  with  the  standard  arch  con- 
struction. 

Oil  and  natural  gas  make  excellent  fuels  in  that  high 
combustion  efficiency  and  regulation  can  be  easily 
attained  with  low  operating  cost  and  with  increased 
cleanliness  in  the  boiler  room,  but  in  Canada,  oil  is 
generally  only  economically  available  on  the  west  coast, 
while  natural  gas  is  confined  to  but  few  localities,  and  the 
supply  limited. 


118 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


Powdered  coal  has  been  receiving  considerable 
attention  in  recent  years.  At  present  the  plant  required 
for,  and  the  cost  of  crushing,  pulverizing  and  drying  has 
generally  limited  its  use  to  industrial  plants  where  the 
fuel  can  be  used  in  heating  furnaces  in  addition  to  the 
boilers.  For  satisfactory  operation,  the  coal  must  be 
pulverized  to  a  degree  equivalent  to  95 %  through  a  100 
mesh  sieve  and  should  be  dried  to  contain  not  more  than 
1%  moisture. 

A  form  of  extension  furnace  is  commonly  used  when 
fired  under  a  boiler,  the  coal  dust  being  fed  through  one 
or  more  nozzles  into  the  furnace  in  a  fine  cloud.  Air  for 
combustion  is  partly  carried  in  with  the  fuel  and  partly 
supplied  through  annular  spaces  around  the  nozzles, 
either  under  pressure  or  simply  drawn  in  by  suction. 
When  properly  regulated  a  high  efficiency  can  be  obtained 
and  coal  utilized  which  would  be  difficult  to  burn  in  the 
ordinary  way,  but  care  must  be  taken  to  avoid  uncon- 
sumed  coal  being  carried  ovef  into  the  boiler  and  also  in 
handling  the  ash  which  settles  in  a  molten  slag  condition 
to  the  bottom  of  the  furnace,  by  reason  of  the  high  tem- 
perature attained,  and  which,  if  allowed  to  solidify,  is  very 
difficult  to  remove.  As  the  finely  powdered  coal  is  in  a 
highly  combustible  state,  proper  precautions  must  also 
be  taken  in  the  storing,  distribution  and  firing  to  prevent 
explosions.  Brickwork  troubles,  from  the  high  furnace 
temperature  has  been  one  of  the  difficulties  to  overcome 
with  the  burning  of  this  fuel. 

Blast  furnace  gas  and  by-product  coke  oven  gas  can 
be  used  to  great  advantage  under  boilers,  a  considerable 
advance  having  been  made  during  the  last  few  years  in 
the  efficiency  obtained.  This  has  chiefly  been  brought 
about  through  improvements  in  furnace  design  and  types 
of  burners,  while  the  application  of  boilers  of  a  similar 
design  to  those  used  for  waste  heat  work  now  promises  a 
still  greater  advance  in  this  field. 

Selection  of  Boiler*. 

The  best  type  of  boiler  to  use  in  any  plant  must 
depend  upon  the  conditions  of  service.  For  continuous 
steady  loads  such  as  in  manufacturing  plants  where 
generally  the  boiler  room  does  not  receive  special 
attention  for  operation,  the  standard  boiler  of  3}^  lbs. 
evaporation  per  square  foot  heating  surface  will  usually 
be  found  to  be  the  best,  with  an  installation  of  the  regular 
separate  cast  iron  economizer  where  conditions  show  that 
a  saving  will  be  made,  and  this  is  usually  an  easy  matter  to 
determine.  An  automatic  stoker  should  also  be  chosen 
with  a  view  to  continuous  steady  service  with  the  minimum 
cost  for  upkeep  and  repairs  to  stoker  and  furnace  brick- 
work, and  suitable  for  the  particular  class  of  coal  which 
it  is  intended  to  burn. 

In  many  manufacturing  plants  some  kind  of  refuse 
can  be  utilized  as  fuel  which  usually  requires  a  special 
form  of  furnace.  Probably  saw  mills  and  pulp  mills 
are  the  chief  plants  in  this  country  where  refuse  is  burned, 
being  then  in  the  form  of  hogged  bark  and  edgings; 
and  a  straight  extension  furnace  of  the  Dutch  oven  type 
is  generally  found  to  be  the  best,  with  a  large  surface  of 
hot  brickwork  to  drive  off  the  moisture  when,  as  is  usually 
the  case,  the  wood  is  wet.  Step  grate  furnaces  are  largely 
used  in  Europe.    To  obtain  the  best  results,  the  areas  and 


proportions  of  the  furnace  must  be  carefully  designed; 
very  often  the  chief  consideration  appears  to  be  merely 
to  get  rid  of  the  refuse  without  any  effort  to  obtain  the 
maximum  efficiency,  with  the  result  that  a  considerable 
amount  of  coal  is  burned  as  an  auxiliary  which  would  not 
be  necessary  if  the  waste  were  properly  utilized. 

For  large  central  stations  and  public  service  power 
plants,  where  floor  space  is  of  more  value  and  load  con- 
ditions special,  the  selection  of  boilers  and  stokers  requires 
more  study.  In  this  service  the  load  is  usually  very 
variable  with  short  heavy  peaks  and  a  more  elaborate 
lay-out  and  system  of  operation  is  justified.  The  general 
practice  for  these  plants  in  the  United  States  has  been  to 
get  more  and  more  out  of  the  standard  boilers  of  10 sq.ft. 
per  horsepower  normal  rating,  in  conjunction  with  regular 
economizers,  by  forcing  them  considerably  during  peaks. 
Particular  attention  is  paid  to  good  boiler  and  furnace 
design,  and  although  the  efficiency  falls  off  at  the  high  rates 
of  driving,  and  the  upkeep  cost  of  brickwork  and  stoker 
is  considerable,  owing  to  the  high  furnace  temperature, 
the  practice  has  been  considered  warranted  by  the  advan- 
tages gained .  I n  these  plants  special  precautions  are  taken 
to  supply  pure  feed  water,  while  expert  attention  is  neces- 
sary for  successful  operation.  In  England  and  Europe 
the  practice  tends  towards  the  use  of  boilers  of  the  type 
shown  in  Fig.  6. 

The  proper  size  of  boilers  to  instal  is,  of  course, 
governed  by  the  size  of  the  plant  and  the  load  conditions 
and  no  fixed  rules  can  be  laid  down.  In  the  United 
States  there  are  some  very  large  units,  considerably 
larger  than  any  installed  in  other  countries,  the  Stirling 
boilers  at  the  Detroit  Edison  Company's  plant,  shown  in 
Fig.  2  having  a  normal  rating  of  2365  boiler  horsepower 
based  on  10  square  feet  of  heating  surface  per  horse- 
power. In  Canadian  plants  it  will  probably  be  a  con- 
siderable time  before  units  larger  than  1000  or  1200 
horsepower  are  warranted.  There  is  a  disadvantage  in 
putting  "  too  many  eggs  in  one  basket,"  as  the  failure  of 
a  tube  or  other  cause  of  shut  down  means  cutting  off  a 
big  source  of  power  and  wasting  a  lot  of  coal,  but  in 
operation  the  efficiency  is  increased  through  a  reduction 
of  radiation  and  other  losses  over  several  smaller  units. 

Operation. 

There  are  comparatively  few  plants  in  Canada  where 
a  separate  water  purifying  apparatus  is  installed;  for 
small  plants  where  moderate  loads  are  carried  on  the 
boilers,  some  form  of  compound  can  be  fed  in  with  the 
feed  water  suitable  for  the  nature  of  the  water  used,  but 
as  pointed  out  earlier,  the  boiler  is  not  the  proper  place 
to  treat  the  water  and  where  the  highest  efficiency  is 
desired  or  where  boilers  are  to  be  run  at  high  rates  of 
evaporation,  it  is  essential  that  the  water  be  treated  in  a 
separate  apparatus.  In  the  most  modern  stations,  the 
tendency  seems  to  be  towards  the  use  of  evaporators  to 
purify  the  make-up  feed  water  to  ensure  the  absolute 
removal  of  all  impurities,  as  in  marine  practice.  It  is 
not  sufficient  that  heavy  scale  be  prevented  from  actually 
adhering  to  the  metal  of  the  heating  surface,  as  floating 
scale,  which  may  temporarily  lodge  in  one  place,  is  apt 
to  cause  burning  under  high  rates  of  evaporation.  Oil  is 
one  of  the  most  prolific  causes  for  trouble  in  a  boiler,  the 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


119 


least  sign  of  it  often  causing  blisters  on  the  boiler  heating 
surface  exposed  to  the  furnace  heat,  even  under  moderate 
loads. 

A  trouble  which  may  arise,  unless  proper  precautions 
are  taken,  especially  when  using  as  feed  water,  the  con- 
densed steam  from  a  surface  condenser,  is  corrosion  in 
the  boiler  and  economizer  from  the  air  entrained  in  the 
water.  The  latest  investigations  indicate  that  it  is  the 
C02,  and  not  the  oxygen,  present  in  the  air  which  is  the 
active  agent  in  the  corrosion  and  it  is  necessary  that  this 
be  got  rid  of  before  feeding  the  water  to  the  boilers,  either 
by  heating  and  the  provision  of  efficient  air  escape  pipes, 
or  by  chemical  treatment  with  calcium  hydrate  (slaked 
lime).  The  use  of  air  pumps  which  draw  off  the  water 
and  vapour  together  from  surface  condensers  are  particu- 
larly undesirable  when  the  condensate  is  to  be  used  for 
boiler  feed  as  this  water  is  strongly  impregnated  with  air. 

For  efficiency  and  capacity  it  is  also  necessary  that 
the  outside  of  the  tube  heating  surface  be  kept  free  from 
soot,  and  mechanical  soot  blowers  are  now  being  used 
to  a  great  extent  as  an  easy  means  of  ensuring  more 
regular  and  effective  cleaning  than  is  generally  possible 
with  the  somewhat  arduous  task  of  hand  cleaning  with  a 
steam  lance. 

While  it  is  of  first  importance  that  good  boilers  and 
furnaces  be  installed,  their  value  is  to  a  great  extent  lost 
unless  the  boilers  are  kept  clean  and  the  plant  efficiently 
run,  and  it  is  impossible  to  expect  intelligent  operation 
unless  instruments  and  meters  are  provided  as  a  guide 
for  the  operator.  The  old  idea  of  the  fireman  telling  by 
a  look  at  the  furnace  if  coal  was  being  completely  burned 
is  obsolete,  and,  after  all,  the  furnace  is  only  one  factor 
of  efficient  operation,  although  the  greatest.  Some 
modern  boiler  rooms  are  now  fitted  with  regular  control 
boards  and  instruments  by  which  losses  can  be  immediately 
detected  and  located  and  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  cost 
of  such  indicators  and  the  extra  supervision  entailed  is 
saved  many  times  over  in  the  yearly  fuel  consumption. 
Coal  scales  and  water  meters  are  necessary  for  purposes 
of  record  and  check  on  deliveries,  yet  they  do  not  by 
themselves  ensure  efficiency  in  operation.  If  ther- 
mometers, draft  gauges,  flue-gas  analysers,  etc.,  are  used 
intelligently   as   a   guide   for   operation,    the   coal   con- 


sumption will  take  care  of  itself;  and  with  a  proper  log 
system,  continuous  records  can  be  made  over  extended 
periods  under  actual  operating  conditions  which  are  of 
real  practical  value  and  not  subject  to  the  often  mis- 
leading conclusions  resulting  from  short  tests. 

Probable  Future  Development 

It  does  not  seem  likely  that  there  will  be  any  great 
departure  in  the  near  future  from  the  present  general 
design  of  boilers,  but  the  probable  adoption  of  steam 
at  higher  pressure  and  temperature  in  turbines  will  lead 
to  certain  modifications  with  possibly  a  more  pronounced 
segregation  of  the  evaporating  and  water  heating  surfaces. 
Several  boilers  of  the  type  shown  in  Fig.  6.  are  already  in 
service  in  England,  and  the  United  States,  under  a  working 
steam  pressure  of  350  lbs.  per  square  inch  and  a  steam 
temperature  of  700  to  750°F,  and  others  are  under 
experimentation  up  to  pressures  of  500  and  600  lbs.  These 
higher  pressures,  of  course,  prohibit  the  use  of  any  flat 
stayed  surfaces  in  boiler  construction,  and  the  very  best 
material  and  workmanship  must  be  employed;  but  from 
a  constructional  and  operating  point  of  view,  higher 
pressures  and  temperatures  will  not  be  governed  by 
boiler  limitations. 

With  regard  to  methods  of  construction,  welding  of 
joints  in  drums  does  not  at  present  seem  likely  to  replace 
riveting,  although  it  is  receiving  some  attention  and  is 
used  in  conjunction  with  riveting  on  some  marine  boiler 
work. 

During  the  last  few  years,  several  of  the  Canadian 
provinces  have  put  into  force  very  complete  regulations 
to  ensure  safety  in  boiler  construction  and  operation  and 
an  effort  is  being  made  for  the  adoption  of  a  uniform 
code  of  laws  for  the  whole  Dominion.  The  advantage 
of  this,  in  the  protection  it  would  afford  to  steam  users, 
and  the  possibility  of  standardisation  for  manufacturers 
would  be  very  great;  while  if,  in  addition,  a  system  of 
control,  propaganda  and  educational  work  could  be 
carried  out  by  a  fuel  administration  department,  it  would 
be  of  inestimable  value  to  power  plant  operators  and  lead 
to  conservation  of  our  fuel  resources  which  form  a  very 
large  part  in  the  cost  of  power  production. 


I 


kOUR  ATTENDANCE  AT  THE  ANNUAL 
MEETING  WILL  HELP  TO  MAKE  IT 
WHAT  IT  IS  EXPECTED  TO  BE — THE 
LARGEST  AND  MOST  SUCCESSFUL  IN  THE 
HISTORY  OF  ENGINEERING  GATHERINGS. 


120 


JOURNAL      OF      THE      ENGINEERING      INSTITUTE      OF      CANADA 


THE  JOURNAL  OF 

THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE 

OF  CANADA 


Board  of  Management 

President 

H.  H.  VAUGHAN 

Vice-President 

J.  M.  R.  FAIRBAIRN 

Councillors 

ERNEST  BROWN  WALTER  J.  FRANCIS 

R.  A.  ROSS 
H.  R.  SAFFORD  ARTHUR  SURVEYER 

Editor  and  Manager 

FRASER  S.  KEITH 


Associate  Editors 

C.  M.  ARNOLD Calgary 

FREDERICK  B.  BROWN Montreal 

J.  B.  CHALLIES Ottawa 

A.  R.  CROOKSHANK St.  John 

A.  G.   DALZELL Vancouver 

J.  N.  deSTEIN Regina 

GEO.  L.GUY Winnipeg 

R.  J.  GIBB Edmonton 

W.  S.  HARVEY Toronto 

J.  A.  BUTEAU Quebec 

J.  B.  HOLDCROFT Victoria 

K.  H.  SMITH Halifax 

H.  B.  DWIGHT Hamilton 

Vol.  II.  February  1919 


No.  2 


Summary  of  Legislation  Situation 

At  the  General  Professional  Meeting  held  in  Saskatoon 
in  August,  1918,  the  question  of  Legislation  was  brought 
prominently  before  The  Institute  for  the  first  time,  an 
entire  session  of  the  meeting  being  devoted  to  this  subject. 
In  a  paper  presented  at  this  session  and  published  in  the 
September  issue  of  The  Journal,  by  F.  H.  Peters,  M.E.I.C., 
of  Calgary,  a  general  outline  was  given  of  the  activity  re- 
garding legislation  on  the  part  of  the  western  Branches, 
showing  that  in  the  west  particularly  the  subject  of 
Legislation  was  a  live  issue  and  had  aroused  a  great  deal 
of  interest. 

At  the  same  session  of  this  Professional  Meeting  a 
draft  act  was  submitted  from  the  Legislation  Committee 
of  the  Saskatchewan  Branch  and  after  discussion  was 
referred  back  to  the  Committee  for  certain  alterations 
before  being  forwarded  to  Council. 

On  receipt  of  this  Act  by  Council  which  was  accom- 
panied by  a  request  from  the  Saskatchewan  Branch  to  be 
allowed  to  present  it  at  the  fall  session  of  the  local  Legis- 
lature, a  special  meeting  of  Council  was  called  and  held 
on  October  1st,  when  the  entire  session  was  devoted  to  the 


subject.  At  this  meeting  a  draft  act  was  drawn  up  based 
on  the  Saskatchewan  draft,  copy  of  which  was  forwarded 
to  all  branches  asking  for  discussion.  This  draft  was 
published  in  the  November  issue  of  The  Journal,  page  331. 
and  the  Saskatchewan  Branch  was  requested  to  withhold 
action  until  all  branches  had  been  given  an  opportunity  of 
discussing  and  making  recommendations.  An  editorial 
on  the  subject  appeared  in  the  November  Journal  on  page 
335. 

As  a  result  of  the  request  of  Council  to  the  Branches 
that  legislation  be  discussed  at  all  branches  and  the  fact 
Council  endorses  the  principle  of  legislation  to  improve 
the  status  of  Engineers,  the  question  is  receiving  consider- 
able attention  from  coast  to  coast,  resulting  in  a  large 
amount  of  inter-branch  and  headquarters  correspondence 
on  the  subject. 

A  suggestion  of  the  Manitoba  Branch  that  represen- 
tatives of  each  legislation  committee  of  the  various 
branches  meet  at  some  central  point  and  agree  on  a  draft 
act  met  with  general  approval  in  the  West,  it  being  felt 
that  this  committee  should  meet  and  agree  so  that  the 
question  could  again  come  up  at  the  annual  meeting. 
Branch  news,  pages  409-410  of  the  December  Journal 
contain  further  reference  to  the  subject.  Meanwhile, 
it  became  evident  to  the  members  of  the  Saskatchewan 
Branch  that  they  could  secure  early  legislation  and 
consequently  they  wired  headquarters  an  urgent  request 
to  be  permitted  to  present  a  draft  act  immediately. 
Resulting  from  this  a  special  meeting  was  held  at  head- 
quarters on  Tuesday  evening,  December  3rd,  at  the  call 
of  the  President,  to  consider  the  request  of  the  Saskat- 
chewan Branch,  and  to  receive  the  report  of  a  special 
committee  appointed  by  the  President  to  confer  with  a 
special  committee  of  the  Mining  Institute.  At  this 
special  meeting  of  Council  it  was  found  that  the  report  of 
the  special  committee  was  unfavorable  to  any  immediate 
attempt  to  secure  legislation.  The  draft  act  submitted 
was  found  to  differ  from  the  draft  submitted  by  Council. 
It  was  considered  necessary  to  advise  the  Saskatchewan 
Branch  that  it  was  not  within  the  power  of  Council  to 
approve  of  the  act  without  a  mandate  from  the  member- 
ship. Meanwhile  the  subject  has  been  the  foremost  topic 
on  the  part  of  the  Western  Branches,  and  formed  the 
subject  of  discussion  at  two  meetings  of  the  Montreal 
Branch. 

A  new  draft  act  revised  on  December  4th  has  been 
received  from  the  Alberta  Branches  where  it  is  believed  that 
immediate  Legislation  can  be  secured.  This  act  has  not 
been  critically  analyzed  by  the  Council.  In  a  letter  from 
Lt.-Col.  W.  P.  Anderson,  past  President,  who  was  present 
at  the  meeting  of  the  Edmonton  Branch  when  Legislation 
was  discussed,  he  strongly  urges  that  the  branches  be 
given  authority  to  secure  legislation. 

Correspondence  from  the  Prairie  Branches  shows  that 
there  is  a  strong  feeling  in  favor  of  early  action  and  that  a 
definite  policy  be  formulated  not  later  than  the  Annual 
Meeting. 

The  Montreal  Branch  resolved  that  Council  be  asked 
to  arrange  for  the  appointment  of  a  committee  representing 
all  Provinces  and  all  branches  to  inquire  into,  study,  and 
report  on  the  whole  question  of  legislation. 


JOURNAL   OF   THE   ENGINEERING   INSTITUTE   OF   CANADA 


121 


A  resolution  of  the  Manitoba  Branch  held  on  January 
2nd,  reads  as  follows:  "  That  in  view  of  the  necessity  for 
prompt  action  on  the  question  of  legislation,  the  Secretary 
be  instructed  to  write  to  all  of  the  other  branches  requesting 
that  each  appoint  a  representative  with  full  power  to  act, 
to  attend  the  coming  Annual  Meeting  to  assist  in  drafting 
a  suitable  act  for  presentation  to  the  various  Legislatures." 

Victoria  and  Vancouver  Branches  have  endorsed  the 
action  of  Council  in  requesting  more  mature  deliberation. 
Hamilton,  Toronto,  Halifax  and  St.  John  all  favor  a 
general  agreement  on  the  question  before  action  is  taken  to 
secure  legislation. 

At  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Quebec  Branch  held 
on  December  21st,  it  was  resolved  that  it  was  expedient 
and  urgent  to  give  as  soon  as  possible  the  member  of  The 
Institute  an  opportunity  of  expressing  their  views  on  the 
necessity  of  securing  legislation  similar  to  that  of  other 
professions.  That  uniform  legislation  should  be  enacted 
for  each  province  in  order  to  enable  the  engineers  of  one 
province  to  practise  civil  engineering  in  another  province, 
consequently  the  Quebec  Branch  beg  the  Council  to 
immediately  frame  up  a  legislation  project  that  would 
meet  all  the  requirements  of  the  situation  and  then  be 
submitted  to  the  different  branches;  also  to  secure  through 
a  referendum  the  opinion  of  the  members  of  The  Institute 
on  the  opportunity  of  having  such  legislation. 

The  Ottawa  Branch  has  appointed  a  representative 
to  confer  with  the  representatives  of  the  other  branches, 
and  a  telegram  to  the  Manitoba  Branch  included  the 
following:  "Your  letter  of  January  6th.  Managing  Com- 
mittee in  sympathy  with  your  aims  to  the  end  that  satis- 
factory legislation  should  be  sought  as  soon  as  possible. 
We  believe  Council  must  ultimately  direct  such  action  as 
should  be  taken  after  a  representative  committee  has 
studied  and  reported  on  the  whole  question.  We  are 
arranging  to  have  a  delegate  of  the  Ottawa  Branch  n-eet 
other  representatives  here  in  advance  of  Annual  Meeting 
which  is  limited  to  first  day  of  Convention." 

If  this  meeting  is  held  before  February  11th,  it  will 
provide  an  opportunity  of  having  the  views  of  all  Branches 
presented  for  discussion  at  the  Annual  Meeting. 

Government  Considering  Salaries 

The  Committee  of  The  Institute  consisting  of  W.  F. 
Tye,  Chairman,  H.  H.  Vaughan,  President,  and  G.  Gordon 
Gale,  Chairman  of  the  Ottawa  Branch,  were  pleased  with 
the  courteous  reception  they  received  from  the  Honorable 
Dr.  Roche,  Chairman  of  the  Civil  Service  Commission, 
when  they  met  the  Commission  to  advise  regarding  the 
grading  of  salaries  of  engineers  in  the  employ  of  the 
Government.  Not  only  was  consideration  promised  of 
the  suggestions  made,  but  the  committee  was  requested 
to  make  definite  recommendations. 

P.  H.  Myers,  Acting  Chief  of  Staff  Organization 
Branch,  Civil  Service  Commission,  who  has  charge  of 
drawing  up  schedules  for  salary  classifications  has  expressed 
his  appreciation  of  the  advice  given,  and  in  thanking  the 
Committee  for  the  information,  stated  that  he  would 
probably  have  occasion  to  accept  the  kind  offer  of  further 
assistance. 

No  Railway  Rebates 

In  response  to  a  request  to  the  Eastern  Canadian 
Passenger  Association  for  consideration  of  rebates  on 
passenger  tickets  to  the  Annual  Meeting  at  Ottawa,  the 


following  letter  was  received,  showing  that  no  rebates  will 
be  available. 

Dear  Sir: — ■ 

The  carriers  feel  that  conditions  brought  about  by 
the  war,  viz.:  shortage  of  labor  and  coal,  abnormal  de- 
mands on  transportation  equipment  and  power  for  the 
handling  of  returning  troops  and  foodstuffs,  do  not  permit 
relaxation  at  the  present  time  of  existing  restrictions  on 
passenger  travel.  Reduced  fares  mean  increased  travel 
and,  therefore,  for  reasons  stated  above,  regret  to  advise 
you  that  no  reduced  fares  will  be  made  for  special  occasions 
during  the  year  1919. 

Yours  truly, 

G.  H.  Webster, 
Montreal,  Jan.  14th,  1919.  Secretary. 

Ontario  Provincial  Division 

The  Ontario  Provincial  Division  is  now  established, 
and  it  is  expected  that  a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee will  take  place  at  an  early  date  for  the  purpose  of 
electing  a  chairman  and  secretary-treasurer  or  secretary 
and  treasurer.  The  Executive  Committee  have  suggested 
Peter  Gillespie  as  chairman  pro-tem. 

The  personnel  of  the  Executive  Committee  is  as 
follows: — 

Councillors: — J.  R.  W.  Ambrose,  M.E.I.C.,  Toronto; 
Peter  Gillespie,  M.E.I.C.,  Toronto;  E.  D.  Lafleur, 
M.E.I.C,  Ottawa;  G.  A.  McCarthy,  M.E.I.C,  Toronto; 
John  Murphy,  M.E.I.C,  Ottawa;  James  White,  M.E.I.C, 
Ottawa;  M.  H.  MacLeod,  M.E.I.C,  Toronto. 

Representing  Ottawa  Branch: — J.  B.  Challies,  M.E.I.C, 
Ottawa. 

Representing     Toronto     Branch:  Geo.     Hogarth, 

M.E.I.C,  Toronto. 

Representing  Hamilton  Branch:  -  E.  R.  Grav, 
M.E.I.C,  Hamilton. 

Representing  Sault  Ste.  Marie  Branch:  -W.  S.  Wilson, 
A.M.E.I.C,  Sault  Ste.  Marie. 

Non-Resident  Members:  Major  W.  H.  Magwood, 
A.M.E.I.C,  Cornwall;  G.  R.  Munroe,  A.M.E.I.C, 
Peterboro;  J.  L.  Morris,  M.E.I.C,  Pembroke;  R.  J. 
McClelland,  A.M.E.I.C,  Kingston;  G.  H.  Bryson, 
A.M.E.I.C,  Brockville;  A.  C.  D.  Blanchard,  M.E.I.C, 
Niagara  Falls;  T.  H.  Jones,  M.E.I.C,  Brantford;  J.  L. 
Weller,  M.E.I.C,  St.  Catharines;  S.  B.  Clement,  M.E.I.C, 
North  Bay;  James  A.  Bell,  M.E.I.C,  St.  Thomas;  R.  L. 
Dobbin,  A.M.E.I.C,  Peterboro;  L.  M.  Jones,  M.E.I.C, 
Port  Arthur;  V.  A.  Belanger,  A.M.E.I.C,  L'Orignal 

Water  Resources  Conference 

A  most  important  Conference  of  Dominion  and 
Provincial  Engineers  was  held  in  Ottawa  on  January  16th 
and  17th,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Dominion  Power 
Board,  of  which  the  Hon.  Meighen,  Minister  of  the 
Interior,  is  Chairman.  A.  St.  Laurent,  the  Vice- 
Chairman  of  the  Board,  presided,  pointing  out  as  the  raison 
d'etre  of  the  meeting  that  the  recent  crisis  regarding  both 
fuel  and  power  had  brought  the  tremendous  importance  of 
both  very  prominently  to  the  front,  and  had  shown  with 
greater  force  than  ever  the  necessity  among  other  things 
of  developing  and  conserving  our  water  powers  to  the 
utmost.  The  first  step  to  this  end,  seeing  that  various 
authorities  are  handling  the  problem  in  different  parts  of 
Canada,  is  to,  as  far  as  possible,  arrange  their  methods  and 


122 


JOURNAL     OF     THE     ENGINEERING     INSTITUTE     OF     CANADA 


organizations  along  similar  lines,  viz.,  the  standardization 
of  field  and  office  methods  and  equipment,  uniformity  of 
publications,  both  in  matter  and  arrangement,  period  to  be 
covered  by  each,  etc.,  etc. 

The  administrative  end  also  had  to  be  considered, 
with  a  view  to  making  the  requirements  and  regulations  of 
all  the  authorities  concerned,  whether  Federal  or  Pro- 
vincial, as  uniform  as  possible. 

There  were  present  at  the  Conference: 

H.  G.  Acres Chief     Hydraulic     Engineer,     Hydro 

Power  Commission,  Ontario. 

Arthur  Amos Chief    Engineer,    Hydraulic    Service, 

Quebec. 

R.  J.  Burley Engineer,        Reclamation        Service, 

Ottawa. 
E.  F.  Drake Director,  Reclamation  Service,  Ottawa. 

C.  O.  Foss Chairman,  N.  B.  Water  Power  Com- 

mission. 
T.  W.  Gibson Deputy     Minister,      Crown     Lands, 

Ontario. 
H.  W.  Grunsky.  .   Legal  Adviser,  Dominion  Water-Power 

Branch. 
J.  T.  Johnston. .  .   Assistant      Superintendent,       Water- 

Power  Branch. 
E.  B.  Jost Engineer,    Department    of    Railways 

and  Canals. 

R.  S.  Kelsch Consulting  Engineer,  Montreal. 

O.  Lefebvre Chief  Engineer,  Quebec  Streams  Com- 
mission. 
K.  H.  Smith Chief  Engineer,  Nova  Scotia  Water- 

Power  Commission. 
R.  G.  Swan Chief     Engineer,     British     Columbia 

Hydrometric  Survey. 
Wm.  Young Comptroller  of  Water  Rights,  British 

Columbia, 
together   with   the   following   Ottawa   Members   of   the 
Power  Board,  viz.: 
A.  St.  Laurent  (Vice-Chairman).     W.  A.  Bowden. 

D.  B.  Dowling.  B.  F.  Haanel. 
C.  N.  Monsarrat.                              John  Murphy. 

J.  B.  Challies  (Secretary). 

As  a  basis  for  a  uniform  system  of  locating  any  and 
all  water  resources,  and  analyzing  and  filing  all  data  of 
whatever  kind  concerning  them,  which  is  the  first  requisite 
to  co-ordinated  working,  there  was  laid  before  the  meeting 
a  Water  Resources  Index- Inventory,  designed  by  the 
Dominion  Water  Power  Branch,  and  which  the  Dominion 
Power  Board  submitted  as  one  which  would  suit  the  needs 
of  any  and  all  authorities  concerned  with  water  investi- 
gation, whether  Federal  or  Provincial.  The  basis  of  the 
system  is  the  dividing  of  the  country  into  its  main  or  basic 
drainage  basins,  with  sub-basins  and  other  divisions,  detail 
maps,  a  card  index  system,  and  a  folder  equipment,  samples 
of  all  of  which  were  shown  those  present,  the  whole  forming 
an  indexing  and  filing  system  adaptable  to  the  needs  of  all 
the  various  organizations  concerned  with  any  type  of 
water  investigation  or  administration.  The  Journal  hopes 
to  publish  a  full  description  in  an  early  issue. 

After  a  lengthy  discussion  as  to  how  various  local 
requirements  would  be  covered  by  the  system,  the  result 
of  which  was  to  show  that  it  was  of  such  a  flexible  and 
comprehensive  nature  as  to  cover  practically  any  needs 
that  were  likely  to  arise,  and  in  view  of  statements  by 
several  of  those  present  that  they  already  had  the  system 
in  use  in  their  offices,  in  whole  or  in  part,  a  resolution  was 


passed  by  the  conference  recommending  its  adoption  by 
all  Federal  and  Provincial  authorities  concerned,  and 
further,  to  facilitate  its  adoption,  that  an  explanatory 
monograph  on  it,  accompanied  by  maps,  diagrams,  etc., 
be  prepared  for  general  distribution. 

Meteorological  data,  as  a  fundamental  branch  of 
water  survey,  was  discussed  at  some  length,  it  being 
pointed  out  that  continuous  and  complete  meteorological 
figures  were  often  of  inestimable  value  in  deciding  as  to 
the  water  likely  to  be  available  for  either  domestic, 
irrigation,  or  power  purposes.  A  Resolution  was  passed 
aiming  to  help  the  efforts  being  made  to  extend  the  work  of 
the  Meteorological  Service. 

The  next  matter  considered  was  the  co-ordination 
of  the  work  of  investigating  water  resources,  it  being 
pointed  out  that  in  view  of  the  fact  that  several  Federal 
and  Provincial  organizations  were  at  work  on  the  same 
matter,  in  different  sections  of  Canada,  it  would  greatly 
help  if  their  field  and  office  procedure  and  their  equipment, 
and  finally  their  publications,  could  all  be  largely  stand- 
ardized, both  as  to  form  and  contents.  As  a  summation 
of  the  discussion  a  resolution  was  passed  recommending 
the  yearly  publication  of  hydrometric  data,  each  report 
to  cover  a  climatic  year,  October  1st  to  September  30th; 
and  to  include  daily  discharge  records,  but  not  daily 
gauge  heights,  except  in  those  special  cases  where  they 
are  obviously  necessary.  The  Power  Board  is  to  prepare 
and  distribute  a  key  map  showing  the  territories  covered 
by  the  different  organizations  and  surveys.  The  other 
details  though  were  thought  to  be  so  many  and  so  complex 
as  to  require  further  consideration,  and  so  it  was  decided 
to  leave  them  to  later  conferences,  one  in  the  West  and  one 
in  the  East,  after  which  a  plenary  conference  at  Ottawa 
woud  make  final  recommendations  on  the  whole  subject. 

The  final  matter  before  the  meeting  was  that  of 
Water  Power  Regulations,  the  question  being  introduced 
in  the  form  of  a  Report  prepared  by  H.  W.  Grunsky. 
As  the  subject  is  an  exceedingly  large  one,  and  the  report 
most  comprehensive,  it  was  felt  that  it  was  impossible  to 
do  anything  but  discuss  the  main  divisions,  six  in  number, 
viz.:  nature  of  franchise,  control  of  stock  and  bond 
issues,  rentals,  renewal  provisions,  extent  of  properties 
taken  over  if  license  terminated,  and  compensation  there- 
for, in  a  preliminary  way,  leaving  any  decision  thereon  to 
a  future  meeting.  The  discussion  covered  such  points  as 
sale  versus  rental,  limited  versus  indefinite  franchise, 
nominal  or  substantial  rentals,  uniform  regulations, 
etc.,  etc.,  after  which  the  meeting  adjourned,  first  deciding 
that  after  the  organizations  more  particularly  concerned 
had  gone  further  into  the  matter,  the  Dominion  Power 
Board  should  call  another  conference  on  the  subject. 

As  has  been  so  clearly  demonstrated  during  the  last 
few  years,  one  of  the  fundamental  requisites  to  the  stability 
and  growth  of  any  country  is  a  supply  of  cheap  and  depend- 
able power.  Canada  fortunately  possesses  the  natural 
sources  for  this,  from  coast  to  coast,  in  the  form  of  either 
coal  or  water,  and  with  a  permanently  constituted  medium 
like  the  Dominion  Power  Board  aggressively  at  work  on  the 
problem  of  co-ordinating  the  efforts  of  the  various  bodies 
engaged  in  seeing  that  these  resources  are  handled  to  the 
best  advantage,  there  can  be  no  doubt  as  to  the  further 
progress  of  the  Dominion,  as  far  as  water  power  is  con- 
cerned. To  those  who  were  responsible  for  the  conference, 
The  Journal  extends  heartiest  congratulations  on  the 
splendid  results  achieved. 


JOURNAL  OF  THE  ENGINEERING  INSTITUTE  OF  CANADA 


123 


CORRESPONDENCE 


The  Diving  Bell  Again 

Editor,  Journal: 

I  note  in  the  December,  1918,  issue  of  The  Journal, 
a  letter  from  Mr.  J.  J.  MacDonald  in  reply  to  my  letter  of 
October  24th,  1918,  with  reference  to  the  Caisson  used  at 
Halifax  Harbor.  In  his  letter  Mr.  MacDonald  assumes 
that  his  brief  reply  clears  up  the  issues  raised  by  me. 
It  would  be  interesting  to  know  the  name  of  the  individual 
who  actually  originated  the  idea  of  using  the  outfit  of  the 
type  employed,  and  whether  the  design  of  the  walls  was 
prepared,  having  in  view  the  use  of  a  caisson  of  the  parti- 
cular type  used. 

Mr.  MacDonald  asserts  that  the  device  used  by  me  in 
Hamilton  was  lacking  in  novelty,  so  far  as  the  regulation 
of  draft  is  concerned.  In  making  this  statement,  Mr. 
MacDonald  is  either  speaking  without  information  as  to 
the  actual  facts,  or  deliberately  misrepresents  them. 
The  device,  as  used  by  me  here,  was  capable  of  being  used 
in  depths  of  water  varying  between  1  foot  6  inches  and 
7  feet,  and  with  slight  structural  modifications,  not 
affecting  the  principle  of  the  apparatus,  this  depth  could 
have  been  increased.  The  method  of  obtaining  this 
difference  in  draft  is  not  in  any  way  fundamentally  different 
from  that  used  in  the  Halifax  outfit.  Mr.  MacDonald 
calls  the  outfit  used  here,  simply  a  scow  with  a  bottomless 
central  well  for  working  about  three  feet  below  the  surface, 
and  asserts  that  any  change  in  draft  was  impossible. 
This  is  not  the  case.  The  fact  that  the  Halifax  device 
rested  on  the  bottom  when  working  has  nothing  whatever 
to  do  with  the  buoyancy  and  water  ballasting  principles 
of  the  apparatus,  except  in  so  far  as  it  aids  in  maintaining 
the  equilibrium  of  the  apparatus  when  in  operation. 

The  principle  of  the  bottomless  central  well  is  insepar- 
able from  diving  bells  of  caissons  in  any  form  used  in 
construction  work,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  long  air  shafts 
as  applied  to  Mr.  MacDonald's  device  for  use  in  deep 
water  is  not  at  all  original  as  applied  to  deep  water  marine 
work,  and  the  form  of  the  lower  part  of  the  caisson  is  of  the 
general  type  used  on  bridge  pier  foundations.  The  only 
parts  of  the  device  apparently  for  which  Mr.  MacDonald 
claims  originality,  are  the  buoyancy  and  water  ballast 
chambers.  The  use  of  such  chambers  was  made  by  me  on 
the  device  used  here  for  floating  and  moving  the  outfit 
when  required  and  for  carrying  water  ballast  to  increase 
the  dead  weight  of  the  apparatus  and  for  regulating  the 
draft  of  the  caisson  or  bell  when  in  operation. 

The  matter  of  the  exact  name  or  names  which  are 
applied  to  the  device  does  not  alter  their  functions  in  any 
way,  and  whether  Mr.  MacDonald  calls  his  device  a 
mobile,  pneumatic  caisson,  or  diving  bell,  or  simply  a 
plain  floating  caisson,  as  the  writer  prefers,  does  not  matter 
and  does  not  affect  the  fundamental  principle  in  any  way. 
Strictly  speaking,  the  word  bell  should  not  be  applied  to  the 
device,  the  diving  b